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Sir p. LE PAGE RENOUF, Knt. 


Prof. E. NAVILLE, D.C.L., cfc, &c., 

Professor of Egyptology at the University of Geneva. 




37, CiREAT Russell Street, Bloomsburv, 

LONDON, 1904. 












C I £ A P T E R S 






The Beginning of the Chapters of Coming forth by 
Day, of the Words which britig about Resurrection 
afiit Glory, and of Coming out of and ottering 
into Amenta. Said upon the Day of Burial of 
N. the Victorious, who entereth after coniiftg forth. 
Here is N tJie victorious. He saith — • 

Chapter for Coming forth by day and Living after 


III. Afzother Chapter like it. 

IV. Another Chapter, for travelling on the road which 

is above the earth. 

V. Chapter 7vhereby work may nut be imposed \tipoti 
a person] in the JVetherworld. 

VI. Chapter whereby the funereal Statuettes 7nay be 
made to do tvork for a person /« the Netherworld. 

VII. Chapter of passifig through the chine of Apepi 

7C'hich IS void. 

VIII. Chapter of opening the Tuat by day. 

IX. Chapter for opening the Tuat. 

X. Chapter for coming forth victoriously. 

XI. Chapter for coming out against the adversary in 

the Netlierworld. 

pages I, 2 

n IT, 12 "I 

I 2 



„ 15,16 
„ 16 

,> 19 

» 19 


Plates I, II. 

). No Vignettes. 





XII. Chapter for entering and for coming forth out of 

the Netherui07-ld. 

XIII. Chapter for entering after coining o^it from Amenta. 

XIV. Chapter for removing displeasure from the heart 
of the god against the deceased person. 

XV. Hymn I. — A Hymn to Ra at his rising. 

[Litany]. — Adored be Ra as he setteth in the 
Land of Life. 

Hymn II. — A Hymn to Ra at his setting. 

Hymn III. — A Hymn to Tmu at his setting. 

page 20 
















Chapter ivherehy one cometh forth by day out of 
the Netherivorld. Let the words be said : 

A Litany to Thoth. 

Chapter of the Croiun of Triumph. 

Another Chapter of the Crozvn of Triutnph. 

Chapter whereby the Mouth of a person is given to 
him ifi the Netlierworld. 

Another Chapter whereby the Mouth of a person is 
given to him in the Netheriuorld. 

Chapter whereby the Mouth of a person is opened 
for him in the Netherti'orld. 

Chapter ivhereby the Words of Foicer are brought 
to a person ifi the Netherzvorld. 

Chapter whereby a person remembereth his 7iame in 
the Netheriuorld. 

Chapter whereby the Heart is given to a persoti in 
the Netherworld. 

Chapter 'whereby the Heart of a persoJi is not 
taken from him in the Nethierworld. 

Chapter ivhereby the Heart of a person is not 
takefi from him in the Netherworld. 

Chapter whereby the Heart of a person may not 
be taken from him in the Netherworld. 

Atiother Chapter of the Heart; upon Carnelian. 

20 )> No Vignettes. 




Plates HI, X, XV 


25, 26 


26, 27 





„ IV, V 



„ VI, VII. 






„ IX. 





No Vigfiettes. 



Plates X, XI. 


„ 63, 64 




n 70, 71 



» X, XI. 

„ X. 



Plate XII. 









VI 1 


Chapter whereby the Heart of a person is not kept 
back fro7n him in the IVetherworld. 



Chapter whereby the Crocodiles are repulsed who 
come to carry off the IVords of Power from a 
person in the JVetherivorld. 

Chapter 7i<hereby the Crocodiles are repulsed who 
come to carry off the Words of Power from the 
glorified in the JSetherworld. 

XXXIII. Chapter whereby all Serpents are kept back. 

XXXIV. Chapter whei-eby a person is not devoured by the 

diveller in the shrine. 

XXXV. Chapter whereby the person is not devoured by a 

Serpent in the Nethenvorld. 

XXXVI. Chapter whereby the Apshait is kept back. 

XXXVII. Chapter tvhereby the Merta Goddesses are kept back. 

XXXVIII. Chapter ivhereby one liveth by the breath of air in 
the Nethenvorld, and keepeth back Alerta. 

XXXIX. Chapter whereby the Serpent Rekrek is repulsed in 

the Netherworld. 

XL. Chapter ivhereby the Eater of the Ass is kept back. 

XLI. Chapter whereby one avoideth the Slaughter which 
is carried out in the Netherworld. 

XLII. Chapter whereby one hindereth the Slaughter which 

is wrought at Sutenhenen. 

XLII I. Chapter ivhereby the head of a person is not severed 
from him in the Nethenvorld. 

XLIV. Chapter zvhereby one dieth not a second time. 

XLV. Chapter whereby one escapeth corruption in the 


XLVI. Chapter whereby he that is living is not destroyed 

in the Netherworld. 

XLVII. Chapter whereby the seat of a person is not taken 
from him in the Nethenvorld. 

XLVIII (same as X). 

XLIX (same as XI). 




Plate XII. 


No Vignettes. 


„ XU. 



No Vignettes. 


Plate XII. 

82 " 


A^o Vignettes. 


Plates XII, XIII 










„ XIV. 


„ XV. 



„ XVI. 





> A^o Vignettes. 

„ 102, 103 

Plates XV, XVII. 

b 2 























Chapter wlicrcby one cometh not to the divine Block 
of Execution. 

Chapter whereby one goeth not headlong in the 

Chapter whereby one eateth not dirt in the 


Chapter zvhereby one is not made to cat dirt, or to 

drink lye. 

Whereby one eateth not dirt. 

Chapter whereby air is given i?i the Netherworld. 

Another Chapter whereby air is given. 

Another Chapter of breathing. 

Chapter for breathing air, and command of ivater, 
ift the Nethertvorld. 

Chapter for breathing air and cojnmand of water. 

Chapter for breathing air and command of water. 

Another Chapter. 

Another Chapter. 

Chapter whereby water is drunk in the Nethenvorld. 

Chapter whereby one is not burnt luith fire, but 
drinketh water, in the Netherworld. 

Chapter whereby one is not boiled in 7vater. 

Chapter whereby one cometJi forth by day from the 

Chapter whereby one cometh forth by day and 
prevaileth over the adversaries. 

Chapter whereby one cometh forth by day. 

Chapter whereby the doors of the Tuat are opened 
afid one cometh forth by day. 

Chapter whereby one cometh forth by day. 

Otherivise said. 
Another Chapter. 

page 103 



„ 107 

„ 107, 108 
„ 109 

„ no 

„ no, HI 


Plate XVII. 

No Vignettes. 


Plate XVII. 

„ XVII. 


XI3 1 

■f No Vignettes. 



114 . 



Plate XVII. 



115 " 




No Vignettes. 






Plate XVII. 

„ XIX. 

No Vignettes. 

„ 129, 130 Plates XVIII, XIX. 

„ 130, 131 
„ 131. 132 

No Vignettes. 



LXXI. Chapter ivhereby one cometh forth by day. 

LXXII. Chapter whereby one cometh forth by day and passes 

through the Aniniehit. 

LXXIII (same as IX) 

LXXIV. Chapter ivhereby the legs are set in motion upon earth. 

LXXV. Chapter whereby one cometh to Heliopolis and rc- 

ceiveth a seat there. 

LXXVI. Chapter ivhereby all forms are assumed ivhich 

one pleaseth. 

LXXVII. Chipter whereby one assumeth the form of the 

Golden Hawk. 

LXX\^III. Chapter ivhereby otie assumeth the form of the 

Sacred Hawk. 

LXXIX. Chapter whereby one assiimeth the form of the Chief 

god of the Divine Cycle. 

LXXX. Chapter whereby one assumeth the form of the god 
tvho giveth Light to the Darkness. 

LXXXI. Chapter whereby one assumeth the form of the Lotus. 

LXXXII. Chapter ivhereby one assumeth the form of Ftah, 
eateth bread, drinketh beer, and sitteth in the 
midst of the great gods. 

LXXXIII. Chapter ivhereby one assumeth the form of the Bennu 


LXXXIV. Cha[>ter whereby otte assumeth the form of the 


LXXXV. Chapter ivhereby one assumeth the form of a Soul, 
that one may not come to the dungeon. Lmperish- 
able is he who knoweth it. 

LXXXVI. Chapter whereby one assumeth the form of the 


LXXXVII. Chapter whereby one assumeth the form of Se-ta. 

LXXXVIII. Chapter whereby one assumeth the form of the 

C?-ocodile god \^Sebak\ 

LXXXIX. Chapter whereby the Soul is united to the dead Body. 
XC. Chapter whereby Memory is restored to a person. 


pages 132-134 

Plate XIX. 

„ 136,137 

Plates XIX, XX. 

„ XIX, XX. 


„ XIX, XX. 

„ I39»i40 

„ XXI, 
numbered LXXVI 1 1 in 


Plate XX. 
same as LXXIII. 

„ 141 

Plate XXI. 

,., 142-146 

„ XXL 

„ 147, 148 

„ XXI. 


No Vignettes. 

150 Plates XXI, XXII. 

„ 150, 151 

„ 151; 152 

>, 152, 153 

» 153- 154 



j> 157 

„ 157, 158 
,> 159 

„ XXII. 

„ XXII. 

„ XXII. 

„ XXII. 

„ XXII. 







XCL Chapter whereby the Soiit is secured fro/n iviprison- 

ment in the JVetherwortd. 

page 1 60 

N'o Vignettes. 











Chapter whereby the Tomb is opened to the Sou/ and 
to the Shade of the person, that he may come forth 
by day and may have mastery of his feet. 

Chapter whereby one avoideth being conveyed to the 
East in the Nethenvorld. 

Chapter whereby one prayeth for a Palette and an 


Chapter whereby is opened the place wherein Thoth 


Chapter whereby is opened [the place] tvhere IVioth 


Chapter ivhereby one saileth a ship in the Nether- 

Chapter ivhereby one saileth a ship in the N^ethcr- 


The Book ivhereby the glorified one is made strong, 
and is made to embark in the boat of Rd, together 
with those ivho are ivith the god. 

Chapter of the safeguards of the Bark of Rd. 

Chapter whereby one entereth into the Bark of Rd. 

Chapte7- whereby one openeth the place where Hathor 


CIV. Chapter whereby one sitteth in the midst of the great 


CV. Chapter whereby one propitiateth the Ka, 

CVI. Chapter ivhereby a largess is presented at Hat-ka- 



CVIII. Chapter ivhereby one knoweth the Powers of the 


CIX. Chapter whereby one hioweth the Powers of the 


„ 160,161 Plates XXIII, XXIV. 

162 „ XXIV. 

163 „ XXIV. 
„ 163, 164 „ XXIV. 

,, 164 No Vignettes. 

165 Plate XXV. 

„ 165, 166 „ XXV. 

„ 167-169 „ XXV, XXVI. 

171 „ XXVII. 

„ 172, 173 

„ 176, 177 

,,• 178, 179 

No Vignettes. 

„ 173 Plate XXVII. 

174 „ XXV. 

174 „ XXV. 

„ XXV. 

A^o Vignettes. 

Plates XXV, XXVII. 

„ 181, 1S2 „ XXVII. 




The Begi?ining of the Chapters of the Garden of 
Hotepit, and of the Chapters of coming forth by 
day ; and of entering afid costing forth in the 
Netherworld, and of arriving at the Garden of 
Aarnt, at the Rise in Hotepit and at the Grand 
Z)omain, blest with the breezes : that I may take 
possession there and be in Glory there : that there 
I mav plough and motu : that there I may eat 
and drink and love: doing whatsoever things are 
done upofi earth. 

CXI (same as CVIII). 

CXI I. Chapter whereby one knoweth the Powers of Fu. 

CXIII. Chapter whereby one k?ioweth the Powers of Nechen. 

CXIV. Chapter ivhereby one knoiveth the Powers of Her- 


CXV. Chapter whereby otie cometh forth into Heaven, and 
opeiieth the Ammehit : a fid 7V hereby the Poivers of 
Heliopolis are knoivn. 

CXVI. Chapter whereby one knoweth the Poiver of Her- 


CXVII. Chapter whereby one taketh the blissful path at 


pages 193-195 

„ 184, 185 
„ 186, 187 
„ 188, 189 

„ 190, 191 



Plates XXVIII, 

„ XXX. 
„ XXXI. 

No Vignettes. 

Plate XXXI. 

„ XXXI (one 
Vignette is 
numbered CVII 
in error). 


Chapter whereby one arriveth at Restau. 



No Vignettes. 


Chapter zv hereby one entereth or goeth forth from 




Plate XXXI. 


(same as XII). 


(same as XIII). 


(same as LVIII). 


Chapter whereby one entereth into the Great House. 






Chapter whereby one cometh to the Divine Circle of 








Part I. — Said on arriving at the Hall of Righteotis- 
ness, that N may be loosed from all the sins which 
he hath committed and that he may look upon the 
divine countenances. 

Part II. — The Negative Confession. 

Part III. — Said upon approaching to the gods who 
are in the Teat. 




-214 " 
















CXXVII. The Book for invoking the gods of the Bounds, which 
the person reciteth luhen he appj-oachcth them, that 
he may etiter and see the Strong one in the Great 
Abode of the Tiiat. 

CXXVI 11. Invocation of Osiris 

CXXIX (same as C). 

CXXX. A Book ivhereby the Soul is made to live for ever, 07i 
the day of enteri72g info the Bark of Rd, and to 
pass the Sheniu of the Tiiat. Made on the 
Birthday of Osiris. 

CXXXI. Chapter whereby one proceedeth into Heaven by the 

side of Rd. 

CXXXII. Chapter whereby a person is enabled to go round, to 
visit his divelling in the Netherivorld. 

CXXXIII. Book ivherebv the deceased acquireth jnight in the 
Netherworld, in presence of the great cycle of tlu 

CXXXIV. Chapter whereby the deceased acguireth might. 

CXXXV. A?iother chapter recited when the Moon renews itself 

on the first day of the 7no7ith. 

CXXXVIa. Chapter whereby 07ie is co/iveyed in the Bark of Rd. 

CXXXVIb. Chapter 7u/ie7'eby 07ie is co7iveyed i7i tlu Great Ba7-k 
of Rd to pass th7-ough the orbit of fla77ie. 

CXXXVIIa. Chapter whereby a Light Is kindled for a person. 

CXXX VI I B. Chapter whereby a Light is ki7idled for a person. 

CXXXVIII. Chapter ivhereby 07ie is e7iabled to enter i7tto Abydos. 

CXXXIX (same as CXXIII). 

CXL. The book read on t/ie last day of Mechir, 7vhen the 
Eye is full 07t the last day of Mechir. 

CXLI. The Book said by a 77ia7i or his father or his son i7i 

to the festival of the A//ie7ita, and whe7-eivith )ie 

CXLIII. acquires 7night with Rd, and ivith the gods when 

he is with the77i. Said 07i the day of tlu 7iew 

Moon, when offerings are made of bread, beer, 

oxen, geese, and burnt ince7is^ to — 

pages 244, 245 Plate XL. 


\ No Vig/uttes. 

„ 251, 252 J 

„ 256-259 



„ 267, 268 
„ 269, 270 

„ 270 

„ 271, 272" 

» 275_ 




Plate XL. 
„ XL. 

„ XLL 

„ XLL 

264, 265 Plates XLI, XLII. 

Plate XLL 

Ao Vignettes. 

Plate XLII. 

No Vig/uttes. 

Plate XLII. 

,,280,281 Plates XLIII, XLIV. 

„ 282-2S5 




CXLH". The Chapter of the Arrival. 

CXLV and The hioivhig of the fylons of the house of Osiris, iii 
CXL\T. the Garden of Aarrii. 



pages 287-289 Plates XLVI, XLVII, 


C'XLVIII. Giving sustenance to t/ie deceased in the Netherworld^ 
and delivering him from all evil things. 




CLIa. bis 

CLIa. ter 











Chapter of the mysterious head. 

Chapter of building a house on earth. 

Chapter of coming out of the net. 

Chapter of escaping from the catchers offish. 

Chapter of not letti?ig the body decay in the Nether- 


Chapter of the Tat of gold. 

Chapter of the buckle of carnelian, which is put on 
the fleck of the deceased. 

Chapter of the vultjire of gold, put on the neck op 
the deceased. 

Chapter of the collar of gold, put on the neck of 
the deceased. ' 

Chapter of the column of green Felspar, put on the 
neck of the deceased. 

Giving the colutnn of green Felspar. 

Chapter of unfastening the opening in the sky. 
Thoth does it so that it may be finished when lie 
opens {the sky) zvith Aten. 

Chapter of causing a flame to arise under the head 
of the deceased. 

„ 292-294 


,, 296-298 

„ XLIX, L. 

„ 300-301 


„ 302-307 

„ LIL 


„ LIII. 


„ LIV, LVI. 


No Vignettes. 

Plate LIV. 


„ LIV. 

„ 315. 316 

„ LV. 

» 320, 321 

„ LVI. 

>, 322, 323 

„ LVI. 

325 „ LVI, LVII. 

326 „ LVI, LVII. 

„ 326, 327 „ LVII. 



» 327, 328 „ LVIL 

328 „ LVIL 

„ 329, 330 „ LV. 

„ no, 321 „ LVII I. 



Chapters brought from another book, in addition to 
the ^'^ coming forth by day." Chapter of not letting 
the body of a man decay in the Nctherxoorld, of 
rescuing him frotn the devourers of souls who 
imprison jnen in the Tuat, and of tiot raising his 
sins on earth against him, but of saving his flesh 
and his bones from the worms and from every 
evil-doing god in the Netherworld, so that he may 
go in and out as he likes, and do everything he 
desires without restraint. 

page 333, 334 

Plate LVIII. 

CLXIV. Another Chapter. 

CLX\^. Chapter of landing and 710 1 being obscured, so that 
the body may prosper in drinking water. 

CLXM. Chapter of the Pillow. 

CLXVII. Chapter of brifigitig an Eye. 


CLXIX. Chapter of raising the funereal Bed. 

CLXX. Chapter of arrangi?tg the funereal Bed. 

CLXXL Chapter of wrapping up {the deceased) in a pure 


CLXX 11. Begin?iing of the Chapter of reciting the ceremonies 

made in the Netherworld. 

CLXXIIL The addresses of Horus to his father wheti he goes 
in to see his father, and when he comes out of his 
great sanctuary to see him Rd Unneferu, the 
master of Ta-tser, and then the\ embrace o?ie 
a?iotlier ; therefore lie is glorious in the Nether- 

CLXXIV. Chapter of causing the Chu to co??ie out of tJie great 

door i7i the sky. 

CLXXV. Chapter of not dying a second death in the N^ether- 


CLXXVL Chapter of not dying a second titne in the Nether- 

CLXXVII. Chapter of raisifig the Chu, of vivifying his soul 

in the Netherivorld. 

CTXXVIII. Chapter of raising the body, of giving it eyes, 0/ 
making it possess ears, affixing its head, of putting 
it on its base. 


336, 337 



338, 339 














No Vignettes 


» 348-351 

'> - 9 -^ -* -» 

» 354,355 

5> J3 

6, 35: 


8 1 


„ 360-36: 

Plate LIX. 

n LX. 

„ LX. 

No Vignettes. 




Chapter of coining forth when goittg out of yesterday 
and coming in the {present) day, l>eing equipped 
by one's o^vn hands. 



Chapter of coming forth by day, of giving praise to 
Ed in the Amenta, of faying homage to the in- 
habitants of the Tnat, of openifig the zvay to the 
mighty soul in the Ahthenvorld, of letti?ig him 
li'alk, lengthen his strides, and go in and out in 
the Netherworld ; and take the form of a living 

Chapter of arriving before the Divine circle of 
Osiris and before the gods, the guides in the Tuat, 
before the guards of their halls, the heralds of 
their gates and the doorkeepers of their pylons in 
the Amenta, and of taking the form of a living 
soul and praising Osiris the lord of his circle of 

Book of vivifying Osiris, of giving air to him whose 
heart is motionless, through the action of Thoth, 
who repels the enemies of Osiris ivho comes there 
in his form . . . as protector, saviour, defender in 
the Netherivorld. 

It is said by Thoth himself, so that the morning light 
may shine on him {Osiris) every day. 

Adoration to Osiris, giving him praise, boiving 
down before Unneferu, falling on one's face before 
the lord of Ta-tsert, and exalting him who is on 
his sand. 

CLXXXI V. Chapter of being near Osiris. 

CLXXX V. Giving praise to Osiris, falling on the earth before 
the lord of eternity ; propitiatifig the god with 
what he loves, speaking the truth, the lord of 
which is not known. 

CLXXXVL Adoration to Hathor, the lady of the West, falling 
down before Mehurit, 


page l(n^ 3^4 

V 365-367 

No Vignettes. 

Plate LX. 

., 368, 369 

', 370-372 

„ 372-374 



„ LXL 

„ LXL 

„ LX. 

„ LX. 
„ LX. 

„ LX, LXII. 

c 2 


When, in the year 1892, Sir Peter Le Page Renouf began the pubh'cation of his translation 
of the Book of the Dead, his intention was that the work, once completed, should be preceded 
by an elaborate Introduction, giving, besides all the information concerning the form and tlie 
history of the book, his views as to its sense and its religious value. 

As with the unfinished part of the translation,^ so here, we are left without any notes or any 
clue whatever as to the form which this introduction was to have taken, and we are obliged 
to resort to the fifth of the Hibbert lectures, given by Renouf in 1879, in order to know his 
views about the book.^ 

Before speaking of its contents, we have to state briefly under what form the book has come 
down to us. It is hardly necessary to repeat that it is no book at all in the ordinary sense 
of the word. It is neither a unity nor a whole, it is a collection which has grown by degrees, 
at various epochs. Undoubtedly part of it goes back as far as the Old Empire ; the texts of 
the Middle Empire show already that there were various editions, and we are forced to 
admit that its origin is not much later than the beginning of Egyptian civilization, as we 
see that some of the rubrics attribute certain chapters to a king of the 1st dynasty. In 
the course of centuries the original text was modified and enlarged, new chapters were added, 
revisions were made, without casting these detached fragments into a whole. The various 
parts of the book were always independent, like the Hebrew Psalms ; the acceptance of a 
chapter does not necessarily imply the acceptance of the next chapter, and it seems as if the 
relatives of the deceased chose in the collection which was at their disposal what they liked 
best, and the number of chapters which corresponded to the price they wished to pay for a 

This description applies chiefly to the texts of the Book of the Dead of the period prior 
to the XXVIth dynasty. Under the Saite kings it seems that a complete revision of the text 
was made ; a definite order was adopted, which was not rigidly binding on the writers, but to 
which they generally adhered; various chapters were added, especially the last ones, 162-165, 
which are never found in the older copies. It seems also that something like what we should 
call an authorized version was adopted ; and this was done by men to whom the book was 

' See Introductory Note to Chapter CXL,. 
2 The Hibbert Lectures, 1879, p. 172, 


hardly intelligible. A great many glosses were introduced, which were copied afterwards in 
all the hieroglyphic and hieratic texts. Although we do not find the strict accuracy of Hebrew 
manuscripts, the number of variants in the Saite, Ptolemaic or Roman texts is considerably 
smaller than in the manuscripts of the Theban period, and a collation of the hundreds of 
papyri of late epoch which fill our museums would lead to no great result. 

However, it is from a text generally considered as Saitic, but which I believe to be of 
the Ptolemaic epoch, that the Book of the Dead has been first made known in all its extent. 
In 1842 Lepsius published the long papyrus in the Turin Museum, a document which he 
called " the largest piece of Egyptian literature which has been preserved." 

Before him Champollion had seen it, and had noticed that a great number of repetitions 
of the same text existed in various museums. He made use of it in his grammar, quoted 
here and there a sentence taken from it, but he did not make a special study of the document. 
Lepsius understood at once the importance of the book, which was the vade-inecutn of the 
deceased, and seeing how much more extensive the Turin Papyrus was than the short copies 
which had been published before, he traced the whole document and published it two years 

Lepsius gave to this work the name of Todteiibuch, " Book of the Dead," in opposition to 
the name of " Ritual " adopted by Champollion, which is certainly incorrect. It is no Ritual ; a 
few chapters with a ritualistic character have been introduced into it : for instance, the chapter 
connected with the ceremony of " opening the mouth of the deceased," which is occasionally 
met with, or Chapter 171, "chapter of wrapping up (the deceased) in a pure garment;" but 
these are rare exceptions. On the whole the Book of the Dead differs widely from a Ritual. 
It is not the priest who speaks, there are no minute prescriptions as to how a ceremony is to 
be performed ; all the prayers and hymns are put in the deceased's mouth, it is he whose 
speech is supposed to be heard in the other world. 

Todtefibuch, Book of the Dead, is not a translation of the Egyptian title, which is : 

book of <rr> ^^ rQ Y^ pert m hru. As Renouf says, " Three simple words, perfectly 

unambiguous when taken singly, but by no means easy of explanation when taken together 
without a context ; " and in fact at the present day no final translation has been given of these 
three words. Renouf translates, *• coming forth by day," as will be seen in the numerous 
examples which occur in this volume ; but several objections may be raised against this 
interpretation, to which we should prefer, " coming out of the day," the day being the period 
of a man's hfe, having its morning and its evening. 

The book is divided into fragments called ^'^p* , to each of which Lepsius has given a 
number, following the order of the great Turin Papyrus, and which he calls chapters. Although 
his numbering is not quite correct, it has been adhered to in all the subsequent editions. 

In his lecture- on the Book of the Dead, Renouf insists on the difificulty of translating it : 
" Nothing can exceed the simplicity and the brevity of the sentences ; and yet the difficulties 
which a translator has to overcome are very great. In the first place, the text is extremely 

- See also Life Work, t. Ill, p. 51, "The title of the Book of the Dead," and p. 59, "The Eg)-ptian Book 
of the Dead." 


corrupt. The unsatisfactory condition of the text is owing to different causes. The reasons 
which writers on Hebrew, Greek or Latin palaeography have enumerated for the purpose of 
accounting for mistakes in manuscripts, apply with much greater force to the funereal manu- 
scripts of the Egyptians ; for as these were not intended to be seen by any mortal eye, but to 
remain for ever undisturbed in the tomb, the unconscientious scribe had no such check upon 
his carelessness as if his work were liable to be subjected to the constant inspection of the 
living. But the most conscientious scribe might easily commit numerous errors. Many ot 
them are to be traced to a confusion between signs which resemble each other in the cursive, 
or as it is called, the hieratic character, but not in hieroglyphic writing. 

" Besides the errors of copyists, there are different readings, the origin of which is to be 
traced to the period during which the chapters were handed down by word of mouth only. 
There are copies which bear evidence that a critical choice has been made between the 
different readings of a passage, but the common practice was to admit the inconsistent readings 
into the text itself . . . 

" Some of the variants have unquestionably arisen from the difificulty of understanding 
the ancient texts. I have no doubt whatever that some of the chapters of the Book of the 
Dead were as obscure to Egyptians living under the eleventh dynasty as they are to our- 
selves .... The most accurate knowledge of the Egyptian vocabulary and grammar will 
however not suffice to pierce the obscurity arising from what M. de Rouge called symbols 
or allegories, which are in fact simple mythological allusions. The difficulty is not in literally 
translating the text, but in understanding the meaning which lies concealed beneath familiar 

These words of Renouf have still a very great force, although in the last twenty years 
some progress has been made towards a better understanding of the text. When Renouf gave 
the above description of the difficulties of the translation, the main source from which he 
could derive his information was what he called " the corrupt Turin text." Since then a 
critical edition has been made.-^ It is based on texts of the XVIIIth and XlXth dynasties, 
written at a time when the intelligence of the book was not lost to the same extent as under 
the Saites or the Ptolemies, as may be ascertained from the considerable number of glosses 
introduced into the Turin text which are absent from the older versions. This edition has 
been compiled from various papyri, as the older ones are much shorter than the later ones ; 
it is not a single document like Lepsius's Todtenbuch ; most of the chapters have been found 
in their 'old form; a few are missing, but a good number have been added to the list which 
have fallen out of the late versions. Generally it is from this critical text that Renouf made 
his translation. Occasionally he may choose an older version from a tomb, or perhaps a 
papyrus of the British Museum, but he hardly ever reverts to the Turin Todtenbuch unless he 
has no other resonrce at his disposal. 

Nevertheless the difficulties which Renouf enumerates are only partly removed. We are 
still very far from being able to give a final translation of the Book of the Dead, and I have 

* Das Aegyptische Todtenbuch der XVIII bis XX Dynast je,z\xsa.n\m&ngtsie\h and herausgegeben von Edouard 
Naville, ]5erlin, 1886. 


no doubt that Renouf would repeat about his own work what he says of Dr. Birch's translation, 
" Many parts of it, where most faithful to the original, must in consequence of that very 
fidelity be utterly unintelligible to an English reader." 

No doubt Renouf's translation is a great step towards making the book more intelligible ; 
still the reader may often stumble over sentences out of which it is hardly possible to make 
a reasonable sense, in spite of their grammatical correctness, and which at first sight will seem 
childish, not to say, with Renouf, " outrageous nonsense." But we may say with certainty 
that they were not so to the old Egyptians. Under this extraordinary or even ridiculous 
garment may be hidden some very simple, or even elementary truths. Let us remember that 
we have not yet unravelled all the intricacies of the Egyptian mythology, which plays such an 
important part in the book. Moreover, we only begin now to understand how the Egyptians 
expressed abstract ideas. When we speak of passion, shame, remorse, hope, we have so 
thoroughly lost sight of the concrete element in these words, that we are apt to forget that 
originally they must have been metaphors, and that they must have expressed something 
striking the senses, and connected with the material world. An instance will illustrate the 
difficulty in this translation. 

Chapter 112 relates how, owing to an imprudent request, Horus was the victim of 
Sutu, who inflicted a wound on his eye, which caused him great suffering, and the text adds: 

Y ^ 1 So^ ^ ^^^ , lo! he ate his heart. Renouf translates, "and wrath devoured 

11 /vv^/y^ _fl^ -B- c—ji ^ ^ — ^ I 

his heart." I should prefer, "he regretted sorely (his foolish request)." I believe to eat one's 
heart to mean, " to feel regret, repentance, or remorse." There the abstract meaning is not 
difficult to find out ; but in other cases, as long as we have not discovered the key to the 
metaphor, we may go far astray, or if we do not go beyond the literal explanation, we miss 
the abstract sense, which is the true one. 

However, because the work will not bear the character of finality, because some obscurities 
will not be removed, and some difficulties remain unsolved, there is no reason why a scholar 
like Renouf should have shrunk from attempting the translation of the Book of the Dead, a 
work which he had before his eyes for years, and which he considered as the crown of his 
Egyptological labours. 

The lecture quoted above gives us Renouf's ideas as to the purpose and the sense of 
the book : it is the beatification of the dead considered in three aspects : 

The renewed existence "as upon earth." The deceased enjoys an existence similar to that 
which he has led upon earth ; he has the use of his limbs, he eats and drinks and satisfies 
every one of his physical wants exactly as in his former life. The gods themselves minister 
to him occasionally, and contribute to his welfare and to his pleasures. The bliss of the 
future state consists chiefly in the pleasures of agricultural life. 

Transformation. The deceased has the range of the entire universe in every shape and 
form he desires. He can assume any appearance he likes. But these transformations are 
not forced upon him ; he has no definite series to go through ; they depend simply on his 


Identification with Osiris and other gods. The identification with Osiris, which is already 
mentioned in the earhest parts of the book, is taken for granted later on, since the name of 
the deceased is always preceded by "Osiris." He may be assimilated to other gods; for 
instance, in the 42nd chapter every limb is assimilated to a different deity. This Osirian 
nature gives the deceased the power to triumph over the numerous enemies whom he has to 

To these three benefits which the book confers on the deceased we should add a fourth : 
viz., complete preservation from dismemberment and decay. There is evidently in some of the 
prayers a remembrance of a time when the deceased were dismembered at their burial ; and 
this way of treating the corpse is for the deceased an object of horror. The frequent mention 
of reconstituting the body, the promises that no part of it shall be taken away, all this shows 
of what supreme importance it was for him that his body should remain intact. Without a 
well preserved body there could be no life in the other world ; its destruction implies the 
destruction of the whole individual. This belief is the origin of mummification, for decay is 
the strongest agent of dismemberment and the certain ruin of the body. 

These are the outlines of the principal tenets of the Book of the Dead. If we inquire 
where they originated, there is no doubt that the bulk of the book came from Heliopolis. It 
is the doctrine of that ancient city and of its priests. Some of the chapters may be attributed 
to the priests at Abydos, as M. Maspero suggests ; but it seems certain that, except for a 
small part, the birthplace of the Book of the Dead is the city of Ra Tmu, the place connected 
with the oldest religious traditions of the country, and which may rightly be called the religious 
capital of Egypt. 

January, 1904. Edguard Naville. 



( I ) The Beginning of the Chapters of Co7ning forth by Day, of 
the (2) Words which bring about Resurrection and Glory, and of 
Coming out of and entering into Amenta. Said upon the Day of 
Burial of N, the Victorious, (3) who entereth after coming forth. 
(4) Here is N the Victorious. He saith — 

(5) Bull of Amenta, It is Thoth, the everlasting King, who is 

1 am the great god in the Bark, who have fought for thee. 

I am one of those gods, the (6) Powers who effect the triumph 
of Osiris over his adversaries on the day of the Weighing of the 
Words : I am thy kinsman, Osiris. 

I am one of those gods to whom Nut hath given birth, who slay 
the adversaries of Osiris and imprison the (7) Sebau, on his behalf: 
I am thy kinsman, Horus. 

I have fought for thee, and have prevailed for thy name. 

I am Thoth who effect the triumph of Osiris over his adversaries 
on that day of Weighing of the Words in the (8) House of the 
Prince, which is in Heliopolis. 

I am (9) Tatti, the son of Tatti, conceived in Tattu and born in 
Tattu ; and Tattu is my name. 

I am with the mourners and weepers who wail over Osiris in 
(10) Rechit, and who effect the triumph of Osiris over his adver- 

Ra issued the mandate to Thoth, that he should effect the 
triumph of Osiris against his adversaries, and the mandate is what 
Thoth hath executed. 

I am with Horus on the day of covering (11) Teshtesh and of 
opening the fountains for the refreshment of (12) the god whose 
heart is motionless, and closing the entrance to the hidden things 
in (13) Restau. 



I am with Horus, as the avenger of that left arm of Osiris which 
is in (14) Sechem. 

I enter in, and I come forth from the (15) Tank of Flame on 
the day when the adversaries are annihilated at Sechem. 

I am with Horus on the day when the festivals of Osiris are 
celebrated, and when offerings are made [to Ra], on the Feast of 
the Sixth day of the Month, and on the Feast of Tenait {16) in 

I am the Priest (17) in Tattu and exalt him who is on the 
Height. (18) 

I am the Prophet in Abydos on the day when the earth is 

I am he who seeth what is shut up at Restau. (19) 

I am he who reciteth the liturgies of the (20) Soul who is Lord 
of Tattu. 

I am the Sem-priest in all that pertaineth to his office. 

I am the Arch-Craftsman, on the day in which the Ship of 
Sokaru is laid upon its stocks. (21) 

I am he who seizeth the mattock, on the day of the Feast of 
Hoeing in Suten-henen. (22) 

O ye who bring beneficent souls into the house of Osiris, do 
ye bring the soul of N together with you into the house of Osiris ; 
let him see as you see, let him hear as your hear, let him stand 
as you stand, and sit as you sit [in the house of Osiris]. 

O ye who give bread and beer to beneficent souls in the house 
of Osiris, do you give bread and beer at the two periods to the 
soul of iVwho is with you. 

O ye who unclose the ways and open the roads to beneficent 
souls in the house of Osiris, unclose then the ways and open the 
roads to the soul of N who is with you, let him enter boldly and 
come forth in peace at the house of Osiris, without hindrance and 
without repulse. Let him enter at his pleasure and go forth at his 
will, triumphantly with you ; and let that be executed which he 
shall order in the house of Osiris. 

No lightness of his in the scale has been found and the Balance 
is (23) relieved of his case. 


Papyrus in the British Museum. 
No. 9901, 

Set Navili.e, " Rook of the Dead," I, PL I and II. 






The text taken for the basis of the translation of Chapter i 
is that of the papyrus of Huneferu ; Ag of M. Naville's edition. 

1. The title here translated is that usual in all the papyri 
representing the third period of the text. It occurs however in 
the papyrus Ag of Huneferu, who lived in the days of Seti I, 
at the beginning of the XlXth dynasty. It is also found in 
the papyrus of Ani. The most common title of Chapter i in the 

older manuscripts isXra^11^<=>i2i1Tj|' 
"Chapter of coming to the divine Powers attached to Osiris." 
These divine Powers are Amsta, Hapi, Tuamautef and Qebehsenuf, 
the children of Horus, who stand upon the lotus which springs 
from the water beneath the throne of Osiris, in pictures of the 
Psychostasia. Chapter 124 bears the same title in the older 
manuscripts, which sometimes begin with it. 

2. s=» T| ^ I 'Iv^ ^ V^ QA I . These are two very difficult 

words, and very different meanings have been assigned to them. 
But when the entire evidence is examined the result is plain enough. 

Each of the words has for determinative the sign g7\ , expressive 

of some kind of utterance. It is a \0709 of some kind. Each 
has for its first letter the causative — » — . The question therefore 

is, what are the meanings of the simpler forms ~|, ^es, and 

The most common, indeed the only true, meaning of Tl is 

'rising,' and even 'raising.' This is too well-known to require 
proof, g > T| is 'causing to rise.' The Pyramid text of Teta says 
(1. 270), " Horus hath given his children that they may raise thee up 
n ^^ I www TV ." In the same religious text, 1. 248, Tl 

is the rising from the funereal couch after the c^ot jj ^j , the recita- 
tions made over the dead. 

The 'raising up' or 'resurrection' here spoken of is said not 
only of the soul but of the body of the deceased person. The 
papyrus of Nebseni has preserved two chapters, to which M. Naville 
has assigned the numbers 177 and 178. 

B 2 



Chapter of raising up the Chu, and giving life to the Soul in the 

Chapter of raising 2ip the body, of giving it eyes a fid the possession 
of ears, and establishing the head, made firtn on its props. 

'S/' hat, is not simply the body ; it is the dead body, that 
which has fallen, hke the Latin cadaver, the Greek v-wfia, the 
Hebrew n7S^. (See Tratisactions Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol. VIII, 
p. 221, note 2.) 

The true meaning of 'Sn^ ® m ^« is not ' luminous ' but ' clear, 

distinct, glittering, coruscans,' and hence ' bright, splendid, illustrious, 
glorious,' and the like. Like the Greek Xa^-n-po^, the Latin clarus, 
the Hebrew ^pf!^, or the French eclat, it is applied to sound as well 
as to light. It is said of Thoth (in the wretched orthography * of a 

tablet of the XlXth dynasty) fi '^ ® ^ ^ 1^ '^ S ^^ ' ^''' ^e 
glorified them with the clear utterances of his mouth." 'Iv^ 

corresponds to the Greek Xafiirpocptviu'a. As a verb ^^^ is 

clareo, and I '^ is clarifico, glorifico. 

* Sharpe, E./., pi. 97- 

The papyrus Da which is of the same period reads '^^^ ® v\ .^ | ^|\ 


in the title of Chapter 17, instead of '^n. ' glorj-,' ' eclat.' 

The '^N^ ® y\ /K 1 correspond by their name very closely with the devas of 

JT' Jl fill -^ ® ^H^ ' 

Indian mytholog>', and the dead are called ^^ "^ I on the pious hj-pothesis 

of their having obtained ' glor)'.' The word has nothing to do with ' intelligence.' 
It is particularly applicable to the heavenly bodies, the sun, moon and stars — 

' the glittering ones,' and the horizon at sunrise ^^^ ^?//, and ^^^ )jl 'fire' 
derive their names from their ec/at. ^ 


There are, it is true, variants in the title of Chapter 17, giving 
the form HT ^^ v 8i() ' ' ^" ^V^^Q of the excellent authority of 
these variants, they must be considered as giving an erroneous 
reading. The words IT ^v vQD 'remember,' and H'^ 
are different in origin and meaning. The latter signifies 'confer 
glory,' and the ' '^ ® v STl ' ^^^ religious formularies recited 
by priests, identifying the deceased person with Osiris and other 
divinities. There are numerous pictures in the tombs representing 
priests performing this office.* 

3. M. Deveria has produced excellent evidence showing that 
ci Jiiadt-heru has the sense of ' victorious, triumphant.' But the 

sense of veridiqiie is untenable. 1 v\ Q[\ heru is ' voice ' not 

'speech.' In Proceedings S.B.A., Vol. VI, p. 192, note, I have 
quoted a passage from a chapter (now numbered 181 in M. Naville's 

edition) in which S^ I V signifies 'want of success, failure.' 

S^ I V\ QA fiiailt heru really signifies "one whose voice is 

Law." It is essentially a divine title (see "Altar at Turin," Tra?is- 
actions. III, pi. II, li?ie 10, appended to Mr. Bonomi's article), and 
in no Egyptian text is it used of mortals supposed to be living. 
The translation "juste de voix," limits the conception of viadt to 
one of its secondary acceptations. 


semaat heru is also, and necessarily so, a divine 
act, that of Thoth ; and it is done through his utterances. 

4. \ an in this place as in very many others is not a preposition, 

still less is it a verb. It is a demonstrative particle, like the Latin 
en, ecce, or the Hebrew ^n. Nothing is more common than this 
particle followed only by a proper name, e.g., on the funereal figures. 
There is not the slightest reason for supposing that there is an 
ellipse of the verb ' saith.' The particle is used like the corres- 
ponding Latin one under the Scottish picture of Edward I — 

'En rex Edwardus debacchans ut leopardus.' 
* See Denkin, II, 71 b, 72 a, b, loi b ; cf. 98 //, 116 c, and III, 260 c. 


When I translate ( L/ ^^ . . . ( ^^^, " It is Thoth— who is 
here," I do not wish to imply that (J W^ is the verb to be, any more 
than I should in the frequent expression \ ^^ K.<=^ 1 -Y- ^-^^^^ " It 
is his son who revives his name." H is a demonstrative particle 

and nothing else. 

Instead of looking out for moods and tenses and paradigms, 
Egyptologists ought to wake to the consciousness that the Egyptians 
never rose to the conception of what we mean by a verb. 

5, The Bull of Amenta is Osiris. Bull, like Lion or Hawk, was 
one of the figurative names of gods or kings, and Osiris is sometimes 
represented with a Bull's head. 

6. 11 I J) I T'afat. This word is often wrongly translated 
'judges.' The divine judges are called t'afat, but the proposition 
is not simply convertible. There were the A (i J) I "^ot only 
of Osiris, but {Todt., 22, 2) also of every god and every goddess. 
And all the ancient towns of Egypt had their divine ll I jl 1 • It 

is a term used {cf. p. 55) as exactly synonymous with ^ | | I- I^i a 

mythological system like the Egyptian no god stood alone ; every 
god involved others in close connection with himself, and every act 
of his necessitated corresponding acts on their part. 

7. The sfbmi are the enemies of the Sjtn, either as Ra or Osiris. 
I believe that under this mythological name the dark clouds are 

8. Jlet Sant, ' House of the Prince,' is the name of the great 
Sanctuary at Heliopolis. It must be remembered however that many 
of the geographical localities named in the Book of the Dead have 
their counterparts in the Egyptian heaven. 

^" M mM^ ' °'' n H V' ^^^ 'firni, stable, unalterable, abiding, 
eternal one,' whose origin and progress are in eternity. The city 

nv^^^TfU^'-^ ^""^^ ^ name like the Palestinian H-II^j Gazah, 
the ' strong ' city, and many other Hebrew names connected with the 
root ffjr. 


10. Rec/iii, a locality in the north of Egypt. The mourners and 
weepers alluded to are chiefly Isis and Nephthys. 

11. Teshtesh is one of the names of Osiris; perhaps, as might be 
inferred from a text at Dendera, of his molten image. 

12. The god "whose heart is motionless" is Osiris. 

\x. ~^ I Re-stau. one of the gates of the Netherworld. 

Its situation is specified in Chapter 17, line 19. 

14. Sechem. Letopolis, where the arm of Osiris had been de- 
posited, when the other limbs of the god were dispersed throughout 
the cities of Egypt. 

15. The Tank of Flame, as may be inferred from the vignettes 
of the papyri, is where the sun rises or sets. Cf., Unas, 393, 506. 

16. Tenait. Feast of the seventh day of the month. 

17. The speaker now assumes the persons of various priests in 
succession, the f \ /wwvv db, the | y n+^ hen tiutar (prophet), the 

I ^^\ M+^ sem, and the ^fe=s (7 y ^ ura herp hern ; * and he de- 
scribes himself as performing certain religious ceremonies. It must 
never be forgotten when reading these texts that the Egyptian priests 
had divine titles, and that their ceremonies were dramatic, and 
symbolical of the acts performed by the gods. 

18. The text here is hopelessly corrupt. The translation given 
follows Ag. 

Instead of I ^ T exalt, several MSS. have 1 j "i^^ ^ (i) ) , 

which has been rendered anoint with oil. One might translate the 
Turin text, " I lustrate with water in Tattu and with oil in Abydos, 
exalting him who is in the heights (in excelsls)," for this text com- 

bines different readings. But 


as it is written, may 

have another meaning. 1 a(^ beq, signifies 'clear, bright, shining,' 
and the olive tree derives its name from this, The determinative 

* The evidence produced by W. Max Miiller in behalf of this reading of ihe 
priestly name is quite convincing. 


T and the causative 1 furnish the sense, 'I make bright, illustrious, 

glorious,' ' I celebrate or glorify.' ' He is who on the height ' 
(= p''7i^) is, according to Chapter 17, the Sun. 

19. This is perhaps supposed to be said by the priest called 
'^=f y , the 'Arch-seer,' at Heliopolis. 

20. One of the designations of Osiris. Perhaps the word Ba 
should be translated Ram, for in the Mendesian Nome Osiris was 

worshipped under this form, and was called ^ j s, — ^ heru sefit, 

' god of the strong face.' The fact is that whether applied to the 
soul or to a ram, the word ba is expressive of ' power, force.' The 

same word under the form J ("^^ ^^ ^ _^ is used in Chapter 120, 

2 (= 12, 2) in the sense of 'splitting up.' And this is clearly the 
Egyptian concept of the soul — * the internal force, that which works 

within us,' to evep'-fouv. 

The word is ideographically written ^^^ or <*^^)* both the 
Ram and the cranelike bird being called ba. Some have cleverly 
inferred that the Egyptians thought that the soul was of a birdlike 
form, and others have not hesitated to consider ba as expressive of 
the cry of the ram. The odd thing is that only the ram has this 
name, not the s/trep or the lamb, who nevertheless indulge in the 
same cry. The truth is that in spite of appearances the word ba is 
not onomatopoeic here. Whether applied to the ram or to the heron, 
the word is expressive of human action and signifies 'digging 
through, cleaving, piercing, splitting.' The hieroglyphic variants are 

very expressive : J ^>^> J "^"^^ Wl' J*^"^^' 

J ([ ^='5>^, ^^uO^^^n' '^^^"'^^^ (f^he last is already found 
in Denkm. II, 51). 

The Ram is called in Egyptian ba on account of the digs which 
he makes with his head, and a force which has occasioned the name 
of ' ram ' to be given to powerful engines. 

* The human head (with a beard) sometimes given to the bird, merely 
indicates the aivine nature of the soul. 


The Heron is also called ba because with its bill it cleaves the 
fishes which it attacks. 

And the word which we translate Soul or Spirit is called Im, 
because it is conceived as something which 'pierces, penetrates and 

It is right to point out (to those who may wonder at this 
Egyptian etymology) that the Latin scio 'I know' is etymologically 
akin to seco ' cut,' securis ' an axe,' and the Greek kqUc^ Ked^w ' split, 

21. The 

1 ^^^^ M^ sem, and the "^^ 9 urd herp hem, were 

priests in the service of Ptah. The latter, who held perhaps the 
highest sacerdotal office in Egypt, as high priest of Ptah at Memphis, 
is repeatedly found combining with his own special office that of the 
seftt. The ceremony which is here referred to consisted in a grand 
procession round the walls of the great sanctuary of Ptah, conveying 

upon a sledge the bark '^^ vA in which the coffin of the god was sup- 

posed to rest. Sokaru signifies ' the coffined,' and Ptah Sokaru is 
only a form of Osiris. Abundant details of the ceremony will be found 
in the plates of M. Mariette's Abydos, I, pi. t,6 and following. The 
king Seti I is represented as a Sem priest presiding at the festival. 

2 2. 1 2j) "''^•'^ Suten-henen viiLS cdWed by the Greeks Hera- 


23. Or 'rid of his business.' The word ^^ sej>, 'turn,' has 
the different significations of the Latin 'vices.' 

In the later recensions this chapter is lengthened out by other 
petitions. The deceased asks, among other things, to appear 
" before thee, O Lord of the gods, to attain the region of Madt, 
may I rise up a living god, let me shine like the divine host which 
is in heaven, let me be as one of you. Let my steps be lifted up in 
Cher-abaut. Let me see the ship* of the holy Sahu [Orion], 
traversing the sky ; let me not be prevented from seeing the lords 
of the Tuat [the Netherworld], smelling the fragrance of the sacrificial 

* This is one of the meanings of 1 \ ,'~v:2*c; , but in this place it may 

simply mean ' going round in a ship.' 



offerings made to the divine host, and sitting with them. Let the 
Cher-heb [the priestly ministrant] make invocation over my coffin. 
Let me hear the prayers of propitiation. Let the divine ship 
Neshemet advance for me, let not my soul and its possessor suffer 

An invocation to Osiris follows. 

" Hail to thee, Prince of Amenta, Osiris, lord of Nifura ; grant 
that I may advance in peace towards Amenta, and that the Lords of 
Tasert may receive me and say to me, ' Salutation ! Salutation ! in 
Peace ! ' let them make for me a seat by the Prince of the divine 
Powers, let the two Chenemta goddesses [Isis and NephthysJ receive 
me, in presence of Unneferu, the Victorious. Let me be a follower 
of Horus in Re-stau, and of Osiris in Tattu. Let me assume all 
forms for the satisfaction of my heart in every place that my Genius 
{Ka\ wisheth." 

The following rubric is found as early as the XlXth dynasty in 
connection with this chapter, but it seems to have originally been 
attached to Chapter 72. 

" If this discourse is learnt upon earth, or is written upon the 
coffin, he (the deceased) may come forth upon every day that he 
pleaseth and again enter his house without impediment. And there 
shall be given to him bread and beer and flesh meat upon the table 
of Ra : he shall receive allotment in the Fields of Aarru [the 
Elysian fields of Egyptian mythology], and there shall be given to 
him there wheat and barley, for he shall be flourishing as when he 
was upon earth." 

Chapter i is followed in M. Naville's edition by another, which 
the learned editor calls i B. This chapter is found in so very few 
copies that the text cannot as yet be restored. The two texts 
published by M. Naville differ widely from each other. It was known 
however down to the Roman period, though not inserted into copies 
of the Book of the Dead. 

It is called Chapter of ititrodvcing the Mvmmy into the Tuat on 
the day of burial. The 124th chapter bears a similar title. The 
word here translated mummy is probably not to be understood of 
the visible mummy, but of tiie living personality which it enclosed. 
The chapter opens with an invocation, " Hail to thee, who art in 
the sacred region of Amenta, the Osiris, [the deceased] knows thee 
and thy name, defend him from those Worms which are in Restau, 


I I 

who live upon the flesh of men and swallow their blood." The 
names of the Worms were given, but in consequence of the gaps 
in the text they cannot now be recovered. The chapter finished 
with prayers in which the deceased identifies himself with Horus, 
who has taken possession of the throne which his father has given 
him ; he has taken possession of heaven, and inherited the earth, 
and neither heaven nor earth shall be taken from him, for he is Ra, 
the eldest of the gods. His mother suckles him and offers him her 
breast, which is on the horizon at Dawn. 



Chapter for Coining forth by day and Living after death. 

Oh thou Only One, (i) who shinest from the Moon, let me 
come forth amid that train (2) of thine, at large,(3) and let me be 
revealed (4) as one of those in glory. (5) 

And when the Tuat is opened to the gods, let N come forth 
to do his pleasure upon earth amid the Living. 


This chapter occurs in only two of the ancient MSS. collated by 
Naville : Ae and Pf. It is also found in the papyrus of Ani. 

I. I 'unicus,' the Sole and Only One, is one of the many 
.^ a 

appellatives of the Sun. He is here represented as shining /;/ or 
from the Moon. Cf. note on Chapter 132. 

C 2 


2- *^^ Wi r^ 1 5 ' multitude, throng, train,' here put for the 
'heavenly host,' the aKpno9 aarpwu ©xAos (Euripid., J^r 596), or the 
Hebrew DiDlTn ^^1!!. 

Osiris is | ^ rTf <^4v ^ > ' ^^^ leader of the host,' Sharpe, I, 105. 

3- ^^^^^' ^^^'^'^' V""^^"^^' ^°^^^' 'forth, out 
of doors, at large,' in opposition to enclosure in the tomb. 

4- p Ji o) explicare, 'disclose, unfold, reveal, make clear.' 

5. Or ' among the Glorious ones,' (1 ^^^^ ^^ ® /U ' • 

Another chapter like it. 

Oh Tmu, who proceedest from Ur-henhenu, (i) who art resplen- 
dent as the Lion-faced, (2) and who strewest thy words to those who 
are before thee ; 

Here cometh the faithful N, from the band of those who do the 
bidding of thy words. 

ye seamen of Ra at the gloaming of the day, let iVlive after 
death, like Ra daily. 

Here the /ielms??tan : As Ra is bom from Yesterday, so he too is 
born from Yesterday, and as every god exulteth in life, so shall N 
exult even as they exult in life. 

1 am Thoth as he goeth forth from the House of the Prince in 
Heliopolis. (3) 


The only ancient copy of this chapter is in the papyrus of 
Amen-neb {Ae), and here it is imperfect. 

I. A personification of the Nile, ■^^ UUt • The later 

texts read -cz:=> ^iJ^^ , 'the great goddess in the Water.' 


2. The later texts have ^^^"^ rVl Wl' "^""Plyiig the two hons Shu 
and Tefnut. But the older texts have -^^^ || [ ^ , a single god, 

with a lion's face or form. The two notions, however, are found in 
combination in the Pyramid texts of Unas (1. 558) and Teta (1. 332). 

3. See note 8 on Chapter i. 


Another Chapter, for travelling on the road which is above 

the earth. 

It is I who travel on the Stream (i) which divideth the divine 
Pair, (2) I am come, let there be given to me the lands of Osiris. 


This fourth chapter has not as yet been found in any of the 
papyri of the best period. 

^' ^^ ^ AAAA^ , literally 'weeping,' 'flood of tears,' hence 
'overflow, inundation, stream or canal.' It is one of the names of 
the Nile on earth and in heaven and of his personification as a god. 
See Chapter 61, and F.S.B.A., XIII, p. 8 and 9. 

^' I ^ ^ ^ ' °'' H ^^ "^ ^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ divinities in opposi- 
tion or contrast, like Set and Horus (Chapter 17, 25) or the sister 
goddesses named ^ D- T)^ Merta (37, i). Thoth is the umpire 

between Set and Horus (Darkness and Light) and mediates between 
them, but he and Ra (the Moon and Sun) are (Teta, 1. 69) spoken 
of as the two Rehu gods travelling over the sky. 

Chapter V. 

Chapter whereby work may not be imposed \upon a person (1)] in 

the Netherworld. 

Here is N. He saith, I am he who raiseth the hand which is 
motionless, and I come forth at the hour. (2) I am the living Soul.(3) 
and there go before me the longings (4) of those who bring saluta- 



This chapter is found in several of the best MSS., but the text is 
extremely corrupt, and must have become absolutely unintelligible. 
The Turin text differs greatly from that of the older copies, and the 
transposition of words clearly shows how little the transcribers under- 
stood what they were writing. I follow chiefly the text of Aa, the 
papyrus of Nebseni. 

1. These words only occur in the later copies. 

2. ^^ D v\ ® is the older reading, but -^^ _ seems to be 

the more correct. 

3. The oldest text must have had simply the ideographic "^^ , 
Ae gives "^ ^ Jj Ba, but Fd has Q |\ "%^ J) Hnemu. The 
' living Soul ' is that of the Sun, whether he is called Ra or Osiris. 

4. ' Desires, wishes, loves,' literally, ' hearts.' 

5. [ 'vw-.~> qA signifies 'salute,' as in Chapter 12, i, and 14, i. 

and [ 


■ ••-■•■ ;^^, ^i^^ (with various Other forms) the ' saluter,' 

is the name of the Ape who is seen in the vignettes of the papyri 
saluting the rising of the sun. See M. Naville's Todienbuch, I, 
plates 2 1 and 2 2 ; the Papyrus of Ani, plate 2 ; the Todienbuch of 
Lepsius, Chapters 16 and 126. 

I do not know how far it is correct to illustrate this undoubted 
origin of the Egyptian name for the Ape, as ' the saluting one,' by 
the following extract of a letter to Cuvier from M. Duvaucelle, about 
the Siamang apes in the neighbourhood of Bencoolen in Sumatra. 

"They assemble in numerous troops and thus united, they 

salute the rising and the setting sun with the most terrific cries, 
which may be heard at the distance of many miles ; and which, when 
near, stun, when they do not frighten. This is the morning call of 
the mountain Malays, but to the inhabitants of the town, who are 
unaccustomed to it, it is a most insupportable annoyance." 

In this place of the Book of the Dead the sign ^^ is a mere 

determinative of the sound ad7i with the notion of salutation, just as 
the sign ^o^ is a determinative of the sound ab with the notion 
of thirst. 


The ' saluters ' of the rising sun are neither real apes nor men 
but the " Spirits of the East " who, as we are told in an inscription of 
the tomb of Ranieses VI, " effect the rising of Ra by opening the door 
at each of the four portals of the eastern horizon of heaven. They 
it is who light him on both sides, and go forth in advance of him 
And when he arises they turn into six cynocephali."* 

The Egyptian words in the later texts are Ar ^. I ' nP<B ' 

V\ irQ I v\ A, the alternative reading 

being itself a proof that the difficulty of the text was already felt by 
some Egyptian scribe. 

But if the scribe had consulted the oldest texts accessible in his 
day, he would probably have seen another way out. Our oldest MS., 

that of Nebseni, reads, J fl "y^ ^^=^\ ^ >? fl 

bes-kua aim aad{n)u, which signify literally, "antecedunt me corda 

salutantium.' The word j 1 "^^ l><:s is a very common one in 

pictures representing the introduction of a king or a god into a 
temple. It is the technical term used in the Tablet of Canopus for 
the inducting, by the king, of priests into their offices. The subject 

of this verb is OO 0" hearts; an independent word, instead of being 

J— <.— ^ 
. The object of the verb is the 

speaker — ^^ — X) v\ ^ — kua, ' me,' as the papyrus Pa reads, like Aa. 

And it is easy to see how the later text, which is already found in 
Ax, has been corrupted out of the older. 


Chapter whereby the fimereal Statuettes may be made to do ivork 
for a person i?i the Nether^i'orld. 

O Statuette (i) there ! Should I be called and appointed to do 
any of the labours that are done in the Netherworld by a person 
according to his abilities, lo ! all obstacles have been beaten down 

* Champollion, Notices, torn. II, p. 640. 


for thee ; be thou counted for me at every moment, for planting the 
fields, for watering the soil, for conveying the sands of east and west. 
Here am I, whithersoever thou callest me. 


This chapter is inscribed on the funereal statuettes, of which 
enormous quantities are found ; sometimes by hundreds in the 
neighbourhood of a single mummy. Much information on the 
subject, both archaeological and philological, will be found in 
Mariette's Catalogue General des Momunents d'Abydos, p. 25 and 
following, and in M. Loret's articles "Les Statuettes. funeraires du 
Musee de Boulaq," published in the Recueil de Travaux, tomes IV 
and V. 


word being read usebti, has very naturally been considered as derived 

from "vN i— TC-i QA> i" Coptic OTtJOCy^ 'to answer.' For the 

statuette is addressed at the beginning of the chapter, and it replies 
at the end. But there is no reason for supposing that the earlier 
form had the same meaning. • 


Chapter of passing through the chine of Apepi which is void. 

Oh, One of Wax, (i) who takest captive and seizest with 
violence, and livest upon those who are motionless ! Let me not 
become motionless before thee, let me not be paralysed before thee, 
let not thy venoms enter into my limbs, for my limbs are the limbs 
of Tmu. 

And if thou wouldst not be paralysed, let me not be paralysed. 

Let not thy languors enter these limbs of mine. 

I am the One who presideth over the pole of Heaven, and the 
powers of all the gods are my powers. 

I am he, whose names are hidden, and whose abodes are 
mysterious for all eternity. 

It is I who proceed from Tmu, and I am safe and sound. (2) 



Apepi is the personification of the storm-cloud and, as such, is 
the enemy of Ra, by whom he is vanquished. As representing a 
natural phenomenon of irregular occurrence, he is not deified like 
Sutu, the Darkness of Night. 

On comparing this chapter with the 99th, it would appear that 
the occasion for reciting it is on the journey of the heavenly boat 
through ridges of cloud, which are pictured as the coils of a great 
serpent, and described as ^ ^[^ inanes, empty, void. In the 

papyrus of Nebket {Fe) the vignette shows the deceased person 
transfixing the dragon. The chapter itself was said over a wax 
figure of the demon. 

1. These wax figures of gods and other personages were used 
not only for ritual but for unlawful magical purposes. The Rollin 
papyrus reports about a criminal condemned to death for magical 

arts. He was charged with making | | | '""^^ X ° ' gods of wax,' 

and some men " for the purpose of paralysing the limbs of men 

& a S "'^'^ AA "^^^ '-^'^^ . VW^ r34." See Chabas, Papyrus 

Magique, p. 170, and Deveria, Pap. judiciaire de Turin, p. 131. 

2. The more recent texts omit this ending and substitute, " I 
know, I know." Some MSS. have both readings. 


. Chapter of openmg the Tuat by day. 

The Hour (i) discloseth what the head of Thoth keepeth close, 
who giveth might to the Eye of Horus. (2) 

And I call upon the Eye of Horus which gleams as an ornament 
upon the brow of Ra, the father of the gods. 

I am that Osiris, the Lord of Amenta, and Osiris knoweth his 
day, and that it is in his lot that he should end his being, and be no 
more. (3) 

I am Sutu, the father of the gods, the imperishable one. 

Stay, Horus, for he is counted among the gods. 



1. Time. Notes. 

2. See note on Chapter 17, 27. It must be sufficient here to 
say that Thoth is a personification of the moon, and that the 
relations of solar and lunar phenomena are the sources of a great 
deal of Egyptian mythology. 

3. This is one of the most difficult passages in the Book of the 
Dead, but I do not see how it can be grammatically understood 
otherwise. It is understood from the passage from Light to Darkness 
and the converse. 

'In his lot,' literally *in him.' 

' End his being ' : more strictly, * bring to an end his activity ' ; 
"^^ ^^ i ^^ . * Being ' (though inevitable in a modern language) 
is much too abstract a word for these ancient texts. ^^ implies 
'motion, activity,' and '^^^ is not a simple negation, but implies 
' completion, end ' (reXea-, Te'Xo?), though not ' cessation.' 

Our modern acceptation of the word ' perfect ' is often wrongly 

applied to ytrir . We should think rather of such phrases as ' annum 


perficere,' ' sole perfecto.' 


Chapter for opening the Tuat. 

Soul most mighty, (i) here am I : I am come to thee that I 
may see thee. 

1 open the Tuat that I may see my father Osiris and may drive 
away the darkness. 

I am he whom he loveth. I have come to see my father Osiris, 
to pierce the heart of Sutu, and to perform all duties to my father 

I open all the paths in heaven and upon earth. 

I am the son who loveth his father, and I am come as a 
mummied one, glorious and well equipt. 

Oh, all ye gods and goddesses, the path is made for me. 



I. "^i^ i I fl ,-^w-, 'Soul most mighty,' is one of the 

principal names of Osiris. The whole chapter is spoken in the 
person of Horus, the son of Osiris. 


Chapter for coming forth victoriously. 

I come forth victoriously against the adversaries. 

I cleave the heaven, I open the horizon and I travel over the 
earth on foot. There come forward to me the Glorious and the 
Great ones, for I am furnished with numberless Words of Might. 

I eat with my mouth, and I chew with my jaw ; for, lo, I worship 
the god who is Lord of the Tuat, and that is given to me which 
endureth amid overthrow. 


Chapter for coming out against the adversary in the Netherworld. 

Here is the Osiris N. 

Eater of his arm : away from his path ! 

1 am Ra coming forth from the horizon against his adversary, 
who shall not be delivered from me. 

I have stretched out my hand, as the Lord of the Crown, and 
lifted my feet. 

I shall not be given up ; my adversary shall fall before me ; he 
hath been given up to me and shall not be delivered from me. 

I rise up like Horus, I sit down as Ptah, I am victorious as 
Thoth, and powerful as Tmu : I walk upon my feet, I speak with 
my mouth, searching for him who hath been given up to me ; he 
shall not be delivered from me. 

D 2 



There is unfortunately no early text of this chapter, which we 
have in a very corrupt form, and can only restore conjecturally. 
The Eater of his arm is evidently Darkness, which is destroyed by 
the Sun. 


Chapter for entering and for coming forth out of the Netherworld. 

Salutation to thee, O Ra, who guardest the secrets of the 
gates (i) over this domain of Seb, and this Balance with which Ra 
raiseth up Maat(2) daily : 

Here am I, who cleave open (3) the earth, grant that I may 
come and acquire advance in age. (4) 


This chapter, like the next, occurs only in Pa among the older 
MSS. It comes twice in the Turin copy, being repeated as 
Chapter 120. 

1. So Pa ; the Turin copy has 'the Tuat.' 

2. In many places it is important to treat Maat as a proper 

3- j'^'^^^_/] °^ J^^"^' ^ ^^^^ "°' confined to 
agricultural operations. See note 20, p. 8. 

4. As the sun, who is represented as an infant at dawn and as 
an aged man at sunset 


Chapter for entering after coming out from Amenta. 

I enter as a Hawk and come forth as a Bennu (i) at Dawn. 

Let the way be made for me that I may adore Ra at the fair 
Amenta, and the locks (2) of Osiris. I urge on the hounds of Horus. 

Let the way be made for me that I may adore Osiris, the Lord 
of Life. 



This chapter, in the MSS. of which the Turin copy is the type, 
is repeated as Chapter 121, with the following rubric : — 

"Said over an ear-ring of the flower Anch-amu, put upon the 
right ear of the deceased person, with another ear-ring, put in fine 
linen, upon which is written the name of N, on the day of burial." 

1. The Bennu is a bird of the Heron kind. He is very com- 
monly but, I think, erroneously identified with the Phoenix. The 
bird described by Herodotus, H, 73, was in outline and size "very 
like an eagle," which no one could say of the Bennu. He appeared 
only once in five hundred years, whereas the Bennu appeared every 
day. The fable as told by the Greeks is utterly unsupported by any 
Egyptian authority known to us. 

2. This passage is, unfortunately, both in the ancient and the 
recent forms, corrupt. 


Chapter for removing displeasure from the heart of the god 
against the deceased person. 

Hail to thee, oh god who sendest forth (i) the Moment, who 
presidest over all the Secret things (2), and protectest the utterance 
of my words. 

Here (3) is a god displeased against me ; let wrong be over- 
whelmed and let it fall upon the hands of the Lord of Law, 
Remove (4) the impediments which are in me and the evil and the 
darkness (5), oh Lord of Law, and let that god be reconciled to me, 
removing that which detaineth me from thee. 

Oh, lord of offerings in Kenu (6), let me offer to thee the 
propitiary offering by which thou livest, and let me live by it and 
be reconciled. 

Let all the displeasure which is in thy heart against me be 


There is a very great difference between the earlier and the later 
texts of this chapter. Former translators, having chiefly the Turin 


text before them, have understood the title of the chapter as in- 
tended " to remove the impurities from the heart of the deceased 
person." The Turin text of the chapter is really unintelligible, and 
even in the earlier texts certain passages are so corrupt as to defy 

1. [~[] ^^, J J\ like the Latin 'mittere' has the sense of "let 
go, give free course, set at liberty." 

2. n^\ , the secrets, here as elsewhere in the funereal 
c^D _^ III' 

texts, are those of the tomb and of the world beyond the grave. 

3. The older texts have ( '^^^^^ , the later _ru. . 

4. The Lord of Law is in the singular, but the imperative 
' remove ' is in the plural. 

5. The word V ^v w-as a puzzle to the oldest transcribers. It 
is susceptible of different meanings. The Turin text V ^^^ j ^ 
<cr> ' the god is joined with Law,' which is supported by some 
of the older papyri, is intelligible in itself, but not in this context. 
I have understood 1 "^^ y '^^ > coming as it does after ^^^ ^ ■<^ , 

in the sense of Y ^>. uO "^X^ ' ^^^P darkness.' 

6. The MSS. differ hopelessly on this proper name. 


Hymn I (i). 

Adored he Ra, when he riseth up from the eastern Jiorhon of 
Heaven ; they who accompany him extol him. 

Here is the Osiris N, the Victorious, and he saith : — 

O thou radiant Orb, who arisest each day from the Horizon, 

shine thou upon the face of the Osiris iVwho adoreth thee at dawn, 

and propitiateth thee at the gloaming. 

Let the soul of N come forth with thee into heaven, let him 

journey in the Maatit boat and finish his course in the Sektit boat (2) 

till he reach in heaven unto the Stars which set (3). 


He saith, as he invoketh his Lord, the Eternal one : — 
Hail to thee, Horus of the Two Horizons (4), who art Chepera 
Self-originating (5) ; Beautiful is thy rising up from the horizon, 
enlightening the two Earths with thy rays. All the gods are in 
exultation when they see thee the King of Heaven, with the Nebt 
Unnut * established upon thy head (and the diadem of the South 
and the diadem of the North upon thy brow) which niaketh her 
abode in front of thee. 

Thoth abideth at the prow of thy bark that he may destroy all 
thine adversaries. 

They who dwell in the Tuat are coming forth to meet thy 
Majesty, and to gaze upon that beautiful semblance of thine. 

And I too come to thee that I may be with thee to see thine Orb 
each day ; let me not be detained, let me not be repulsed. 

Let my limbs be renewed by the contemplation of thy glories, 
like all thy servants, for I am one of those who honoured thee upon 

Let me reach the Land of Ages, let me gain the Land of 
Eternity ; for thou, my Lord, hast destined them for me. 

The Osiris N; he saith : — 

Hail to thee who risest up from the Horizon as Ra in union 
with Maat ; thou dost traverse heaven in peace and all men see thee 
as thou goest forward. And after being concealed from them thou 
presentest thyself at the dawn of each day. 

Brisk is the bark under thy Majesty. 

Thy rays are upon men's faces ; the golden glories they cannot 
be told : not to be described are thy beams. 

The Lands of the gods, the colours of Punit (6) are seen in them ; 
that men may form an estimate of that which is hidden from their 

Alone art thou when thy form riseth up upon the Sky ; let me 
advance as thou advancest, like thy Majesty, without a pause, O Ra, 
whom none can outstrip. 

A mighty march is thine ; Leagues by millions, and hundreds of 
thousands, in a small moment thou hast travelled them, and thou 
goest to rest. 

* One of the names of the Uroeus on the royal crown. 


Thou completest the hours of the Night, according as thou hast 
measured them out. And when thou hast completed them accord- 
ing to thy rule, day dawneth. 

Thou presentest thyself at thy place as Ra, as thou risest from 
the Horizon. 

The Osiris N, he saith, as he adoreth thee when thou shinest ; 
He saith to thee when thou risest up at dawn, as he exalteth thine 
appearance ; 

Thou comest forth, most glorious one, fashioning and forming 
thy limbs, giving birth to them without any labour, as Ra rising in 

Grant that I may attain to the Heaven of eternity and the abode 
of thy servants ; let me be united with the venerable and mighty 
Chu * of the Netherworld ; let me come forth with them to see thy 
glories, as thou shinest at the gloaming, when thy mother Nut (7) 
enfoldeth thee. 

And when thou turnest thy face to the West, mine hands are in 
adoration to thy setting as one who liveth ;t for it is thou who hast 
created Eternity. 

I have set thee in my heart unceasingly, who art more mighty 
than all the gods. 


The Osiris N, he saith : — 

Adoration to thee, who arisest out of the Golden, and givest light 
to the earth on the day of thy birth. Thy mother bringeth thee forth 
upon her hands, that thou mayest give light to the whole cir- 
cumference which the Solar Orb enlightenelh. 

Mighty Enlightener, who risest up in the Sky and raisest up the 
tribes of men by thy Stream, and givest holiday to all districts, 
towns and temples ; and raising food, nourishment and dainties. 

Most Mighty one, master of masters, who defendest every abode 
of thine against wrong. Most Glorious one in thine Evening Bark, 
Most Illustrious in thy Morning Bark. 

Glorify thou the Osiris N in the Netherworld, grant that he may 
come into Amenta without defect and free from wrong, and set him 
among the faithful and venerable ones. 

* ' The Glorious ones ' ; see Note i on Chapter I. 
t See note 11. 


Let him be united with the souls in the Netherworld, let him 
sail about in the country of Aarru * after a joyful journey. 
Here is the Osiris JV. 

Come forth into Heaven, sail across the firmament and enter 
into brotherhood with the Stars, let salutation be made to thee in 
the Bark, let invocation be made to thee in the Morning Bark. 
Contemplate Ra within his Ark and do thou propitiate his Orb 
daily. See the Ant fish in its birth from the emerald stream, and 
see the Abtu fish and its rotations. (8) 

And let the offender t fall prostrate, when he meditates destruction 
for me, by blows upon his back-bone. 

Ra springs forth with a fair wind ; the Evening Bark speeds on 
and reaches the Haven ; the crew of Ra are in exultation when they 
look upon him ; the Mistress of Life, her heart is delighted at the 
overthrow of the adversary of her Lord. 

See thou Horus at the Look-out of the ship, (9) and at his sides 
Thoth and Maat. All the gods are in exultation when they behold 
Ra coming in peace to give new life to the hearts of the Chu, and 
here is the Osiris iV along with them. 

[Litany]. (10) 
Adored be Ra^ as he seiteth in the Land of Life. (11) 

Hail to thee, who hast come as Tmu, and hast been the creator of 
the cycle of the gods, (12) 

Hail to thee, who hast come as the Soul of Souls, August one in 

Hail to thee, who art above the gods and who lightenest up the 
Tuat with thy glories. 

Hail to thee, who comest in splendour, and goest round in thine 

Hail to thee, who art mightier than the gods, who art crowned in 
Heaven and King in the Tuat, 

Hail to thee, who openest the Tuat and disposest of all its doors. 

* An abode of bliss (like the Elysian fields) frequently mentioned and 
described in the Book of the Dead. 

t The dragon Apepi. 


Hail to thee, supreme among the gods, and Weigher of Words in 

the Netherworld. 
Hail to thee, who art in thy Nest, and stirrest the Tuat with thy 

Hail to thee, the Great, the Mighty, whose enemies are laid prostrate 

at their blocks, 

Hail to thee, who slaughterest the Sebau and annihilates! Apepi, 

[Each invocation of this Litany is followed by] 

Give thou delicious breezes of the north wind to the Osiris A\ 

Horus openeth ; the Great, the Mighty, who divideth the earths, 
the great one who resteth in the Mountain of the West, and lighteneth 
up the Tuat with his glories and the Souls in their hidden abode, 
by shining into their sepulchres. 

By hurling harm against the foe thou hast utterly destroyed all 
the adversaries of the Osiris JV. 

HvMx n. (13) 

The Osiris iV^; he saith when he adoreth Ra, the Horus of the 
Two Horizons, when setting in the Land of Life. 

Adoration to thee, O Ra: Adoration to thee, O Tmu, at thy coming 
in thy beauty, in thy manifestation, in thy mastery. 

Thou sailest over the Heaven, thou travellest over earth and in 
splendour thou reachest the zenith ; the two divisions of Heaven are 
in obeisance to thee, and yield adoration to thee. 

All the gods of Amenta are in exultation at thy glory. They whose 
abodes are hidden adore thee, and the Great Ones make offerings 
to thee, who for thee have created the soil of earth. (14) 

They who are on the Horizon convey thee, and they who are in 
the Evening Bark transport thee, and they say — Adoration at the 
approach of thy Majesty, Come, Come, approach in peace. Oh to 
thee, Welcome, Lord of Heaven, King of Akerta. 

Thy mother Isis (15) embraceth thee, seeing in thee her son, as 
the Lord of Terror, the AU-Powerful, as he setteth in the Land of 
Life at night. 1 

Thy father Tatunen (16) carritth thee, and his arms are 
stretched out behind thee, and that which hath taken place is made 
fast upon earth. 


Wake up from thy rest, thine abode is in Manu. 
Let me be entrusted to the fidelity which is yielded to Osiris. 
Come, O Ra, Tmu, he thou adored. Do thy will daily. Grant 
success in presence of the cycle of the mighty gods. 

Beautiful art thou, O Ra, in thine Horizon of the West ; O Lord 
of Law, in the midst of the Horizon. 

Very terrible art thou, rich art thou in attributes, and great is thy 
love to those who dwell in the Tuat. 

To be said, when Rd sets in the Land of Life ; with hands bent 
do7vnward. (17) 

HvMN in. (18) 
Adoration to Tmu as he sefteth in the Land of Life. 

The Osiris N ; he saith : — 

Adoration to Tmu as he setteth in the Land of Life. 

The Osiris N ; he saith, adoring Tmu, when setting in the Land 
of Life and shedding his rays on the Tuat ; 

Hail to thee setting in the Land of Life, O Father of the gods, 
thou art united to thy mother in Manu. Her two hands receive thee 
daily. Thy Majesty hath part in the house of Sokaru. Exult thou 
because the doors are opened of the Horizon, at thy setting in the 
Mountain of the West. 

Thy rays, they run over the earth to enlighten the dwellers in 
Amenta. Those who are in the Tuat worship thee with loud acclaim, 
and cherish hope when they see thee daily. 

Thou grantest to the gods to sit upon the earth ; to those, 
namely, who follow thee and come in thy train. 

O august Soul, who begettest the gods, and dost invest them 
with thine attributes ; the Unknowable, the Ancient One, the Mighty 
in thy mystery. 

Be thy fair face propitious to the Osiris N, oh Chepera, Father 
of the gods (19). 

Freedom for ever from perdition is derived through this Book, 
and upon it I take my firm stand. 

E 2 


He hath written it who spake it, and his heart resteth on the 

Let there be given me armfuls of bread and drink, and let me 
be accompanied by this Book after my life. 


The fifteenth chapter as it stands in the later recension (repre- 
sented by the Turin Todtenbuch) is of ver}' recent origin. It is in 
fact a collection of texts originally independent of each other ; 
(i) a hymn to Ra at his rising, (2) a litany, (3) a hymn to Ra at his 
setting, (4) a hymn to Tmu at his setting, followed by a statement 
respecting the spiritual importance of the document. 

Of the last hymn there are no copies of ancient date, but the 
other three compositions are found more or less perfect as far back 
as the XlXth dynasty. The discrepancies, however, between 
the ancient texts furnish so much evidence of free composition on 
the part of the scribes, that it is impossible to suppose that they 
had before them documents recognised as sacred and canonical. 
M. Naville has found it necessar)' to publish four different forms of 
the hymn to the rising, and three of the hymn to the setting sun. 
The ideas and expressions throughout these hymns are current in 
the religious texts of the XVIIIth and XlXth dynasties. 

In the translation here given I have followed the form adopted 
by the later recension, correcting the text when necessary by the 
copies written in the better periods. 

1. The text of the Papyrus of Ani has been taken as the basis 
of the translation of Hymn I. It is the only ancient text which 
gives the hymn in the form subsequently acknowledged as canonical. 

2. l"he sun was represented from the earliest period, as we may 
see in the pyramid texts, as performing his celestial journey in a boat, 

which during the morning was called the Alddtit ^^^ ch^^j ^"-^. 

and in the evening the Sektit ^^^^^ ^,5 . 

^^^ <— =:a 
I ^= ' " <=> 

lY\ "^ ^/f I a/jmiu uretu. The stars which never set, but are always 
above the horizon were called [I __ I '^^ht ic ^ 1 d^miu seku. 


The word ahmiu has often been taken for a mere negative, but 
it occurs by itself with the sign of stars as a determinative 

'J^^ V I I I ' 4 , ^^^- ^"^ ^^^ ^'^o^e term is written 

^-icic. 1 \ '^ir:^ (Denkm. Ill, 271^ twice). 

As one of the meanings of / hem is vu'nuere, and as the 

ordinary meaning of the Demotic cl_ :b Us " small," like the Coptic 
cyoAX = \emhs, it is not improbable that the stars received this 
appellation on account of their tiny size as compared with the Sun 
and Moon. They were what Horace called the "ignes mifwres." 

The Sun and Moon, as we all know, are called in Gen. i, 16, 
the " Two Great Lights." 

4. Both the Eastern and the Western horizon are mentioned in 
this chapter, but " Horus of the Two Horizons," has no reference to 
this distinction. Whatever the Sun passes through or over is always 
conceived as double. The Tn'o Earths imply simply the Earth as 
divided by the passage of the Sun above it. It is to M. Grebaut 
that we are indebted for the discovery of this important key to many 
Eg}'ptian expressions. 

heper, like the German Werden, has primarily the sense 

of turning, hence of becoming. It never has the sense of creatin^r. 

w -h!^ heper t'esef is the equivalent of the Greek avro^fevij^, and 

like that word is sometimes used for spontaneous productions of the 
mineral kingdom, as salt or natron as contrasted with artificial pro- 
ducts of the same nature. It cannot be used for plants, as they have 
an origin in something external to themselves. 

6. The Land of the Gods a.n6. Funit dive ihe countries lying east 
of Egypt. When it is said that gods ' come from Punit,' it is not 
meant by this that they are of Arabian origin, but simply that Sun 
ISIoon, and Stars, and Daylight rise in the East. " Ex oriente Lux." 

7. In many places the divine name Nut has for determinative 
the sign t=-. — 1 . Is this an oversight on the part of the scribe, or is 
it one more proof that the Egyptians certainly believed in a sky 
below the horizon ? If so, I have never seen it misplaced. 


8. The Ant and the Abtu are sometimes represented by the side 
of the solar bark. From the egg of the Abtu there rises the great 
Cat, the Sun. It is, as M. I.oret has proved, the Tortoise of the Nile. 

As \\ ' iibtu, 'the month,' is phonetically homonymous with 

4 j] c-=^ %^ '^^ abtu, the Tortoise, and that the latter 



v^haracterised by , D ©, ' its rotation, revolving or turning,' 

the word abtu, whether applied to ' month ' or ' tortoise ' clearly 
signifies 'the revolving one.' Our modern words Tortoise, Tortue, 
Tortuga, rather express the turning or twisting of the creature's feet. 
In some texts, e.g., the inscriptions of Amenhotep, the son of Hapu, 
Mariette, Karnak, pi. 36, line 22, and at the beginning of the Ani 

Papyrus, the word is written T ^^^^ J abtu. In the later part 
of the Ani Papyrus it is written with the initial 'V' j . 

9. The Look-out of the ship, in Egyptian T [In , or more 

fully I ''^^'^^ nl, c^ nefrit, is written T ^ ^^ 1 in the Papyrus 

of Ani. This interesting variant is of extreme value. It not only 
explains a word, the very existence of which has been called in 
question, but tells us the Egyptian name for that seat of Horus at 
the prow of the Solar Bark about which I wrote a note in Proc. Soc. 
Bib. Arch, of Nov. 3, 1891. See the plates attached to the note, 
and the corresponding vignettes in Todtenbuch, PI. VI and IX. 

10. The Litany here translated is that of the Turin Todtenbuch. 
It is found, but in a very mutilated condition, in the Papyrus of 
Nechtuamon at Berlin {Ba), a manuscript of the XlXth dynasty. 

Another Litany, preceding Hymn I, is found in the Papyrus of 
Ani. It is addressed to " Osiris, the everlasting Lord, Unneferu, 
Horus of the Two Horizons, of many forms and mighty of attributes. 
Ptah Sakru, Tmu in Heliopolis, Lord of the Unseen World, who 
hath built up Memphis and its gods." 


" Hail to ihee, Chabasu * in Heliopolis, Hammeniit in Cher-abau, 
and Unta t more potent than the unseen gods in Heliopolis. 

Hail to thee, An in An . . . Horus in the Two Horizons, who 
extendeth his steps and traverseth the Heaven ; he is Horchuta ; 

Hail to thee, eternal Soul, Soul which is in Tattu, Unneferu, Son 
of Nut ; he is Lord of Acherta ; 

Hail to thee, as thou reignest in Tattu, the royal crown is fixed 
upon thy brow. Thou art the Only One, the author of his own 
attributes, thou restest in Tattu ; 

Hail to thee. Lord of Heracleopolis, for whom the Bark of Sokru 
is placed upon its sledge ; who repellest the Sebau, the doers of 
wrong; and who puttest the Ut'a/ into its place ; 

Hail to thee. Potent One, at thine appointed moment, Most 
Mighty One, Prince of An-arr-ef, Eternal Lord, author of 
eternity. Thou art the Lord of Suten-henen ; 

Hail to thee, who restest upon Maat ; Thou art the Lord of 
Abydos, thy limbs reach to Ta-tsert ; Thou art he who 
abominatest wrong ; 

Hail to thee, in the midst of thy Bark, who bringest the Nile from 
his fountain ; upon whose dead body the light shineth ; he is the 
One who is in Nechen ; 

Hail to thee, author of the gods, King of North and South, Osiris, 
the triumphant one, possessing the entire universe in his bene- 
ficent alternations ; He is the Lord of the Universe ; 

Grant me passage in peace. I am righteous, I speak not falsehood 
knowingly, I am not guilty of duplicity." 

* Boih Chabasu and Hamniernit have the sign of the plural, which may arise 
from the omission oi -mIw art above before the first of these words. Unfortunately 
we have no other copy to check the readings. But it is certain that the sign of 
plurality is often affixed to words which though in plural form (like the Latin 
nioeiiia, literae, tciiebrae) have a singular meaning. Chabasu means a lamp, and 
the stars, especially the decans, were called by this appellation. Hamiiieinit is 
the name given to those yet unborn. 

'^' Un-ta, signifies the god who assumes the face or form of a 

^^(i^e ^^^, just as Mau-tii signifies the god with the face or form of a Cat, 
Tehuta, the god with tlie head or form of an Ibis. 


II. •¥■ 'the Land of Life,' one of the names given to 

the realm of Osiris after death, is not, as far as I can discover, 
mentioned anywhere in the earUer MSS. of the Book of the Dead. 

Instead of "resting in the Land of Life," the older texts have 

'in Amenta' or ^ •¥• V\ ft o 'in life in 

r^^^^ .B^ 1 ® Ja^ I' r^-^^ 

Amenta,' or as ' one living, in Amenta.' 



■ III ■ "^^^ word \^ />ai implies going round like 

a wheel or in a circle ; ^ <=::=> <rz> y J] ' going round on 

^m O I 'I A ^ I) V I 

high with the Sun.' Hence the use of it as synonymous with |-,"q, 

in the expressions "W = — « — ' never ' and aK A\ ^ = 

^, 'the first time, the beginning of time, prima vice.^ A 

sacrificial cake is called Ax' ^^ ^:v (Z?^«/^;«., II, 28)onaccountof 

its shape, like the Latin rotimdula, also written Ax' n ^1 . 

And, like the Greek atukXo?, the word comes to signify a circle of 
persons. This circle is not necessarily of gods. The Bremner 
Papyrus in the British Museum (14, line 8), says an apage not only 
to Apepi, who was no god, and to his soul and body, and ghost and 
shadow and children, and to his kith and kin, but, also to his 

^^ \^ ASv ) that is all associated with him, " ceux de son 


That '•^'^ws \^^^ should express the ' feast of the New Moon ' is 

only natural, though Lepsius has pointed out serious difificulties on 
the subject. 

But ^ also expresses the number nine. Whence in this relation 

arises the Egyptian conception of the number nine? Is it the round 
(we should say the 'square') number, three times three ? It certainly 
is merely a round number in many instances, but what is still more 
certain is that the same expression meaning ' circle of gods ' and 
' nine gods,' the circle was supposed to consist of nine gods, and 
was enlarged to companies of eighteen or twenty-seven. It is, I am 
sure, perfectly idle work to look for more profound reasons for the 


theory of the 'Ennead.'* Every god of importance had his 
^ I i,t and the best theory that has ever been given is that given at 
the beginning of Chapter 17, 

13. The Turin text seems better adapted for the basis of a trans- 
lation of Hymn II than the older papyri. These have been used 
for checking the later text whenever possible. 

14. A difficult passage, but the readings are unanimous. What 
is °^^^ ? Brugsch translates it " the Talisman of the Earth," and 
Pierret "le salut de la terre." No objection can be raised against 
the truth of either of these meanings taken by itself. But we have 
to look at the entire context. The expression literally signifies " the 
back of the earth." In Latin we say sinus, gremiuin and viscera terrae. 

The Egyptians themselves talk of the back of Seb, \~^ ^^ , out 

of which the plants grow, and in a place quoted by Duemichen 

{Zeitschrift, 187 1, p. 92, note) ^ '^ ^« the Earth, is substituted for 

Seb. I believe then that , °8M8<^ is best translated by Soil of the Earth. 

15. Thy mother Isis. So Ba. The Turin text has Nut, which 
is inconsistent with what follows. 

t6. La gives Tatunen ; Af, Tunen; the Turin recension Tanen, 
names belonging to the god also called Ptah, Sokru and Osiris. 
See the inscriptions in Mariette's Abydos, I, pi. 16, 6, on the Tat 

Horus, the son of Osiris and Isis, seems to be here addressed. 
17. This rubric does not occur in the older MSS. 

* I am deeply grieved that in my conversation and correspondence with- 
Goodvi'm {see ray Miscellaneous Notes on Egyptian Philology, p. 15), I hit upon 
' Ennead ' as a translation of ^. Goodwin took it up, and it has since been 
productive of much mischief. The word in itself (like Triad), is perfectly 
innocent and correct, yet every word has its ' cycle ' of associations, and some of 
them lead the unwary astray. I had just been lecturing on Plotinus when 
Goodwin asked me for the word. 


t The yi;««; children of Horus are called {Teinpelins., I, 41, i) ^TnH 


1 8. This hymn has not yet been found in the older MSS. 
A text carefully corrected from the papyri of the Louvre will be 
found in M. Lefebure's Traduction co/nparee des Hymnes au Soleil 
composant le XV^ chapitre du Ritual Funeraire Egyptien. Paris, 1868. 

19. 'Chepera, father of the gods.' Expressions like this are 
liable to be misunderstood by superficial readers. They are not 
meant to imply that ' father of the gods ' was the special attribute of 
Chepera. 'Father of the gods' is predicated in Chapter 8 of 
Sutu, and it is predicated elsewhere of many other divinities. As in 
mathematics any point in space may be conceived as the origin of a 
given line or surface, so in Egyptian mythology any god may be 
rightly called the father of the gods. And for the same reason. The 
Day precedes the Night, but not more truly than Night precedes, or 
in mythological language gives birth to Day. But we may begin at 
Daybreak, or at Noon, or at Sunset, or with the Sun or the Moon, 
or with the rising of the Nile or any other natural phenomenon 
which obeys an evidently permanent fixed Law. 

Chapter XVL 

When Lepsius divided the Todtetihuch into 165 chapters, that 
portion of it which was numbered as Chapter 16, was in fact merely 
the Vignette of Chapter 15. 

It has been thought well to publish with this translation the 
Vignettes from the great Papyrus La of Leyden, representing a, the 
Rising ; and ^, the Setting Sun. (See plates.) 

In a the Sun is represented as rising into Heaven, saluted by the 
six Cynocephalous Apes. He is also saluted by two goddesses 
kneeling. In the Papyrus of Hunefer these goddesses say, " I am 
thy sister Isis," " I am thy sister Nephthys." The Tat u which is 
between them is a symbol both of Osiris and of the East, and in Ba 
is replaced by the sign 4. In the later periods the Dawn was 

represented by the sign j| I'Tj consisting of the Sun rising out of the 
East, between Isis and Nephthys. The sign of Life •¥■ dnh (which 



Chapter XVI. 

A. — TiiG RisiNx; .Sun, 
Papyrus, Leyden Museum, II. 

See Navjij.e's "Book of the ])cn(l,'' I. PL 21. 



B.— The Sun. 
Papyrus, Leyden Museum. 

See Naville's " Book of tlie Dead,'" I, Tl. 22. 


primarily means rise up) rises out of the Tat, and with hands pro- 
ceeding from it raises up the Sun. 

In b the central object is the Sun setting in the West w- He 

is saluted by three hawk-headed and by three jackal-headed divinities, 
the Spirits of Pu and of Nechen. Below this scene the Sun of 
Yesterday and the Sun of To-day in lion forms are saluted by Isis 
and Nephthys. 


Chapter whereby one cometh forth by day out of the Netherworld. 

Let the words be said : 

I am he who closeth and he who openeth, and I am but One (1). 

I am Ra at his first appearance. 
I am the great god, self-produced ; 
His Names together compose the cycle of the gods ; 
Resistless is he among the gods. (2) 

I, who am Osiris, am Yesterday and the kinsman of the Morrow. (3) 
A scene of strife arose among the gods when I gave the 
command. (4) 

Amenta is the scene of strife among the gods. 
I know the name of the great god who is here. 
Herald * of Kft is his name. 

I am the great Heron who is in Heliopolis, who presideth over 
the account of whatsoever is and of that which cometh into being. (5) 

"Who is that P It is Osiris who presideth over the account of all that is 
and all that cometh into being, that is Endless Time and Eternity. 
Endless Time is Day and Eternity is Night. 

I am Amsu in his manifestations ; there have been given to me 
the Two Feathers upon my head. (6) 

"Who is that, and what are his Feathers ? It is Horus, the avenger of 
his father, and the Two Peathers are the Urasi upon the forehead of 
his father Tmu. (7) 

I have alighted upon my Land, and I come from my own Place. 

* \ ^ ^ 1" J ' i ™ ^\^^ praeco7iiuvi, praeco. 

F 2 


"What is that ? It is the Horizon of my father Tmu. 

All defects are done away, all deficiencies are removed, and all 
that was wrong in me is cast forth. 

I am purified at the two great and mighty Lakes at Sutenhunen, 
which purify the offerings which living men present to the great god 
who is there (8). 

"Who is that? It is Ri himself. 

"Which are the two great and mighty Lakes ? The Lake of Natron and 
the Lake of Maat (9). 

I advance over the roads, which I know, and my face is on the Land 
of Maat. 

"What is that ? The road upon which father Tmu advanceth, when 
he goeth to the Field of Aarru, approaching to the land of Spirits in 

I come forth through the Teser gate. 

"WTiat is that ? This gate of the gods is Haukar. It is the gate and 
the two doors and openings, through which father Tmu issueth to the 
Eastern Horizon of Heaven. (10) 

ye who have gone before ! Let me grasp your hands, me 
who become one of you. 

"WTio are they? Those who have gone before are Hu and Sau. May 
I be with their father Tmu, throughout the course of each day. (11) 

1 make full the Eye when it waxeth dim on the day of battle 
between the two Opponents. (12) 

"What is that? The battle of the two Opponents is the day upon 
which Horus fighteth with Sut, when he flingeth his filth upon the 
face of Horus, and when Horus seizeth upon the genitals of Sut, for 
it is Horus who doeth this with his own fijigers. 

I lift up the hairy net from the Eye at the period of its 
distress. (13) 

What is that? The right Eye of Ka in the period of its distress when 
he giveth it free course, and it is Thoth who lifteth up the net from it. 

I see Ra, when he is born from Yesterday, at the dugs of the 

Mehurit cows? (14) His course is my course, and conversely 

mine is his. 

"What is that? Rfl. and his births from Yesterday at the dugs of the 
Mehurit cows ? It is the figure of the Eye of Ea, at his daily birth. And 
Mehurit is the Eye. 

I am one of those who are in the train of Horus. 


"What is that—' one of those in the train of Horus ' ? Said with re- 
ference to whom his Iiord loveth. 

Hail, ye possessors of Maat, divine Powers attached to Osiris, who 
deal destruction to falsehood, ye who are in the train of Hotepes- 
chaus, grant me that I may come to you. Do ye away the wrong 
which is me, as ye have done to the Seven Glorious ones, who 
follow after the Coffined one, and whose places Anubis hath fixed 
on that day of ' Come thou hither ' ! 

Hotepeschaus is the divine Flame which is assigned to Osiris for burn- 
ing the souls of his adversaries. I know the names of the Seven Glorious 
ones who follow the Coffined one, and whose places Anubis hath fixed 
on the day of ' Come thou hither.' The leader of this divine company, 

' An-ar-ef, the Great ' is his name ; 2, Kat-kat ; 3, the Burning 
Bull, who liveth in his fire ; 4, the Red-eyed one in the House of 
Gauze ; 5, Fieryface which turneth backwards ; 6, Dark Face in 
its hour ; 7, Seer in the Night. (15) 

I am he whose Soul resideth in a pair of gods. 

It is Osiris, as he cometh to Tattu, and there flndeth the soul of Ra ; 
each embraceth the other, and becometh Two Souls. 

The pair of gods are Horus, the Avenger of his Father, and Horus, 
the Prince of the City of Blindness. 

I am the great Cat, who frequenteth the Persea tree in Helio- 
polis, on that night of battle wherein is effected the defeat of 
the Sebau, and that day upon which the adversaries of the Inviolate 
god (16) are exterminated. 

"Who is that great Cat? It is Ea himself. For Sau said. He is the 
likeness (Maau) of that which he hath created, and his name became that 
of Cat (Maau). (17) 

The night of conflict is the defeat of the children of Failure at 
Elephantine. There was conflict in the entire universe, in heaven and 
upon the earth. 

He who frequenteth the Persea tree is he who regulateth the children 
of Failure, and that which they do. 

O Ra, in thine Egg, who risest up in thine orb, and shinest from 
thine Horizon, and swimmest over the firmament without a peer, 
and sailest over the sky ; whose mouth sendeth forth breezes of 
flame, lightening up the Two Earths with thy glories, do thou 
deliver JV from that god whose attributes are hidden, whose eye- 
brows are as the arms of the Balance upon that day when outrage 
is brought to account, and each wrong is tied up to its separate 
block of settlement. 


The god whose eyebrows are as the arms of the Balance is "he who 
lifteth up his arm." * 

Deliver me from those Wardens of the Passages with hurtful 

fingers, attendant upon Osiris. 

The "Wardens of Osiris are the Powers who keep off the forces of the 
adversaries of Bd.. 

May your knives not get hold of me ; may I not fall into your 
shambles, for I know your names ; my course upon earth is with Ra 
and my fair goal is with Osiris. Let not your offerings be in my dis- 
favour, oh ye gods upon your altars ! I am one of those who follow 
the Master, a keeper of the writ of Chepera. 

I fly like a Hawk, I cackle like the Smen-Goose, I move eternally 
like Nehebkau. (i8) 

Oh Tmu who art in the Great Dwelling, Sovereign of all the 

gods, deliver me from that god who liveth upon the damned ; whose 

face is that of a hound, but whose skin is that of a man ; at that angle 

of the pool of fire ; devouring shades, digesting human hearts and 

voiding ordure. One seeth him not. 

This god whose face is that of a hound and whose skint is that of a 
man: Eternal Devourer is his name. (19) 

Oh Fearful one, who art over the Two Earths, Red god who 
orderest the block of execution ; to whom is given the Double 
Crown and Enjoyment as Prince of Sutenhunen. 

It is Osiris to whom was ordained the Leadership among the gods, upon 
that day when the Two Earths were united before the Inviolate god. 

The junction of the Two Earths is the head of the coffin of Osiris 
[whose father is Rat] the beneficent Soul in Sutenhunen, the giver of food 
and the destroyer of wrong, who hath determined the paths of eternity. 

It is Ka himself. 

Deliver me from that god who seizeth upon souls, who con- 
sumeth all filth and corruption in the darkness or in the light : all 
those who fear him are in powerless condition. 



* The god who lifteth up his arm is 

(J V \*v ^^\^ anevi 'skin,' according to Horhotep and the first 

coffin of Mentuhotep at Berlin. But the second coffin of Mentuhotep has already 
^^^^ \ \b> ^^:^ atihu ' eyebrows,' which afterwards becomes the received 
reading. It is that of Queen Mentuhotep. 
J An interpolation in the text of Horhotep. 


This god is Sut. 

Oh Chepera, who are in the midst of thy bark and whose body is 
the cycle of the gods for ever ; deliver me from those inquisitorial 
Wardens to whom the Inviolate god, of Glorious Attributes, hath 
given guard over his adversaries, and the infliction of slaughter in 
the place of annihilation, from whose guard there is no escape. May 
I not fall under your knives, may I not sit within your dungeons, 
may I not come to your places of extermination, may I not fall into 
your pits ; may there be done to me none of those things which the 
gods abominate ; for I have passed through the place of purification 
in the middle of the Meskat, for which are given the Mesit and the 
Tehenit cakes in Tanenit. 

The Meskat is the place of scourging in Sutenhunen, the Tehenit is the 
Eye of Horus .... Tanenit is the resting place of Osiris. (20) 

Tmu buildeth thy dwelling, the Lion-faced god layeth the founda- 
tion of thy house, as he goeth his round. Horus offereth purification 
and Sut giveth might, and conversely. 

I have come upon this earth and with my two feet taken posses- 
sion. I am Tmu and I come from my own Place. 

Back, oh Lion with dazzling mouth, and with head bent forwards, 
retreating before me and my might. 

I am Isis and thou findest me as I drop upon my face the hair 
which falleth loosely on my brow. 

I was conceived by Isis and begotten by Nephthys. Isis 
destroyeth what in me is wrong, and Nephthys loppeth off that 
which is rebellious. 

Dread cometh in my train and Might is in my hands. Number- 
less are the hands who cling fast to me. The dead ones and the 
living come to me. I defeat the clients of mine adversaries, and 
spoil those whose hands are darkened. 

I have made an agreeable alliance. I have created the in- 
habitants of Cher-abat and those of Heliopolis. (21) And every god 
is in fear before the Terrible, the Almighty one. 

I avenge every god against his oppressor, at whom I shoot my 
arrows when he appeareth. 

I live according to my will. 


I am Uat'it, the Fiery one. (22) 

And woe to them who mount up against me ! 

What is this? " Of unknown attributes, which Hemen (23) hath 
given " is the name of the Funereal Chest. " The Witness of that 
which is Hfted " is the name of the Shrine. 

The Lion with dazzhng mouth and with head bent forwards is the 
Phallus of Osiris [otherwise of Ra]. 

And I who drop the hair which hath loosely fallen upon my 
Ijrow— I am Isis, when she concealeth herself; she hath let fall her 
hair over herself. 

Uat'it the Fiery is the Eye of Ra. 

They who mount up against me, woe to them, they are the 
associates of Sut as they approach. (24) 


The seventeenth chapter is one of the most remarkable in the 
whole collection, and it has been preserved from times previous to 
the Xllth dynasty. The very earliest monuments which have 
preserved it have handed it down accompanied with scholia and 
other commentaries interpolated into the text. Some of the monu- 
ments enable us to some extent to divide the original text from the 
additions, in consequence of the latter being written in red. But 
there is really only one text where the additions are suppressed, 
and which therefore offers the most ancient form, as far as we know 
it, of the chapter. This is the copy on the wall of the tomb of 
Horhotep. The sarcophagus itself of Horhotep contains a copy of 
the text along with the additions. The chapter must already at the 
time have been of the most venerable antiquity. Besides these two 
copies of the chapter we have those from the sarcophagi of Hora and 
Sit-Bastit (published, like those of Horhotep, by M. Maspero*), two 
from the sarcophagi of Mentuhotep, and one from that of Sebek-aa 
(the three latter published by Lepsius in his Aelteste Texte). The 
British Museum has Sir Gardner Wilkinson's copy of the texts 
inscribed on the coffin of Queen Mentuhotep of the Xlth dynasty, 
and also a fragment (6636 a) of the coffin of a prince named Hornefru. 
Here then we have an abundance of witnesses of the best period. 
They unfortunately do not agree. The progress of corruption had no 

* Mission archeologique Fran^aise au Caire, 1 1. 


Papyrus, Trinity C ollege, Dublin, IV. 


Chapter XVII. 

a. Berlin Museum. No. 1470. 
/'. British Museum. No. 9901. 

See Naville, " Book of the Dead," I, Plate. 


doubt begun long before, and the variants are not simply differences 
of orthography but positively different readings. The differences 
however are chiefly in the scholia. Even when the explanations of 
the text are identical, the form differs. The latest recensions 

have retained the form D ^ \ I ^ ; the ancient added 

the feminine n \\ \ 1^. ir/m/ is thati But some of 

the ancient texts give the equivalent words j^ ^4° j^» 'i"tl 
Horhotep does without them altogether. These words were evidently 
additions not merely to the text but to the scholia. 

The text of the chapter grew more and more obscure to readers, 
and the explanations hitherto given were so unsatisfactory as to call 
for others. The texts of the manuscripts of the new empire furnish 
a good deal of fresh matter, much of which is extremely ancient, 
though the proof of this is unfortunately lost through the disastrous 
condition of literature in the period preceding the XVIIIth dynasty. 
The XVIIIth dynasty and its immediate successors inherited but 
did not invent the new form of the Book of the Dead, with its 
succession of vignettes, which however differing in detail bear the 
stamp of a common traditional teaching. The manuscripts of a later 
period bear witness, with reference to this as well as to other chapters, 
to a recension of an authoritative kind. The text becomes more 
certain though perhaps not either more true or more intelligible, 
and the notes and explanations have here reached their fullest extent. 

It would take an entire volume to give the translations of all the 
forms the chapter has assumed. It must be sufficient here to give 
the earliest forms known to us of the text and of the first commentaries. 
These are printed in characters which show the difference between 
text and later additions ; all of which, it must be remembered, are of 
extreme antiquity — some two thousand years before any probable 
date of Moses. 

Explanations or other interesting matter occurring in the manu- 
scripts of the later Empire will be referred to in the notes. 

The title in the early copies is the simple one here heading the 
chapter. In those which begin at the XVIIIth dynasty the title is 
very like that given for the first chapter. The chief additions are 
that the deceased person " takes every form that he phases, plays 
draughts, and sits in a hnver, conies /o^th as a soul living after death, 
and that what is done upon earth is glorified." 



I. It would be difficult for us to imagine that the very remarkable 
opening of the chapter is an addition. Yet it is unknown to the 
primitive recension on the walls of Horhotep's tomb, though found 
everywhere else. The texts however which contain it do not agree. 
" I am He who closeth, and He who openeth, and I am but One." 

' He who closeth ' is v^^r ^ Tmu, * He who openeth ' ^^ Unen. 

As the god who closes and who opens is one and the same, ' I am 
but One,' is a very natural ending of the sentence, and for its sense 
the whole may appeal to classical, and higher than classical, authority. 

" Modo namque Patulcius idem 
Et modo sacrifico Clusius ore vocor."* 

" I am Alpha and O, the beginning and the ending, saith the 
Lord." t 

The meaning of the Egyptian is quite plain, but the readings 
most probably through the absence of determinatives in the 
oldest style are somewhat different. Horhotep and other texts have 

s v\ -^^ vA , apparently as one word (compounded of /w« 

and U7ien\ which may signify the ' closer and opener,' but Sebek-aa and 

later texts have v ^^\ ^ ^^v ^^ ^- The papyrus of Nebseni 

has ^^ ¥.^ , in the third person, which does not alter the meaning, 

but this is quite an isolated reading. The later recension, as represented 

by the Turin Todtenbuch and the Cadet papyrus, has ^^ Jj, which 

only prominently brings forward, what is implied in all the other 
texts, that the Opener is a god.| The absence of the determinative 

after ^^ is no objection to the sense 'opener,' especially after 


>pj— u ^. It is absolutely necessary when dealing with mythology 
to look to physical rather than to metaphysical meanings. I have 
sufficiently discussed the meanings of the word ^^ in my essay on 
the Myth of Osiris Unnefer. 

* Ovid, Fast, I, 129, 130. t Apocalypse i, 8. 

X The last form of the chapter (as found in the hieratic papyrus T. 16 of 
Leyden, and others in the British Museum) changes the opening as follows — " I 
am Atmu, who made the Sky and created all that hath come into being." 


Chapter XV. 


Horus at the Look-out of the Ship. 


The later recensions add an interpolation (not without very dif- 
ferent readings) to the effect that the Sun made his first appearance 
when Shu raised the Sky from the height of Chemennu, where he 

destroyed the ' Children of Failure '(nil j 1 1 (m\ I. 

The raising of the Sky by Shu is very frequently represented in 
pictures. Seb (the Earth) and Nut (the Sky) have been sleeping in 
each other's arms during the night ; Shu (Daylight at sunrise) parts 
them, and the sky is seen to be raised high above the earth. 

j^ J], Shu, who is of course the son of Ra, is in consequence 

of this act called |\ Jj An-/ieru, 'The Lifter up of the Heaven.' 

Chemennu is the geographical name of the town called by the 
Greeks Hermopolis. The mystical Chemennu, however, is alone 
referred to in this place. The word itself means Eight, and Lepsius 
sees here a reference to eight elementary deities. (We must remem- 
ber that the passage itself is an interpolation, of which there is no 
trace in the older texts.) 

The ' children of Failure ' [ J ^^ (^ %^ , J ^"^^ /^ , de_^cere, 

dissolvi,deliquium*) are the elements of darkness which melt away and 
vanish at the appearance of Day. This mythological expression here 
found in an interpolated passage is met later on in a genuine portion 
of the older text. 

2. It would be impossible to find a more emphatic assertion of 
the doctrine of Nomina Numina ; and that more than 3000 years 
before Christ. 

The Names of Ra, the Sun-god, are said, when taken together, 

to compose 'the cycle of the gods.' ] | !• Or the names 

which he has created, to which he has given rise, that is the names of 
all the solar phenomena, recurring as they do, day after day, to the 
eyes of all beholders, compose " the cycle of the gods," who are also 
called the limbs or members of Ra. 

The scholia contained in the papyri of the XVIIIth and later 
dynasties explain the text as follows : — 

Jf X o o o in the historical inscriptions isjust like the Greek 

yv'ia \t\vi'Tu, \vro yoinara KUi (plKov rjTop, 

G 2 


" It is Ra as he creates the names of his limbs ( c^ ) which 

become the gods who accompany him." 

And the present chapter later on says of Chepera, the rising 
Sun, that the "cycle of the gods is his body." 

The god who has hitherto been spoken of is Ra. In glaring con- 
tradiction to the whole text, a later note states that the resistless god 

is "the Water, which is Nu"; that is Heaven. wv^ ^ Nu 

is not alluded to at all in the primitive text, but the papyrus of 
Nebseni already exhibits the corruption of the fine passage, " I am 
he who closeth and he who openeth, and I am but One." This is 
itself an addition, the true meaning of which was afterwards destroyed 

by the interpolation of the words V\ 'vaaaaa /H . These are 

ambiguous. They might mean that the god was alone ' in heaven,' 
or that he was alone ' as Heaven.' The papyrus of Ani has 

vg^ ^^^ , ^'^'^ r^) "I ^vas born from Nu." These 

attempted improvements do not give a favourable impression of the 
exegetical acumen of Egyptian theologians. 

But the mention of 'Water' in the scholionhas nothing whatever 
to do with the doctrine of Thales, and to suppose that it has implies 
a confusion between two very different realms of human thought. 

3. ' The kinsman of the Morrow,' literally ' I know the Morrow. 

The word ® signifies can, ken, and kin. 

The papyrus of Nebseni and all the subsequent texts give the 
explanation that Yesterday means Osiris, and the Morrow means Ra. 
And the vignette in the papyrus of Ani gives the name of Yesterday 
to one of the Lions and of Morrow to the other. 

4. The earliest texts have either ^°^ ' speak,' or | V^ 'com- 
mand.' The meaning is the same in both readings. Strife arose 
among the gods at the bidding ofRa: that is every force in nature 

* It is certain that from the earliest times Heaven as ^C\ Q 1 "^i^^Z^ "^^^ 

' the Great Weeper,' was considered as the source of life to gods and men. But 
myths must not lie mixed. One must not be considered as the explanation of 


began its appropriate career of activity, necessarily coming into con- 
tact and conflict with the other forces. And of all this collision the 
first cause, the origin of all activity and motion, is the Sun. 

This mythological cosmology reminds one of the saying of 
Heraclitos that " Strife is the father and the king of all things," and 
the doctrine that all becoming must be conceived as the product 

of warring Opposites — TrduTU /car epiv -^iveaOai. 

^^ hennu, the numerous 

pictures of which enable us to identify it with the Common Heron 
or Heronshaw. The reason for connecting this bird with the Sun- 
god has to be sought m the etymology of its name. J j^ ben is a 
verb of motion, and particularly of ' going round.' J ^^^^^^ benenu is 
a ring, also a ' round pill.' The Sun therefore is very naturally 
called bennu, an appellative like KVKkoi\iKTo<s in the Orphic hymns. 

^^''^^ ^^ , ' of that which is, and of that which cometh into 

being.' Here, as in many other places, ^^, which is a verb of 
motion, and really signifies 'rise up, spring forth,' is pointedly dis- 
tinguished from ^ ^, that which (is). So far from signifying 
' being, that which is,' it very much more nearly corresponds to ^'^ 

in the frequent expression ^ \\'^^\, 'that which is and that which 
is not yet.' The sense of 'good being' so commonly given to the 
divine name Unnefer is utterly erroneous. 

6. The reading of the name ^^ is proved by the numerous 
variants of this passage to be Amsu. In M. Naville's edition, II, 
pi. 41, the name, as written in Ce, would seem to be "li" ^ i| dm. 
But I already in Zeitschr., iStj (p. 98) pointed out, that in this 
manuscript the last sign ^ is at the top of a column, and 
that at the foot of the preceding column there is a space where 
the signs \\ , following "||" ^ (as they still do in the next passage), 
have been obliterated. No one from merely looking at M. Naville's 
copy would guess that there was any interval between ^ and S\ ■ 

The god's name is written Q ^ i] on a tablet, Denkm. Ill, 

114 i. And the name is also written ~rr or 1 1 , which are 

ligatures of 

-j|- and ri 


7. Note that in this scholion Horus, ' the avenger of his father,' 
calls his father not Osiris but Tmu. In the more recent texts there 
are many interpretations of the two Feathers. One is " his two Eyes 
are the Feathers." But the favourite one is " Isis and Nephthys, who 

have risen up as two kites " 

8. The *^^^^ [|[j ^ ^^ oi^ rehit, by whom the oblation is made, 
the present generation as contrasted with the Q ^ (j[| |y| pdit, the 
past, and ^ ^^ (ft ^^'^'f^"^^""^^ the coming generations. 

N\ if^i^ 

Mdaaait is supposed to be nitre or 

salt, or some other substance used in the process of embalming. 

The more recent recensions thus answer the question about the 
lakes. '■'■Eternity is the name of one, and the Great green one that 
of the other, the lake of Natron and the lake of Maat." 

ID. See the picture of this gate on the Vignette, which shows the 
Sun-god passing through. One of the later explanations is that from 
this gate Shu raised up Heaven. Another is that it was the gate of 

the Tuat. Haukar, ^JK ^^, r^ , means " behind the 


Ti. Hu and Sau, sons of Tmu, and his companions in the Solar 
bark, are, like so many other gods, Solar appellatives. | ^ <s= ^ 
Hu is the Nourisher, ^^ \J^ ^ ^^^^^ ' the Knowing One.' The 
god is also called 'the Seer' ^^ , and 'He who heareth' i^ i£). 
These names are not personifications of the senses but, as in all 
cases, appellatives expressing attributes. 

12. See Note 2 on Chapter 4. 

13. The Eye ("vN | "^ ^^) ^eing the Sun or Moon, the 

I i ^$-rj) is that of obscuration or eclipse, 

and the hairy net ( -^ iIl ) which is removed is the shadow 

V/vwvvA 000/ 

which passes for a time over the heavenly body. 


17. It is most probable that the Cat became the representative of 
the Sun because of the homonymy between the Egyptian name 

A ^ v* IkX" ^'^^" °^ ^^^ animal and the attributive _^^ X^ m »ia?<, 
' shining ' said of the Sun. But the Egyptian scribe gives a different 
etymological explanation. Sau said of Ra " he is V /naau of what 
he hath made." Q 1 "^^y' ^^^^ '^^ Latin exemplar, be either the type 
or the prototype, the copy or the original. The creatures of Ra 
were made after his likeness. Sanskrit literature, from the ^atapatha 
Brahmana down to the Vishnu Purana, is full of similar etymologies. 
The Egyptians from the very first delighted in this play upon words. 

18. Nehebu-kau, ^y^lJyiia^ or^JtjB^ 
is the son of Seb and Renenut. The etymology of the name is indi- 
cated in the Pyramid texts. 7\ x j v\ fiehbu is to ' carry, sustain, 

support ' (whence TN. jM^ nehbet a neck, and ^v\ Q 1 -o:-^ 

iiehb a yoke), and the rest of the word is the plural of ka, which is 
susceptible of more than one meaning. It might signify the divine or 
human /^a, but the word is sometimes {e.g., Todt., 125, 32) written 
\^\ 'victuals.' The god is one of the forty-two judges of the dead, 
and in some copies of the Book of the Dead he is described as 
coming forth from his ^ | r— ,, a word most frequently used for the 
source of the Nile. The serpent ^HH^, which is a most frequent 
determinative of the name, is an additional reason for identifying 
this god with the Nile : a conclusion which seems fully justified 

by the Pyramid texts, which speak of him as Water a/vwv\ , and 


describe him as \\ <^4. a V\ J j* , " of many windings." 

(See Pepi I, 341 and 487.) 

19. This Devourer has the same functions as the strange animal 

called ^^. fl V\ ^^ ^ J^ Amemit in the pictures of the Psycho- 

Stasia. The later scholia add that the Devourer comes from the 
'basin of Punit,' the Red sea. They add other names, 


Mates ' Flint,' "stationed at the gate of Amenta," and j <^^^ 



The explanation which M. Maspero has recently given (P.S.B.A. 

XIV, xiA of the word \> I V\ ^^ , as connected with 

\^ \ k\ - ' health,' receives confirmation from the scholia in 

the papyri, according to which Thoth not only delivered the Eye 
from the veil of darkness which oppressed it, but carried it off 

■?- I n '^^ ] O ^^ ^^ ' in life, health and strength, with- 

out any damage.' 

14. Mehurit is explained in the ancient scholion as 'the Eye,' 
but it is really the Sky, from which the Sun is born daily. The sign 
of plurality after Mehurit (if it means anything) only indicates the 
daily succession of the skies whence Ra is born. 

15. The 'coffined One' ■^37^-^^—'^^ is of course Osiris, as 
it is plainly stated in the later scholia, which further add that the 
' Seven glorious ones' who follow the coffin, or, as they read it, " their 
Lord," are to be sought in the constellation of ' the Thigh in the 
northern sky,' that is in the seven stars of the Great Bear. 

These stars never set, but are perpetually revolving round the 
Pole. It is therefore evidently with the Polar Star that we must 
identify the coffin of Osiris. The names of the Seven Glorious ones 
vary according to the different authorites. And these Stars them- 
selves receive other mythical forms ; that of the Seven Cows and 
their Bull is recorded in the 148th chapter. Names like 'the Red- 
eyed ' I— ^^— I f^^ or the ' Red-haired ' cow rT\— 1 Ul seem to 

imply double stars. The ' Red-eyed ' is said to abide in 1 

[j/vwvAA 1 1 ' house of gauze ' (perhaps a cobweb). 

The papyri add the important note that the " day of Come thou 
hither " ! represents the moment " when Osiris says to Ra, Come 
thou hither" ! or, as some read, " Come thou to me." The speaker 
adds that he sees the meeting of the two gods in Amenta. 

16. B? ^ possessor of completeness, integrity, hence 

' inviolate.' This name is given to Osiris when restored to his first 
condition after having been dismembered and cut into pieces. The 
god is called Ra-Tmu-Neberi' er in the great Harris papyrus, 15, 3. 


J '^^ '^^ or . Q^ Baba, who, in ch. 63, 2, is described as the 

first born of Osiris. He is a terrible god from whom the deceased 
prays in ch. 125, 36, to be dehvered. His name impHes 'one who 
searches or probes thoroughly,' as a digger or miner. And such 
are his functions at the judgment of the dead. 

Instead of — »— 'V^ tesem^ a * hound,' La reads 1 (1 ^ '^?^ 
sau, a sheep. 

20. The \ p ^ Mesqat is a ^ ^ n ' a place of scourging.' 

'^^^ ^o''^ ™ ..£. iLa is known as signifying violent treatment 
by beating, and has been illustrated by Chabas and Goodwin. See 
Zeitschr., 1874, p. 62. In the 72nd chapter the deceased prays that 
he may not perish at the Mesqat. A kindred word (]] P zl '^ Mesqa 
signifies ' a hide.' We can understand the connection between 
hipw ' flay, cudgel, thrash ' and hcp^ia ' a hide.' And we ourselves 
have the familiar phrase of ' giving a hiding.^ But purification as 
well as punishment was found at the heavenly mesqat. It is 
mentioned in the Harris Magical papyrus (6, 3) simply as a heavenly 
thing. In the more recent scholia the purifier is said to be Anubis, 
who is behind the chest containing the remains of Osiris. 

After the scholion which has just been translated the early texts 
pass on to the i8th chapter. 

For the rest of the chapter we are compelled to follow the texts 
of the papyri. The character of this portion differs considerably 
from the former part, and is clearly an addition. The speakers 
rapidly succeed each other. " I am Tmu," " I am Isis," " I was 
conceived by Isis," " Isis destroyeth what in me is wrong," and finally 
" I am Uat'it." 

21. Cher-abat and Heliopolis like all the localities here mentioned 
are in heaven not upon earth. 

22. Uat'it is literally 'the pale one,' a name of the Dawn. But 
here the fiery dawn is spoken of, ^ws (piXo^epa, 7rvpc'l3po/io^. 

23. Hemen 1 "^i^ t\^ is a divinity seldom, if ever, mentioned 
after the " Middle Empire." In the Pyramid texts he has a Snake 
(the River) in his hand. 




24. The last line of the chapter has sufifered in all the best papyri. 
See M. Naville's collation. In the papyrus of Ani the chapter is 
unfinished. The later papyri end the chapter by saying that " it has 
been granted to the speaker by those who are in Tattu to destroy by 
fire the souls of his adversaries." This consummation is already 
found in La. 




The An-mdut (i) saith: — 

I come to you, ye Great Circles of gods (2) in Heaven, upon 
Earth and in the World below ! I bring to you N void of offence 
towards any of the gods, grant that he may be with you daily. 

Glory to Osiris, Lord of Restau, and to the great gods who are 
in the World below. Here is N who saith : — Hail to thee, Prince 
of Amenta, Unneferu who presides! in Abydos, I come to thee with 
Righteousness ; without sin upon me. I am not knowingly a 
speaker of wrong ; I am not given to duplicity ; grant me Bread, 
the right of appearance at the tables of the Lords of Maat, entering 
in and going out of the Netherworld, and that my soul may not 
suffer repulse in its devotion to the orb of the Sun and the vision of 
the Moon-god for ever. 




Papyrus of Ani. 
Introduction to Chapter XVIII. 

Leyden Papyrus. 

Chapter XVIII. Papyrus Busca. 

Naville, " Book of the Dead." 



Chapter XVIII. Bkugsch, "Thesaurus," Vol. V, p. iioo. 

Chapter XIX. Papyrus du Louvre, 440. 

E. DE RouGK, " I^tudes sur le Rituel Funtiairc," p. 14. 

Chapter XIX. Papyrus du Louvre, 3079. 
E. DE Rouge, "Etudes sur Ic Rituel Funeraire," p. 13 


The Se-meri-f saiih : — 

I come to you, O Circle of gods in Restau, and I bring to you A' 
Grant to him Bread, Water, Air and an allotment in the Sechit- 
hotepu like Horus. 

Glory to Osiris, the Lord of Eternity and to the Circle of gods in 
Restau. Here is A'' and he saith : — I come to thee, I know thy 
will, and I am furnished with thine attributes of the Tuat. Grant 
me an abiding place in the Netherworld by the Lords of Maat, my 
permanent allotment in the Sechit-hotepu, and the receiving of 
cakes before thee. 


1. Oh Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, 
let N be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest 
Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, before the Circle of gods 
about Ra and about Osiris and the Great Circle of gods in Heliopolis, 
on that Night of the Eve's Provender {■^ and the Night of Battle 
when there befel the Defeat of the Sebau, and the Day of the 
extinction of the adversaries of the Inviolate god. 

The Great Circle of gods in Heliopolis is of Tmu, Shu and 
Tefnut, and the Sebau who were defeated and extinguished were the 
associates of Sut on the renewal of his assault. 

2. Oh Thoth who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, 
let A'' be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou 
makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries before the Great Circle 
of gods in Tattu, on the Night wherein the Tat is set up in Tattu. (4) 

The Great Circle of gods in Tattu is of Osiris, Isis, Nephthys 
and Horus the Avenger of his Father ; and they who set up the Tat 
are the two arms of Horus, Prince of Sechem. They are behind 
Osiris as bindings of his raiment. 

3. Oh Thoth who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, 
let A^be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest 
Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, before the Great Circle of 
o^ods in Sechem on that Night of the Eve's Provender in Sechem. 

The Great Circle of gods in Sechem is of Horus in the Dark, (5) 
and Thoth, who is of the Great Circle of An-arer-ef. 

The Eve's Provender is the dawn upon the Cofifin of Osiris. 

H 2 


4. Oh Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, 
let iVbe made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest 
Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, before the Great Circle of 
gods in Pu and Tepu, (6) on that Night of erecting the flag-staffs 
of Horus, and of establishing him as heir of his Father's property. 

The Great Circle of gods in Pu and Tepu is of Horus, Isis, 
Emsta, Hapi ; and the pillars of Horus are erected when Horus 
saith to those who follow him "let the flag-staffs be erected there." 

5. Oh Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, 
let TV be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest 
Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, before the Great Circle of 
gods of the Two P>.egions* of Rechit, on that Night when Isis lay 
watching in tears over her brother Osiris. 

The Great Circle of gods on the Two Regions of Rechit is of 
Isis, Nephthys, Emsta and Hapi. 

6. Oh Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, 
let N be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest 
Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, before the Great Circle of 
gods in Abydos on the night of Hakra, (7) when the evil dead are 
parted off, when the glorious ones are rightly judged, and joy goeth 
its round in Thinis. 

The Great Circle of gods in Abydos is of Osiris, Isis and Apuat. 

7. Oh Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, 
let N be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest 
Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, before the Great Circle of 
gods on the Highway of the Damned, (8) upon the Night when 
judgment is passed upon those who are no more. 

The Great Circle of gods on the Highway of the Damned are 
Thoth, Osiris, Anubis and Astes. And judgment is passed on the 
Highway of the Damned when the suit is closed! against the souls 
of the Children of Failure. 

8. Oh Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries. 

The later recensions read . The first Ccff.n 

of Mentuhotep {Aelteste Texte, 4, 61) has the phonetic Ij c=^:3 J . 

t Literally, " when the things , w , are shut up." 



let iVbe made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest 
Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, before the Great Circle of 
gods at the Great Hoeing in Tattu, on the Night of Hoeing in their 
blood and effecting the triumph of Osiris over his adversaries. 

The Great Circle of gods at the Great Hoeing in Tattu, (9) when 
the associates of Sut arrive, and take the forms of goats, slay them 
before the gods there, while their blood runneth down ; and this 
is done according to the judgment of those gods who are in Tattu. 

9. Oh Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, 
let TV be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest 
Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, before the Great Circle of 
gods in An-arer-ef on the Night of Hiding him who is Supreme in 

The Great Circle of gods in An-arer-ef is of Shu, Babai, Ra and 
Osiris, and the Night of Hiding him who is Supreme of Attributes 
is when there are at the Coffin, the Thigh, the Head, the Heel and 
the Leg of Unneferu. 

10. Oh Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, 
let JV be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou 
makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries before the Great 
Circle of gods in Restau on the Night when Anubis lieth (10) with 
his hands upon the objects behind Osiris, when Osiris is made to 
triumph over his adversaries. 

The Great Circle of gods in Restau is of Osiris, Horus, and 
Isis. The heart of Horus rejoiceth, the heart of Osiris is glad and 
the two Parts | of Heaven are satisfied when Thoth effecteth the 
triumph of IV before these ten Great Circles about Ra and about 
Osiris and the Circles of gods attached to every god and every 
goddess before the Inviolate god. All his adversaries are destroyed 
and all that was wrong in him is also destroyed. 

Zei the person say this chapter^ he will be ptirified and come forth 
by day, after his death, and take all fori7is for the satisfaction of his 
will, and if this chapter be recited over him, he will be prosperous upon 
earth, he tvill come forth safe from every fire, and tio evil thing will 
approach hijn : with undeviating regularity for times i^ifinite. (11) 


1 JT J I I I • 



The eighteenth chapter is one of those found in the earhest 
copies of the Book of the Dead, on the wooden coffins of the ' Old ' 
and ' Middle' Empires ; the most complete ancient copy being on 
the coffin of Queen Mentuhotep of the eleventh dynasty. 

It consists of a Litany addressed to Thoth, who is invoked for 
securing the triumph of the departed against his adversaries in 
presence of the gods of certain localities. Each petition has 
reference to some mythological event, and is supplemented by the 
enumeration of the gods constituting the divine company presiding 
at the locality named, and sometimes by a short comment on the 
myth referred to. 

The order of petitions is somewhat different in the later recen- 
sions, and the text has suffered other alterations. 

Copies of this chapter are extremely numerous, particularly in 
the later periods. 

The chapter really begins with the petitions to Thoth. The 
preceding portion is, as far as I know, found only in the Papyrus of 
Ani. But as the vignette which belongs to this portion has a place 
in the great Leyden Papyrus of Kenna, the text cannot have been 
confined to a single manuscript. It is particularly valuable as 
illustrative of the ritual use of portions of the Book of the Dead. 

I. The deceased person is supposed to be presented to the gods 

by two priests in succession, one called An-maut-ef fn | ^ A\ k^^ , 

and the other ^\ <:==> Se-vieri-f. Both names are titles of 

Horus, and it is the usual thing for Egyptian priests to bear divine 
titles ; their ritual observances being dramatic and symbolical 
representations of the actions of the gods. An-matit-ef literally 
signifies ' column (support) of his mother.' Horus is called 

"^TV ^ A/wvsA \^ ^^"^^ ' the An-maut-ef of the Great 

Company of the gods' (Mariette, Abydos, I, p. 34), and in Denkmiihr, 
III, 206 ^, he is called the An-maut-ef of Osiris (cf Abyd. II, 54). 

Se-me7-if signifies * the Beloved Son,' and the priest of this 
name in the funereal rites personified Horus in his dutiful offices 

to his father Osiris. I do not know why ^:v^<=:=r> is always 

translated ' the son who loves him,' instead of ' the son he loves,' 



which is the right meaning. j <::ii> is ' the place which he 

loves ' not ' the place which loves him.' And similarly <r:=> is 
' the wife whom he loves,' not ' wh ) Icves him.' 

2, There is a short note (6) on chapter i, upon the word 

1 , but the present seems to be the suitable place for a 

more extended notice of this feminine word, which is a collective 
noun, and never found in any other sense. 

The ancient form A A O^^ Jj i renders it more than probable 

that is not phonetic in the later form, but that as in \ „ Aa/, 

originally \ (whence the Coptic KOT", KCJOTG, a circle, a round 
vessel, to go round), it is ideographic of roundness. This concept 
is certainly to be found in the word H ^, ihe Coptic XUJX , a 
head (or rather top of the head), as in the Latin vertex, akin to 
vortex, from the same root as vertere. The sign \ , which in later 
texts often appears as the determinative, has its origin in the cursive 
form of + carelessly written. Instead of "-h — i we also find |J, 
which is certainly not phonetic but ideographic of enclosure, as in 
the word () <ci 1^ y a wall, paries, epKOf. This word occurs already 
in the Pyramid Texts under the form |,|,q. See Pepi I, 571, 
which M. Maspero renders ' la Grande E?iceinie d'On.' The evident 
etymological relationship to the Coptic XCDX has led some scholars 
to translate the Egyptian word as signifying chiefs, princes. But 
though the lexicons give dux and priticeps as meanings of the 
Coptic word, these are but secondary applications of head. We 
have to enquire why X(A3X means head, or top of the head. And 
the reason is its roundness, as indicated by the ideographic signs 


The old Egyptian word \ \ O^ i invariably implies an as- 
sociation of persons, and this is why in consequence of its etymology 
I translate it as ' Circle of gods.' It is synonymous {cf. chapter 41, 
note 8) with ©^1. 

3. The Eve's Provender. Later authorities read , w'^ , T \\ ^ /i ' 
the ' Provender of the altars,' but this is a corruption of the ancient 


T *^^ V^"""^' ^^'h'ch had probably ceased to be intelligible. 

I I I 

According to this pantheistic system the deceased through his identi- 
fication with the Sun absorbed and consumed all that came in his 
way. And this is expressed in somewhat brutal style. Men and 
gods disaj^pear before Unas, he makes his breakfast at dawn 

r\ — , upon great gods, his dinner upon gods of middling 


quality ^\, and 'hi5 supper at even' ('^®JQ^%T^ 

upon the mmor deities, <crr>o. I is the ancient dialectic 

variant of , ^ ■■^, which however is really the older form. This 

word which means ' things ' has, like the Latin res, a wide applica- 
tion. It frequently means J'ro/>erfj, estate, and sometimes suit. 

4. On the last day of the month of Choiak the great solemnity of 
setting up the Tat W as the symbol of Osiris was observed down to 
the latest periods. The tablets of Pasherenptah, high priest of Ptah 
at Memphis, speak of this great dignitarj' as the king's second or 
deputy in ' Raising the Tat.' But Brugsch has published a picture 
{Thesaurus, V, 1190), copied by Dr. Erman from a tomb of the 
XVIIIth dynasty, in which Amenophis III himself helps to raise 
the Tat, and the queen Ti and the royal princesses take part in the 
ceremony. The procession is described as marching four times 
round the sanctuary of Ptah-Seker-Osiris. See Plate IX. 

5. On Horus in the Dark, or Blindness, or Invisibility .<2>- , see 

my note, Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., June, 1886. 

6. Pu and Tepu are named together in the earliest texts as one 
locality, which is recognised by Brugsch as the metropolis of the 
northern nome called by the Greeks ^Oevon]^. 

7. The feast of ' ^ derives its name, as Goodwin supposes 

with great probability, from the words [^ V\ ^ « <rr> W 

ha-k-er-a, ' Come thou to me,' said of a legendary incident like 
that mentioned at the end of note 15 on chapter 17. The early 

papyri read j~[] V\ QA but this is no objection, the sign g7\ 

being here the determinative of the entire group which gives its 
name to the feast. 


8. \^^ <=i Vik =^ I literally the dead, that is those who have died 
' the second death.' 

9. The vignette is given by M. Naville from the tracing taken by 
Lepsius of the now lost Papyrus Busca. It represents ' the Great 
Hoeing in Tattu.' The long text at Dendera (Mariette, torn. IV, 
pi. 39) contains directions to be observed on the festival com- 
memorative of the ancient myth. Two black cows are put under a 

yoke of [1 I Q cun wood, the plough is of tamarisk wood and the 

share of black bronze. The plougher goes behind, with a cow led 
by a halter. A little child with the lock ^ attached to its head is to 
scatter the seed in the field of Osiris, a piece of land of which the 
dimensions were given in the text (now imperfect). Barley is sown 
at one end, spelt at the other, and flax between the two. And the 
Cher-heb in chief recites the Office for the Sowing of the Field. 

10. The older texts have n. «^j^ lie, the later ones ^ lay. 

11. In the formula ^ ^^-^ ''q^j 5 ^^^ '^ "the measuring line 
used by builders, and em ses signifies 'ad amussim,' 'nach der 
Schnur,' 'au cordeau,' 'according to the line,' hence 'with the 
strictest accuracy.' Hibbert Lectures, 1879, p. 121. ' According to 
the line of Maat ' means 'with undeviating regularity.' 


Chapter of the Crown of Triumph. 

Thy Father Tmu hath prepared for thee this beautiful Crown of 
Triumph, the living diadem which the gods love, that thou mayest 
live for ever. Osiris, Prince of Amenta, maketh thee to triumj^h 
over thine adversaries. Thy Father Seb hath decreed that thou 
should be his heir, and be heralded as Triumphant, Horus son of 
Isis and son of Osiris, upon the throne of thy Father Ra, through 
the defeat of thine adversaries. He hath decreed for thee the Two 
Earths, absolutely and without condition (i). And so hath Atmu 
decreed, and the Cycle of the gods hath repeated the glorious act of 
the triumph of Horus the son of Isis and the son of Osiris foi ever 
and ever. 



Osiris, the Prince of Amenta, the Two Parts of Heaven united, 
all gods and all goddesses who are in heaven and upon earth join 
in effecting the Triumph of Horus the son of Isis and son of 
Osiris over his adversaries before the Great Circle of gods in 
Heliopolis, on the Nig/it, etc. 

Horus repeateth the proclamation four times. All the adversaries 
fall and are overthrown and slaughtered. 

N repeateth the proclamation four times, and all his adversaries 
fall and are overthrown and slaughtered. 

Horus son of Isis and son of Horus repeateth an infinite number 
of festivals, and all his adversaries fall down, are overthrown and 
slaughtered. Their abode is transferred to the slaughtering block 
of the East, their heads are cut away, their necks are crushed, their 
thighs are lopped off, they are given to the great Annihilator who 
resideth in the Valley (2) that they may not ever escape from under 
the custody of Seb. (3) 

This chapter is said over a consecrated croum placed z/poti the face 
of the person, and thou shalt put incense upon the flame, for N {the 
deceased), effecting his triufnph over ail his adversaries, whether Dead 
or Living, that he may become one of the followers of Osiris. And 
there shall be given to him drink and food in presence of this god 
Thou shall say it at dawn twice ; A great protection is it: ivith 
undeviating regularity for times ififnite. 


The nineteenth chapter is a very recent recension of the 
eighteenth. The MSS. containing it, as far as we know, are not 
older than the Greek period. It derives its origin from the piactice 
of placing garlands or floral crowns upon the mummies. 1 he 
mummy of Aahmes I, the first king of the eighteenth dynasty, whtn 
found "portait au cou," M. Maspero writes, " une guirlande de jolies 
fleurs roses de Delphinium orientate." Remains of such crowns are 
to be found in our Museums. For farther details I must refer to an 
excellent paper entitled La Couronne de la Justification, by Dr. 
]*ieyte of Leyden, in the second volume of the Transactions of the 
Oriental Congress held at Lc\den in 1884; and see Plate VHI. 



^j^. This adverbial expression is apparently con- 

nected with Xj]-jj. ^'^^^ . and I therefore understand it in the sense of 
f'lTTOTo^itv^, praecisi, absolutely, without condition. 


^ the Valley of Darkness (Todt., 130, 6) and 

X -JI-. 

Death, " whose secrets are absolutely unknown " ' '^ '' ' . ^ 

^ D\\\ % %2 

(148, 2). 

3. That is they shall remain interred for ever. 


The twentieth chapter is entitled Another Chapter of Cro7on of 
Triut}iph, but it is simply a tabulated form of chapter 18, with 
the Rubric. Let the person say this Chapter, and purify himself with 
water of natron, he 7vill come forth by day after death, and take all 
forms according to his wish, afid escape from the fire. With un- 
deviating regularity for times infinite. The earliest example of this 
tabulated form of the chapter is found on the Berlin Sarcophagus 
of Mentuhotep. 

DiJMicHEN ; Tempelinschriften, LXXV, 

I 2 



Chapter whereby the month of a person is given to him in the 


Hail to thee, Lord of Light, who art Prince of the House which 
is encircled by Darkness and Obscurity. I am come to thee glori- 
fied and purified. 

My hands are behind thee; thy portion is that of those who have 
gone before thee, (i) 

Give me my mouth that I may speak whh it \ and guide (2) my 
heart at its hour of Darkness and Night. 


The oldest papyrus containing this chapter is that of Ani, and 
the translation is based upon it. But the text differs both from 
those written on the very ancient coffins of Pleru and Set-Bastit, 
copied by M. Maspero,* and from the later texts. 

The second paragraph seems to be spoken by the god, the first 
and third being from the deceased. 

" My hands are behind thee " is a formula implying protection. 

On the coffins the invocation is addressed not to " Osiris, Lord 

of Light " or " Radiant One " ^^37 ^m-. , but to the <=s=' \r ^ , 

" one whose head is clothed with radiant white, of the House of 
Darkness and Obscurity." 

Instead of l^fCj^ "obscurity" the coffin has [t] "^ 

without a determinative, but JTj I (1 [ ^' shows what the word 

This ancient text continues — " Come thou to me, glorified and 
purified ; let thy hands [here the text is obliterated], shine thou with 

thine head 

ft ^^,^ ^1, „^::=^)- Give me my mouth that 

* Mission Archeologique Fraiifaise, II, p. 216 and 223. The text is 
unfortunately incomplete on both coffins. 



Chapter XV. Papyrus of Ani. 

Chapter XXVIII. 
Papyrus, Leyden, T. i6. 



Chapter XXVIII. 
Nicholson, " Egyptiaca." 

Chapter XXII. Tomb of Bekenrenef. 

Lepsius, " Denkmaler," Abth. Ill, Bl. 267. 

Chapter XXIII. Tomb of Bekenrenef. 

Lepsius, " Denkmaler," Al>th. Ill, Bl. 260. 

Chapter XXII. Papyrus of Ani. 


Chapter XXIII. 
Papyrus, British Museum, 9900. 

Chapter XXIV. Papyrus of Ani. 




Chapter XXII. 


Sarcophagus of Seti I. 

Chapter XXVII. 

Chapter XXIII, 

Lepsius, " Todtenbuch," 
17, Vignette. 

Chapter XXVII. 

Papyrus, Mus^e du 
Louvre, III, 36. 

Chapter XXVII. 

Papyrus, Musee du Louvre, III, 89. 

Papyrus of Ani. 


I may speak with it, and guide me on the glorious roads which 
are in heaven," 

The Turin text is very corrupt, and parts of it are incapable of 

2. " Let me guide," according to the Ani Papyrus, But the 

later (hieratic) texts have the second person 
which is more correct. 


'=^^. V^ A 


Another Chapter whereby the Mouth of a person is givsn to 
him in the Netherworld. 

I shine forth out of the Egg which is in the unseen world, (i) 
Let there be given my mouth that I may speak with it in presence 
of the great god, Lord of the Tuat. Let not my hand be repulsed 
by the Divine Circle of the great god. 

I am Osiris, the Lord of Restau, the same who is at the head of 
the Staircase. (2) 

I am come to do the will of my heart, out of the Tank of 
Flame, which I extinguish when I come forth. (3) 


This is one of the chapters of which the text certainly belongs 
to the earliest epoch. It is one of those copied by Wilkinson from 
the coffin (2) of Queen Mentuhotep. In the Papyrus of Ani it is 
followed by chapter 21 as its conclusion, and both chapters are 
appended to chapter i, before the rubric belonging to that chapter. 

I. The Egg in the unseen world is the globe of the Sun while 
yet below the horizon. It is only through a mistranslation of 
chapter 54, 2 that the Indian notion of a ' Mundane Egg ' has 
been ascribed to the Egyptians. 

The 17th chapter addresses "Ra in thine Egg, who risest up 
in thine orb, and shinest from thine Horizon." 


2. See the picture of Osiris at the head of the Staircase, which 
is here given (see Plate XI) from the alabaster sarcophagus of Seti I 
in the Soane Museum. Similar pictures are given on other 

sarcophagi. The gods on the stairs are called c^ i, - h ^\ ^, 

'the Divine Circle about Osiris.' 

The 'Staircase oi the great god' c£L1 A at Abydos, is 

frequently mentioned on the funeral stelae. 

3. The Tank of Flame. See chapter i, note 15. The red 
glow of the Sky disappears after the Sun has risen, he is therefore 
said to " extinguish the Flame " after he has come forth. The same 
notion is expressed in the myth according to which Horus strikes 
off the head of his mother. 


Chapter 'whereby the Mouth of a fersoti is opened for him in the 


He saith : Let my mouth be opened by Ptah, and let the 
muzzles which are upon my mouth be loosed by the god of my 
domain, (i) 

Then let Thoth come, full and equipped with Words of Power,* 
and let him loose the muzzles of Sutu which are upon my mouth, 
and let Tmu lend a hand to fling them at the assailants. 

Let my mouth be given to me. Let my mouth be opened by 
Ptah with that instrument of steel (2) wherewith he openeth the 
mouths of the gods. 

I am Sechit (3) Uat'it who sitteth on the right side of Heaven : 
I am Sahit encircled by the Spirits of Heliopolis.t 

And all the Words of Power, and all the accusations which are 
uttered against me — the gods stand firm against them : the cycles of 
the gods unitedly. 

* ^ U ^ ^ ^1 [. + Tmu, Shu and Tefnut. 



1. Osiris. On the sense of j -/| , literally 'the god of t>e 

domain,' see the articles of M. Naville and Professor Piehl, Zeitschr.. 
1880, 146 ; 1881, 24 and 64. I hold with Dr. Piehl that the domain 
meant in this formula is Abydos, and that the god is Osiris. 

2. The word here translated * steel 'is 1 ( "^ , upon which 

see M. Deveria's dissertation, " Le Fer et I'Aimant " in the Melanges 
(T Archeologie Egyptienne et Assyrienne, tome I, p. 2. 

A description of the Ceremonies of the Opening of the Mouth 
as performed at the tomb will be found in the Introduction to this 

3. The name of this goddess is phonetically written 1 Siit 
in the Pyramid texts of Unas (1. 390), where the Murray Papyrus 
and other texts have the ordinary y . The reading Sechemet 
is indefensible. Cf. Froc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., XII, p. 365. 


Chapter ichereby the Words of Forcer ate brought to a Person in the 


I am Chepera, the self-produced, on his Mother's thigh. (1) 
The speed of bloodhounds is given to those who are in 

Heaven,* and the mettle of hyaenas(2) to those who belong to the 

Divine Circle. 

Lo, I bring this my Word of Power, and I collect this Word of 

Power from every quarter in which it is, more j^ersistently (3) than 

hounds of chase and more swiltly than the Light. 

O thou who guidest the Bark of Ra, sound is thy rigging and 
free from disaster as thou passest on to the Tank of Flame. 

Lo, I collect t this my Word of Power from every quarter in 
which it is, in behalf of every person whom it concerneth, more 

Nil. T <--=>i 


persistently than hounds of chase and more swiftly than Light ; the 
same (4) who create the gods out of Silence, or reduce them to 
inactivity ; the same who impart warmth to the gods. 

Lo, I collect this my Word of Power from every quarter in which 
it is, in behalf of every person whom it concerneth, more persistently 
than hounds of chase and more swiftly than the Light. 


This is another of those chapters of which the antiquity is 
proved by the coffins of Horhotep and Queen Mentuhotep. And 
even in the early times to which these coffins belong it must have 
been extremely difficult to understand. In the translation here 
given I have adhered as closely as possible to the oldest texts, but 
these, as the variants show, are not entirely trustworthy. 

1. Thigh. This is the usual translation, which accords with the 
frequent pictures of the goddess Nut, as the Sky, with the divine 
Scarab in the position described.* But V\ <^:> ^ signifies that 
which r/^« J, from ^ ^ udr.^ ran, fugere ; and the noun {the 

runner) is often applied to running water. It is the geographical 
name of a river or canal. M. Naville has already pointed out that 
in the Book of the Dead it has for variants \ ^ /wwv^ and f 1 c^ A^^/w^ , 
of which bath is a fair translation. 

2. The names of these two animals (especially of the second) 
vary greatly in the texts. But if we wish rightly to understand the 
sense of the chapter, we must bear in mind that it is not the animals 
themselves that are meant, but the characteristics implied by the 
names of the animals. And as the Sanskrit vrias, the Greek XvKoy-, 
the old Slavonic vlnhu, the Gothic v/d/s, and our own wo//, signify 

the robber, so does the Egyptian ^^ \\\ /s, whether signifying 

wolf, wolfho2ind, or bloodhound, indicate sj>efd. 

The names of the second animaZ in the earlier texts, whethtr 

they stand for hyaenas j ft ^^ v'^ttK' °^ ^'^^ other animals of the 

chase I ] C \j\\, imply either sj)ecd or ferocity. And what must 

* See also in Plate XI the Vignette frcm chr.ptcr 17 in the Turin and all the 
later papyri. 


we understand under the latter term ? We must look to the context. 
It is of a god speaking of himself and of his attributes. He is proud 
of them, and certainly does not wish them to be taken in a bad 
sense. Nor is it necessary that we should do so. We have only to 
remember what we learnt at school. 

Cicero {de Sen., 10, ^t,) contrasts the 'ferocitas juvenum,' the 
high pluck of the young, with the 'infirmitas puerorum,' and the 
' gravitas' and ' matuntas ' of later periods of life. 

Livy uses the term ferox, in the same sense as Cicero. 

What we have to understand of the Egyptian expression is, 
' mettlesome, of high, unbridled spirit.' 

In the later texts the Bennu bird has been substituted for the 
beasts of the chase. 

'•^■^^^j but all the earlier ones give 

another word ^.^w^ or /^^^ . This is often used in a bad 

sense, when spoken of the enemy ; but it merely implies tenacity, 
pertinacity, obstinacy, which are, of course, very bad things in 
opposition, but in themselves virtues of a high order.* 

The word is used as a name for the divine Cynocephali 

JD V ^^ ' ^^° appear at sunrise over the Tafik of Fla?ne. 

I S ^^ m\ I ; ^he same who bringeth into being the gods out of 
Silence, or i-educeth them to inactivity. 

In addition to this interesting utterance of Egyptian theology, 

I ^ ^h as the origin of the 

we have to note the idea of Silence 

gods, or powers of nature. The notion was also current in the 

Greek world. The writer of the Philosophiimena (VI, 22) speaks 

of 1] vf.ivovfiivr] eKelvi^ Trapa ro'i's "EWijffi 2(7?y. It was from this 

source that the early Gnostic Valentinus borrowed this item of his 
system. St. Irenaeus {Haeres, II, 14) charges him with having 
taken it from the theogony of the comic poet Antiphanes. 

* Columella speaks of the "contumacia pervicax boum." 



Chapter ivhereby a person remetfibereth his name in the Netherworld. 

Let my name be given to me in the Great House. Let me 
remember my name in the House of Flame (i) on the Night 
wherein the Years are counted and the Months are reckoned, one 
by one. 

I am He who dwelleth in Heaven, and who sitteth on the 
Eastern side of Heaven : and if there be any god who cometh not 
in my train, I utter his name at once. 

I. Every Egj'ptian Temple being symbolical of Heaven, had its 
Great House in^^^lTT] and its House of Flame €72^"^ 'iq'-^' 

as most sacred adyta at the extremity opposite to the entrance. 
The former occupied the central position, like the Ladye Chapel in 
our cathedrals, and the latter stood by the side of it. 

Chapter whereby the Heart (i) is given to a person in the Netherworld. 

He saith : Heart * mine to me, in the place of Hearts ! Whole 
Heart t mine to me, in the place of Whole Hearts ! 

Let me have my Heart that it may rest within me ; but (2) I shall 
feed upon the food of Osiris, on the eastern side of the mead of 
amaranthine flowers. (3) 

Be mine a bark for descending the stream and another for 

I go down into the bark wherein thou art. 

Be there given to me my mouth wherewith to speak, and my 
feet for walking ; and let me have my arms wherewith to overthrow 
my adversaries. 

' \J db, 'heart.' t 2v\ '^''^"> ' whole heart.' 


Let two hands from the Earth open my mouth : Let Seb, the 
Erpa of the gods, part my two jaws ; (4) let him open my two eyes 
which are closed, and give motion to my two hands which are 
powerless : and let Anubis give vigour to my legs, that I may raise 
myself up upon them. 

And may Sechit the divine one lift me up, so that I may arise in 
Heaven and issue my behest in Memphis. 

I am in possession of my Heart, I am possession of my Whole 
Heart, I am possession of my arms and I have possession of my 
legs. (5) 

[I do whatsoever my Genius willeth, and my Soul is not bound 
to my body at the gates of Amenta.] 


I. The Egj'ptian texts have two names for the Heart, phoneti- 
cally WTitten [ =0" ab, and -^^ O" also written R "^ O" and 

f I -ill Ci w AW 

^^. t^ katu* The two words are commonly used synony- 
mously, but they are sometimes pointedly distinguished one from 
the other. Etymologically [I j m" ^'^ is connected with the sense 

of lively motion [1 J ^ ab, like the Greek Kuphla, Kpattrj (8ia to 

avavarw^ aaXeveaOai) with Kpacdio and Kpatatvw, Other Indo- 

European names, our own heart, the Latin cor {cord-is), the Sanskrit 
hrd, and the corresponding Slavonic and Lithuanian names have 
the same origin. 

From the orthography of =^ ^ it seems to have been connected 

o W 

in popular opinion with its position in the anterior part of the body. 
And from various uses of the word it appears to denote not merely 
the heart, but the heart with all that is attached to it, especially the 

lungs which embrace it. It is for instance to the -^^ ^ that air is 

o W 
conducted according to the medical Papyri. And it is not im- 
probable that 0^ ^ I and [ « ^ T (^ > organs of respiration, are 
closely connected words. 

* This variant already occurs on the coffin of Amamu. 

K 2 


But perhaps the best argument may be found in the Vignettes of 
chapter 28, where the two lungs are actually drawn as in the hieratic 
papyrus (PL 2) published by Sir Charles Nicholson. In others (as 
Leyden, T. 16) even the larynx is visible. (See Plate X.) 

The Italian word corata is immortalised through its occurrence 
in a memorable passage in Dante {Inf., XXVIII), but for want of 
a better English term than the butcher's technical \\or6. pluck* I use 
the expression whole heart. 

2. Btit, [ I. This is the most frequent reading both in the 


earhest and in the latest papyri. But some, texts have simply ^^^^^^^ , 
which is certainly a mistake, and others omit the conjunction before 
the verb. The sense is not much affected by this omission. 

[1 1 signifies if not, unless, until, but, but surely. Cf. the Semitic 

X. The 7nead of attiaranihine flowers. © v\ I [ \\ vl kaiu 

is the name of a plant which frequently occurs in the medical 
prescriptions. It is also mentioned among the aromatic plants 

( X ^\ °°° W I required in the sacred laboratory of Dendera. 

One of the kinds is named kaiu of the Oasis VN C3 I . It is 

Jl I rv-^'^ 

identified with the Coptic KIOUOT, amara^ithus. In several copies 
of this chapter the name of the plant is followed by the geographical 
determinative 'j'T' , which is really implied in the context. Was 
this mythological 'mead of amaranth' suggested by the Oasis and 
its vegetation ? 

4. This sentence is a repetition (in other words) of the preceding 
one. On the title Erpd, see Tratis. Sac. Bibl. Arch., XII, 359. 
My chief difficulty about understanding it as compounded of <=::=> 


and „, D , and signifying keeper of the Pat, that is of the deceased 

(human beings), is that Seb is essentially the Erpd of the gods. 
Erpd is one of those titles which cannot be translated without 
perverting the sense of the original. 

* In late Latin coralhivt, whence the Romanic forms corajhe, corata, coraiella, 
corce, cctaaille. In Carin h LcJicrcns we find "la coraille del cuers." 


5. This passage is a very frequent formula not only in the Book 
of the Dead, as the papyri give it, but in other texts of the same 
nature; see, e.g., Aelteste Texte, 34, 14. The next passage included 
in [ ] is an addition to the original text. It occurs however in 
some excellent MSS. 


Chapter whereby the Heart of a person is not taken from him in 

the Netherworld. 

O ye gods who seize upon Hearts, and who pluck out the Whole 
Heart ; and whose hands fashion anew the Heart of a person accord- 
ing to what he hath done ; lo now, let that be forgiven to him by 
you. (i) 

Hail to you, O ye Lords of Everlasting Time and Eternity ! 

Let not my Heart be torn from me by your fingers. 

Let not my Heart be fashioned anew according to all the evil 
things said against me. 

For this Heartof mine is the Heartof the god of mighty names (2), 
of the great god whose words are in his members, and who giveth 
free course to his Heart which is within him. 

And most keen of insight {3) is his Heart among the gods. 
Ho to me ! Heart of mine ; I am in possession of thee, I am thy 
master, and thou art by me ; fall not away from me ; I am the 
dictator to whom thou shalt obey in the Netherworld. 


I. There is a great difference here as in so many other places 
between the MSS. of different periods. I long ago translated the 

wywv of the Todtenbuch by non ignoretur a 

vobis, M. de Rouge, after me, by non renuatiir a vobis. But 
M. Naville pointed out the fact that in some of the oldest MSS. 
the particle ^ did not occur. It now appears that the particle is 
not found in any of the older MSS., and I have also found it 
omitted in hieratic papyri. The passage therefore must be trans- 
lated differently, and this is possible through a slight change in the 


interpretation of ® f^ from ignorare to ignoscere ; ignoscatur illi a 
vobis. The pronoun I ^ which in the older texts follows 


refers to ' what he hath done ' of the last clause. 

2. The god of mighty names is Thoth, and the later texts read 
" For this is the Heart of the great god who is in Hermopolis." 

% ° °jp v\ '= ' , ^ R. . According to another reading 

new, fresh, young, vigorous. 


Chapter whereby the Heart of a person is not taken from him in the 


Lion-god ! 

1 am Unbu(i), and what I abominate is the block of execution. 
Let not this Whole Heart of mine be torn from me by the divine 

Champions (2) in Heliopolis ! 

O thou who clothest (3) Osiris and hast seen Sutu : 

thou who turnest back after having smitten him, and hast 
accomplished the overthrow : 

This Whole Heart of mine remaineth weeping over itself in 
presence of Osiris. 

Its strength proceedeth from him, it hath obtained it by prayer 
from him. 

1 have had granted to it and awarded to it the glow of heart at 
tlie hour of the god of the Broad Face, and have offered the 
sacrificial cakes in Hermopolis. 

Let not this Whole Heart of mine be torn from me. (4) It is 
I who entrust to you its place, and vehemently stir your Whole 
Hearts towards it in Sechit-hotepit and the years of triumph over all 
that it abhors and taking all provisions at thine appointed time from 
thine hand after thee. 


And this Whole Heart of mine is laid upon the tablets (5) of 
Tmu, who guideth me to the caverns of Sutu and who giveih me 
back my Whole Heart which hath accomplished its desire in presence 
of the divine Circle which is in the Netherworld, 

The sacrificial joint and the funereal raiment, let those who find 
them bury them. (6) 


1. Unbu, ^^ Jiv'^ ^^ ^"^^ °^ ^^^ names of the solar god, 
the offspring {Todt.^ 42, 19) of Nu and Nut. As a common noun 
the word unbu means the Hawthorn or some other kind of flowering 

bush. This god is called 4" 1^1^^^^% 'the golden Unbu' 

in the Pyramid Texts (Teta 39). We have no means of determining 
the exact sense of this word, which as an appellative expresses an 
attribute possessed both by the Sun and by the fruit, foliage, or 
other parts of the tree. 

2. Divine Champions. Q/^ ^^ [ [ ^ 3 \ in the earlier 
papyri, [I ^^^ ^^^zz:^ ^ I in the later ; and sometimes both readings 
occur in the same MS. Such determinatives as t certainly do not 
denote very pugnacious qualities in the divine Champions. 

3. Clothest. 1 \> is a word of many meanings, and the context 
generally determines which is the right one. In the present instance 

we have no such help. Some of the more recent MSS. give 1 1 , 
the determinative of clothitig. 

4. M. Pierret here breaks off his translation of the chapter, with 
the note : " La fin de ce chapitre est absolument inintelligible ; les 
variantes des manuscrits hieratiques ne I'eclaircissent pas." 

Like many other portions of the book this chapter is hopelessly 
corrupt, and the scribes did not understand it better than we do. 
They have probably mixed up different recensions without regard to 

grammatical sense. The deceased addresses gods in the plural ,.^^^ , 

but immediately afterwards we have the singular suffix '^ ^ — a. . 


5. Tablets ox records. ^ o'vNc.i . See Z?//.r<r/^r., 1867, 
50. The word already occurs in the Pyramid Texts, Pepi I, 364, in 
the sense of memory^ ^vwv^ ^ s==5 v\ ' 
'his memory for man and his love for the gods.' 

But there is another word, ^ Y\ilU {Benkm., Ill, 65 a), 
which signifies a stand upon which objects are placed. 

6. The last words of the Chapter were extremely puzzling to the 
scribes of the later periods, who altered them in ever so many ways. 

The older MSS. read -^ ^ \ J[ "tT '^ ms^TVt ° _^ 
<— ^ H^ t::^- And this is borrowed from an ancient text, which 

may be found on the sarcophagus of Horhotep, line 338. The 

variants ^/^wv j, , ^^AAAA "^^ of the papyri, and ZTl of the 

sarcophagus show that it is the sacrificial joint which is meant, and 
not a verb as the scribes of a later period thought. For this verb 


they had to discover an object and accordingly we find -w,^^ j\ 

9 V\ 1 ' I trod tAei'r caverns.^ n 1 M S was in like 

XJriTTDIIJ. . ^ .X«J. 

nner co 

chapter 29. 

manner converted into a verb. See the introductory note to 


Chapter whereby the Heart of a person may fiot be taken from hi?n 

in the Netherworld. 

Back thou Messenger (i) of thy god! Art thou come to carry 
off by violence (2) this Whole Heart of mine, of the Living. (3) But 
I shall not surrender to thee this Heart of the Living. The gods 
have regards to my offerings and fall upon their faces, all together, 
upon their own earth. 


The two most ancient copies of this chapter are found upon the 
coffins of AniamUj Plate XXX, and of Horhotep, Mission Arch. 


Franfaise au Caire, t. i, p. 157, lines 335-337. The papyrus of Ani 
is the only one of the early period in which it occurs. None of these 
texts is perfect. A part of the text of Amamu has been destroyed, 
but there remains enough to show that Horhotep has omissions. 
And in the text of Ani the word ^?\ has slipped in from 

the 28th chapter, and is entirely out of place where it now stands. 

The scribes of a later period had to exercise their ingenuity on 

the subject. They changed V^ hentu into [] T r 

hena, and this being itself a disagreeable word, they prefixed to it 
a negative ^-''-^ or (I ^ 

1. Messenger, \ \J \t Vir? ^ word used here and elsewhere in 
religious texts in the same sense as Tji^"^ an angel, ambassador of 

God. The later texts have | ^ ^^3:7 ' every god,' by the change 
of v_^ into \ — y . 

2. By violence, ^A <ci yCA | . Cf. \ 1 v/ v ^ 

' _M^ nn ^1 -^ A xl I 1 n ^ L=Z1 ' 
Harris Papyrus, 500, z'erso. 

3. The Living \ ^ Ix \> ^ ^ I ^"d saved, in opposition 

to the Dead and damned. This plural form is a mere sign of a 
common noun. 


Another Chapter of the Heart ; upon Carnelian. 

I am the Heron, the Soul of Ra, who conduct the Glorious ones 
to the Tuat. 

It is granted to their Souls to come forth upon the Earth to do 
whatsoever their Genius willeth. 

It is granted to the soul of the Osiris N to come forth upon the 
Earth to do whatsoever his Genius willeih. 




Certain chapters having reference to the Heart were written 
upon gems* and served as amulets, the 26th upon Lapis-lazuH, the 
27th upon green Felspar, the 30th upon Serpentine, and the fore- 
going chapter upon Carnelian. 

M. Naville has called this chapter 29B, as marking its natural 
place in the Book of the Dead. It is not often found in the Papyri. 
M. Naville found one copy in the Berlin Papyrus of Nechtuamen, 
and another traced by Lepsius in Rome from a papyrus now lost. 
A third copy will be found in the papyrus of Anif in the British 
Museum. It differs from the two others in " conducting the gods to 
the Tuat," and by omitting some words for which there was no room 
in the space provided. 


CJiapter whereby the Heart of a person is not kept back f?-om him 

in the Netherworld. 

Heart mine which is that of my Mother, 

Whole Heart mine which was that of my coming upon Earth, 

Let there be no estoppel against me through evidence ; let not 
hindrance be made to me by the Divine Circle ; (1) let there not be 
a fall of the scale (2) against me in presence of the great god, Lord 
of Amenta. 

Hail to thee. Heart mine ; Hail to thee, Whole Heart mine, 
Hail to thee. Liver (3) mine ! 

Hail to you, ye gods who are on the side lock, conspicuous by 
your sceptres, (4) announce my glory to Ra and convey it to 

[And lo, though he be buried in the deep deep Grave, and 
bowed down to the region of annihilation, he is glorified there (5).] 

* See a charming article by Professcr Ebers in the Zeitschrifl of 1S80, entitled 
" Einige inedita." 
t PI. 33- 



Heart mine which is that of my Mother, 

Whole Heart mine which is that of my birth, 

Let there be no estoppel against me throu<j;h evidence, let no 
hindrance be made to me by the divine Circle; fall thou not against 
me in presence of him who is at the Balance. 

Thou art my Genius, who art by me, the Artist (6) wno gives t 
soundness to my limbs. 

Come forth (7) to the bliss * towards which we are bound ; 

Let not those Ministrants (8) who deal with a man according to 
the course of his life (9) give a bad odour to my name. 

Pleasant for us, pleasant for the listener, is the joy of the 
Weighing of the Words. 

Let not lies be uttered in presence of the great god. Lord of the 

Lo ! how great art thou [as the Triumphant one. (10)] 


This chapter is found not only on papyri but upon innumerable 
scarabs. The differences of text are very great, but the principal 
ones may be considered as represented by M. Naville's 30A and 300. 
They branch off from each other after the mention of the Balance. 

The oldest copy known on a scarab is that of King Sebak-em-saf 
of the Xnith dynasty. It is in the British Museum (No. 7876) and 
has been described by Dr. Birch in his studyt of the " Formulas 
relating to the heart." "This amulet," he says, "is of unusual 
shape ; the body of the insect is made of a remarkably fine green 
jasper carved in shape of the body and head of the insect. This is 
inserted into a base of gold in shape of a tablet .... The legs of the 
insect are .... of gold and carved in relief .... The hieroglyphs 
are incised in outline, are coarse, and not very legible." 

I. The Divine Circle, || | ^ J^ 1. This word on the scarab of 

Sebak-em-saf is written ^ 1 , which shows that h-i— 1 (a wall 


t Zeilschr., 1870, p. 32. 
L 2 


of enclosure) is ideographic of the whole word. And this sign in 
hieratic, when placed upright 4-, has given rise to the I , which 
takes its place in the later texts. 

2. Fall of the scale, *^, .-r-^ = the Coptic piKI ItO'Jf JUL^.cyi 
or the Greek /ioTT)} -rod ^vyoi'. 

3. Liver ; This seems to be the real meaning of M j=l • 

4. These gods are mentioned in the Pyramid Texts in a passage 
closely resembling this one of the Book of the Dead. " They bring 
to Unas (line 479) the four Glorious ones who are on the side lock 
of Horus ; who stand upon the Eastern side of Heaven, and who 

are conspicuous through their sceptres 1) ^N 111- They 

announce to Ra the glorious name of Unas, and proclaim ( 1 ^;s^ y)' 
cf. OTO), epOYCo) Unas to Neheb-kau." The text of Teta is 
very imperfect in this place. 

The word f] ] appears to have the sense of insignire, 

designare. This sense is a key to every passage in which the word 

5. The few early copies of this paragraph are too fragmentary 
and too contradictory to furnish a restoration of the text, which 
must have meant something like what is expressed in this translation. 

6. The Artist, Q 1\ y c^ ' which is here a common noun 
rather than a proper name. 

7. The deceased addresses his heart, and thereupon speaks in 
the first person plural, we ; that is you and I. 

8. The Mifiistrants. The ^ I ( [h ' ^^'^^^ ^'S^ ofificials in the 
Egyptian court, but here they minister to Osiris in the Netherworld. 
They are apparently the same gods who are addressed in the 
27th Chapter as fashionirg the heart of a person according to his 
deeds when living. 

9. The determinative O shows that .1 .1 is here to be taken 
in the sense of the duration of human life, and the pronominal 


suffixes M+i or is,^^ show whose life is spoken of. The latter 

suffix has reference to Mf^JVi- which is accordinglv to be 

g > ^ o r 

translated in the singular. The plural sign merely indicates a 
common or collective noun. 

ID. As the Triumphant one. So Aa^ the papyrus of Nebseni. 

0^=1 / I 
Another authority (B.M. 7865) quoted by Dr. Birch has / 

like Ra, the Triumphant One. 

The formula "How great art thou"! occurs in other primitive 
texts ; cf. Aelteste Texte, PI. 5, lines 7 and 8. In line 8 it occurs 


Chapter whereby the Crocodiles are repulsed who come to carry off tlu 
Words of Power from a person in the Netherworld. 

Back, in retreat ! Back, Crocodile Sui ! Come not against me, 
who live by the Words of Power, (i) 

I utter (2) that Name of the great god, who granteth that two of 
his Messengers* should come ; the name of one is Batta (3), and the 
name of the other is Thine Aspect is Fixed Lata. (4) 

Heaven determineth (5) its hour ; my Word of Power determineth 
all that which concerneth it ; and my mouth determineth my Word 
of Power. I eat, and my teeth are like flint, and my grinders are 
like the Cliff of Tuf. (6) 

O thou who art sitting (7) with a watchful eye against this my 
Word of Power ; do not thou carry it off, O Crocodile who livest by 
thine own Word of Power. 


This chapter is but rarely found in the more ancient collections. 
It was on the coffin of Queen Mentuhotep, but M. Naville gives the 
readings of only two early papyri. The later recensions add a text 
which we shall find later on in chapter 69, and which has no 
connection whatever with the present chapter. 

* See chapter 29, note i. 


1. The Words of Power are supplied to the deceased by Thoth 
in chapter 23. 

2. The Turin text and those which agree with it read " Do not 
thou utter," as if the Crocodile were about to use the Word of Power. 
I read l\ \ "^ e^^. The \ was first corrupted into |^, and (j |^ 
was farther improved into [\ ^ — o^ , which in its turn necessitated 
the addition of a suffix of the second person. 

3. This name was changed in the later texts to the more familiar 

one of the divine Ape J ^^ Beni'f. 


4. Fixed Law, '—^ or — ^ ^yT\ ' ^^^ central idea of theology 
in the Book of the Dead is that of Regularity, whether in per- 
manence or change. Those things alone are divine -which abide 
unceasingly or which recur in accordance with undeviating rule. 


5. Determineth. The word ■^ r- ^ here, as in other places, 

has the sense of circumscribing, as in a circuit -^ Q, prescribing 
the limits, fixing and determining. 

6. The Cliff of Tiif ^_ ©, literally 'his cliff,' namely of Anubis, 
in allusion to his frequent title "q ^^ . 

7. Sitting. Here I follow Pc and the papyri generally in reading 
/5A . The scribe of Ca seems to have been thinking of — « — vX 

Jzl 1 \^ XZ>C of a well-known magic text (Unas, 320). 


Chapter whereby the Crocodiles are repulsed who come to carry off the 
Words of Power from the glorified in the Nethern'orld. 

Osiris standeth up upon his feet; (i) his company of gods raise 
him up. 

O Son who conversest with thy father, do thou protect this Great 
one from these four (2) crocodiles here who devour the dead and 
live by the Words of Power. 


I know them by their names and their way of living, and it is I 
who protect his own father from them. 

Back, thou Crocodile of the \\'est, who livest on the Setting 
Stars. (3) What thou execratest is upon me. Thou hast devoured 
the head of Osiris, but I am Ra. (4) 

Back, thou Crocodile of the East, who livest ujDon those who 
devour their own foulness. AVhat thou execratest is upon me. I 
have come, and I am Osiris. 

Back, thou Crocodile of the South, who livest upon impurities. 
What thou execratest is upon me. Let not the red flame be upon 
thee. For I am Septu. (5) 

Back, thou Crocodile of the North, who livest upon that which 
lieth between the hours (6). What thou execratest is upon me. 
Let not thy fiery water be inflicted upon me. [For I am Tmu. (7)] 

All things which exist are in my grasp, and those depend upon 
me which are not yet. 

I am arrayed and equipped with thy Words of Power, O Ra; 
with that which is above and with that which is below me. 

I have received increase of length and depth, and fulness of 
breathing within the domain of my father, the Great one. 

He hath given to me that beautiful Amenta in which the living 
are destroyed. But strong is its possessor though he faint in it 

My face is unveiled, and my heart is in its place. 
The Urseus is upon me daily. 

I am Ra, who protecteth himself, and no evil things can over- 
throw me. 


This chapter is in even worse condition than the one which 
precedes it. There are a few scraps of it on a coffin at St. Peters- 
burg which M. Golenischeff assigns to the earliest period. The 
only early MS. which is of any use, Ba^ the Berlin papyrus of 
Nechtuamon, is here in a very mutilated condition, as may be seen 
on referring to M. Naville's edition. 

I. Osiris sia7ideth up vpo)i his feet. So Ba ; but the coffin at 
St. Petersburg lends its support to the text of Bekenrenef (of the 


26th Dynasty), which opens the chapter with the name of a crocodile 
"^^ "^=5 y o -ss=>. '' Let the Great one fall upon his 

belly " ! 

2. The ancient text had only four crocodiles, and only four are 
mentioned in the text of Bekenrenef. The Turin text speaks of 
eight ; two for each of the cardinal points. But the Saitic text 
already has two invocations instead of one for each crocodile. 

3. The sense of this myth is obvious. Every star which sefs is 
supposed to be swallowed by the Crocodile of the West. It was 

stated in note t, to chapter 1:5 that the / are stars* 

Besides the [1 ® "^^^ ^^ '=^^ AA Jr ' the stars which set and 

the [ r- — 1 v,L^ -7f I the circumpolar stars, whose navigation 

I 8 s, CUOK is continuous, there are the I ® ^ fi 1 

whose name is very significant. 8 n ^ and 9 have the sense of 

turning back,\ and the only stars whose apparent motion is ever 
retrograde are iht planets. 

All these stars are supposed as divinities to aid in the navigation 
of the Bark of Ra. The Egyptians could not have had a correct 
planetary theory (which only became possible through Kepler), but 
they understood at least that the motions of the planets were regular, 
and that they depended upon the Sun. Eudoxus is reported to 
have derived the data for his theory from his Egyptian instructors. 

4. Instead of Ra the name of Sut is found in the later texts. 

Bekenrenef has I L 
T ii 

* 1 ® MV- "^'^ ^s a feminine noun and proper nan.e occurb in tl.e 
Pyramid Texts (Unas, 644). 

t Bnigsch has produced excellent evidence for the supposition that 1 if TT 

or ^ signifies Ihe nuo (timings of the Sun, that is at the solstices, TT Q 


being the southern solstice and 


the northern. 


Septu, PA ° %^ J, A ^, the 'armed,' one of the Solar 

appellations, already found in the Pyramid texts {Unas, 281). He 
appears in chapter 130, 7, in connection with the block of execution. 

6. The text is here hopelessly corrupt. M. Pierret has ' offrande,' 

which he most probably derives from qJI or a J C^3) > ^ 

reading found in some papyri. But Ba, our oldest authority, has 
-g"^ Mn-.'^ind Bekenrenef has — j-^ D ^ (jf] . The Turin copy has ] ; 
and the context does not help us. Of these four readings (and there 
are probably others which I do not know) that of Bekenrenef seems 
to me the best ; but - - " has so many possible applications that I 
will not venture to suggest one. 

7. [I am Tmu.] These words are not in Ba, but they occur m 
all other copies, and the omission of the divine name which stops 
the crocodile is an evident fault. 

The chapter ends here, and what follows is an addition for which 
our earliest authority is that of Bekenrenef. But even this text is 
already corrupt, and requires to be corrected by more recent ones. 


Chapter whereby all Serpents are kept back. 

Oh serpent Rerek, advance not ! Here are the gods Seb and 

Stop ! or thou shalt eat the rat which Ra execrateth, and gnaw 
the bones of a putrid she-cat. 


This chapter is often found in coffins. There is a chapter much 
resembling it in the tomb of Horhotep (line 364), at least as regards 
the opening words. It addresses Rerek and tells him that Shu and 
another deity are coming, and that the speaker is Horus. No 
allusion, however, is made to the dead rat and cat. These typify 
the impurities and abominations to which the damned are liable in 
the world to come. 




Chapter whereby a person is not devoured by the dweller in the 

shi'ine. (i) 

O Urgeus ! I am the Flame which shineth, and which openeth 
out eternity, (2) the column of Tenpua (3) [otherwise said — the 
column on which are blossoming plants.] 

Away from me ! I am the Lynx goddess. (4) 


I. It is not possible to say what is here actually meant by 

H/ ^^ ^•"^^' Every word almost in this tiny chapter was a 

puzzle to the Egyptian scribes, who altered the text in a hundred 

ways. The Turin text provides against the persons being bitten by 

the Eater of the head, - 


, instead of - h 

^ as even Bekenrenef has it. 


2. Open out Eternity "XJ^ ^^ \. This is the oldest and 

D X ^1 
most approved reading even in later times. But in Ee the flame 

' shineth on the brow of the Glorified ones.' 

3. A quite unknown deity and most probably a mere blunder. 
The MS. which contains it, Ca, suggests another reading Tenpua with 

'^ , the determinative of plants. This not proving satisfactory, 
-wvAAA (j[ ^ -I vl renpit was substituted. But all this was mere con- 
jectural emendation. 

4. The Lyjix goddess, ^^ c-^^ )Ny \)^ Maftit. The name of 

this deity is generally translated l,ynx, and it is certainly applied to 
an animal of the feline species closely resembling the cat. But the 

notion expressed by the name is that of swift speed ^^ \ -A. 

(See Diimichen, Rec. lY, 100, where this verb is in parallel with 
others of the same sense.) 

This deity is again mentioned in the 39th chapter as taking part 
in the conflict with the dragon of darkness, and it is named in the 
strange magic formulae already found in the Pyramid texts. She is 


called -^ c:^:^^ L-f , (Teta 310), and she apparently 
defends the deceased (td., 1. 303) against two serpent divinities, one 
of whom at least, rj| ^''^^^ ^ T'eser-tepu (praedaro capite), is 
known to us as one of the forty-two assessors of Osiris {Todtenbuch, 


Chapter whereby the person is not devoured by a Serpent in the 


Oh Shu, here is Tattu, and conversely^ under the wig (i) of 
Hathor. They scent (2) Osiris. 

Here is the one who is to devour me. They wait apart. (3) 
The serpent Seksek passeth over me. 

Here are wormwood bruised (4) and reeds. 

Osiris is he who prayeth that he may be buried. 

The eyes of the Great One are bent down, and he doth for thee 
the work of cleansing; (5) marking out what is conformable to law 
and balancing the issues. (6) 


The translator of this chapter cannot pretend to do more than 
give an accurate meaning to each word. The true sense of the 
chapter must have been lost when the earliest copies known to us 
were written. 

I. Wig, ^^^7^ ^^ . The head-dress of the gods is one of the 

mythical forms of representing the light cloud at sunrise or sunset, 
in which the deity is pileatiis. 

2. Scent, ^ / V\ £S • The Egyptian word is also used for 
nursifig, putting to sleep, probably through influencing the breathing 
The tiose as a determinative is used in the different senses of the 

M 2 


3. They wait apart. The early MSS. do not agree here in a 
single word, and they defy translation. The later MSS. are scarcely 

H - ~~ 

less discordant. ® 

is to alight, rest, and this must also 


be the meaning of ® >^a^ . r-pi ^^, 1 is connected with ^ ID . 
ne^ in the sense of dispersitig, separatittg. 

4. Bruised, or trodden. There being no rational context it is 
impossible to fix the sense of a word like ^ ^ Si .Jl. which may 
mean either guard or bruise by beating or treading dozcm. 

5. Cleansing o ^ or ~ ?"P r n. The result of the process 

is certainly deansittg, but the operation itself is generally supposed 
to be luashing. This agrees with the Coptic p^^T a fuller, of 

which the old Egyptian form is ~1~^ r n . But pZ^^T has also 

the sense of beating, and the operation is in many countries thought 
to be one of the most important duties of washerwomen. With 
this sense of the word I would connect the names Rechit given to 
Isis and Nephthys, as signifying 'mourners.' Compare the Greek 
TvirTcaOai Tiva, KOTrreaOai Tiva, to vioum a pcrsoti, and the Latin 

6. Balancing the issues ^\ |) J-, - 1 ^ ^ . The first of 

these words is unambiguous. -^ f\ ^§\ J\ signifies literally ' stand- 
ing,' like status, or o-/y/'o-(?, and like those words also signifies 
position, situation, condition, circumstances, and also the point at 
issue, the question to be decided. 

A well known passage in Cicero's Topics (93, c. 35) may be 
quoted here : " Refutatio accusationis, in quae est depositio criminis, 
Graece <n('iat<i dicitur, Latine status appelletur : in quo insistit, quasi 
ad repugnandum congressa defensio." 

Perhaps the passage in chapter 30 B, in which " the divine 
ministrants are said to deal with a man" according to his - 1 T: 
may have reference to the circumstances of his life. 

Chapters like this, however worthless in themselves, contain 
small fragments highly illustrative of the ideas of the Egyptians at 
an extremely remote period. 



Chapter XXVIII. 
Papyrus, Brocklehurst, II. 

Chapter XXVIII. 

Papyrus, Mus^e du 

Louvre, III, 93, 

Chapters XXVI — XXIX. 
Papyrus, Berlin Museum, 22. 

Chapter XXX. 
Papyrus, Musee du Louvre, III, 93. 

Chapter XXXI. 
Papyrus, Musee du Louvre, III, 89. 

Chapter XXXIII. 
Papyrus, Leyden Museum, IV. 

Chapter XXX\ 1. 
Papyrus, Leyden Museum, IV. 



Chapter XXXVI. 
Papyrus, Berlin Museum, 2. 

Chapter XXXVIII. 
Papyrus, Mus^e du Louvre, 
Cat. des Medailles. 

Chapter XXXVII. 
Papyrus, Cairo, Bulaq, 21. 

M T7'kl 


Chapter XXX\ 111. 
Papyrus, Leyden Museum, V. 

Chapter XXXIX. Saqara, Grab 24. 

Lepsius, "Denkmaler," Abtb. Ill, Bl 266. 



Chapter whereby the Apshait is kepi ba ck. 

Away from me, thou with parted lips ! I am Chnemu, the Lord 
of Shennu, who am bringing the words of the gods to Ra. And I 
announce the news to Nebes. 


The insect called T}T}T V\ [ [ O dpsai or ~d (J V~l 

dpsdit is difficult of identification. It is certainly not a tortoise as 
was formerly thought, but looks rather like the voracious Blatta 
orientalis. The form in Le is peculiar, but I have met it in a later 
papyrus. The last word of the chapter is doubtful. The most 

.•ecent papyri have '^^'-^ 'their Lord,' which gives a very good 

sense, but even the Turin copy has | ' her Lord ' which agrees 

—# — 

with the oldest papyrus. Bekenrenef has j) Nebes, a lion-headed 



Chapter whereby the Merta goddesses are kept back. 

Hail ye Pair of goddesses Merta, Sister Pair, Merta ! (i) I inform 
you of my Words of Power. 

It is I who rise up from the Sektit boat. I am Horus the son of 
Isis, and I am come to see my father, Osiris. 


, iCi -<2>- 

Merta signifies two eyes. 

The Pair of goddesses consists of Isis and Nephthys § ' 

Rehetd, as the word is written at Denderah. 



Chapter whereby 07U Uveth by the breath of air in the Nether- 
worldf and keepeth back Merta. 

I am the god in Lion form ; the heir of Ra and Tmu in Chem- 
mis, (i) the Master in their halls. 

Those who are in their cells (2) accompany me as guides. I 
have made my way and gone round the heavenly Ocean on the path 
of the Bark of Ra, and standing on the girders* of the Bark of Ra. 

I utter his words to the men of the present generation f and I 
repeat his words to him who is deprived of breath. (3) 

I spy out for my father Ra at sunset, compressing my mouth, (4) 
and feeding upon life. 

I live in Tattu, and I repeat my life after death like the Sun 


There are two recensions of this chapter, and both are found in 
the papyrus Lb. They are called by M. Naville, 38A and 38B. The 
latter is that adopted as canonical by all the manuscripts of a later 
date, and is the one here translated. The other recension is longer, 
and contains passages which are also found in other chapters, to 
which it accordingly furnishes important variants. It may possibly 
be older than those chapters. 

I. In Chemtnis. The name of the place where Isis gave birth to 

Horus is in the Pyramid texts written ^R\ 'HTP ISQ ® (Pepi I, 428), 

and )^ \\ w (jMerenra I, 683), ah-hebit or hebit-ah; but simply 

hebit in the texts of the eighteenth dynasty, as in the annals of 
Thothmes III (Mariette, Karnak, pi. 16, line 47),+ or in the divine and 


I I I ■ 

t T/ie men of the present generation , the Rehit. 


% Here the king is compared to the god called ® ^ ^ 
and in the next line 1 ^ . And Thothmes IV [Denkm. , HI, 63) is compared 




"^F. It is certain therefore that the sign "STP is here only an 
ideogram of ® J \I/ ' 

not of the ancient ^^ \[K . From the 
eighteenth dynasty at least, and for a time belonging to a period of 
unknown length between the sixth and the eighteenth dynasties, and 

for ever afterwards, the name of the place was ® J^ ^ W* -^^^'^^ 

where, as the Tablet of the Dream says 
(Mariette, Mon. div., pi 7). 

2. In their cells •' - r Y 




I ,wwvN Here t8A 
INI ^ 

in their shrines, followed in 

some papyri by 11 11 v^ ^^ 9^1^ V^ "'•'■ fi^^ternize with Horus 
and Sut." 

3. Deprived of breath, ' the dead.' In 38A, the privation of 
breath is mentioned but in a different connection. But the text of 
the passage is uncertain. Here as in chapter 41, O ^^^ C^ Q ^^ 

[ (, <:::i 7 iJ] 'the Breathless one' is Osiris. 

4. Co7npressing my mouth: \ (/ is the ancient reading, 

_ _ r\ c^ V— n I 

::^>, as in the more recent texts. The same observation 



applies to the name of the god in chapter 125, 15. 


Chapter whereby the Serpent Rekrek is repulsed in the Nether- 

Back! down with thee, stabber (i) from Apepi ! Drown in the 
lake of Heaven, in the spot where.n thy father ordered that thy 


murder should be carried out. Away from this birth-place of Pa, 
the god encompassed by* his terrors. 

I am Ra, encompassed by his terrors. 

Back! the dark demon and the sword which he maketh to flash ! 

Ra flingeth down thy words ; thy face is twisted round by the 
gods ; thy whole heart is torn out by the Lynx goddess ; chains are 
flung upon thee by the Scorpion goddess ; and slaughter is dealt 
upon thee by Maat. 

The gods who are on the roads overthrow thee. 

Apep falleth down, the enemy of Ra. 

thou who removest the bolt from the East of Heaven at the 
stormy voice of bellowings, and openest the gates of the Horizon 
before Ra : he cometh forth fainting from the wounds. 

1 am a doer of thy will, I am a doer of thy will, O Ra. 

I have done well, I have done well ; I have done to the satis- 
faction of Ra. 

And I raise shouts of acclamation at thy success at fettering, O 
Ra. Apep is fallen and is in bonds. 

The gods of the South, the North, the West and the East bind 
him ; their bonds are upon him. 

Aker (2) overthroweth him, and the lord of the ruddy sky doth 
bind him. 

Ra is satisfied ; Ra is satisfied ; Ra maketh his progress 

Apep falleth ; Apep goeth down ; the enemy of Ra. And more 
grave for thee is the proof (3) than that sweet proof through the 
Scorpion goddess, which she practised for thee, in the pain which 
she suffered .... (4). 

Be thou emasculate, O Apep, enemy of Ra ; be thou repulsed 
whom Ra hateth ; look behind thee : a chopper is over thy head to 
divide it into two parts, and those who are above thy head assail it. 
Thy bones are broken, thy limbs are severed under the direction of 
Aker, O Apep, enemy of Ra. 

Thy boatmen [O Ra], succeed in measuring out thy path, and 
a journey, with which thou art satisfied ; a progress, a progress 

"'■ ~|r ^\ ci between, in the midst of, sui-roiinJcd liy. 


towards home ; and the progress which thou hast made towards 
home is a fair progress. 

Let no evil hindrances come forth against me from thy mouth 
in what thou doest towards me. 

I am Sutu, who causeth the storms and tempests, and who goeth 
round in the Horizon of Heaven, hke to one whose heart is veiled. 

Tmu saith : Let your countenances be raised up, ye soldiers of 
Ra, and drive back Nebtu in presence of the Divine Circle. 

Seb saith : establish those who are upon their thrones in the 
middle of the Bark of Chepera ; seize your shields and spears, and 
hold them in your hands. 

Hathor saith : Seize your daggers. 

Nut saith : Come and drive back Nebtu, who cometh against 
him who dwelleth in his shrine, and maketh his voyage in solitary 
guise : the Inviolate god, the resistless one. 

O ye gods in your Divine cycles, who travel round the lake of 
Emerald, come and defend the Great one who is in the shrine from 
which all the Divine cycle proceedeth. Let glory be ascribed to 
him, and let honour be given to him. Oh then, proclaim him with 

Nut saith, the mother of the gods : He cometh forth and findeth 
his path, and maketh captures of the gods ; he hath the first place 
in the two houses of Nut. 

Seb standeth still, the great cycle of the gods is in terror, Hathor 
is under terror, and Ra is triumphant over Apep. 


The extreme uncertainty of the text is such that no translation at 
present can be other than conjectural. 

I. Back^ down with thee, Stabler . The first word is clear 
enough ; not so the two next. 

Are we to read 1 J ^^^a^ , J I "^p^ or I J t ^ ? for each of 

M. Naville's authorities gives a different word. The last of these 
readings has some support in a subsequent passage, but almost all 

copies have 1 J ^^^—ir • There has evidently been a confusion 

between P J and J P , and the determinative '^y^ of the latter 



word has been transferred to the first. I believe that the true word is 
P J -wwvA which is used in the ancient forms of conjuration (see the 
texts of Unas, 304, 311, 542, 545, 554, eU.). It is always used in 

expressions of /yt'ng down or falling dowfi 1 B? "y^ — h — J a^/w^^ , 
(I *> — H — I /v«,^^/sA , and it is also found in parallelism with 

(J /wvwx without a determinative is susceptible of different mean- 
ings, and the very recent texts have it written with the determinative 
of motion jTii or A-, as significant of retreat. But the oldest de- 
terminative in this place is ^^ /I , and this inclines me to identify the 

word with [j/vww^ \\, and translate it 'stabber.' But this is mere 

conjecture. See note 5 on chapter 40. 

2. Akar. The older MSS. differ hopelessly from each other as 
to the name of the god. 

In order to understand the nature of the god 

Akar, we have to imagine a tunnel starting from the spot where the 
sun sets, and extending through the earth as far as where the sun 
rises. Each end of the tunnel has a sphinx-like form. A human- 
headed lion stands at the entrance and also at the terminus. It 
is through the paws of this double sphinx that the galley of the 
Sungod enters on the Western horizon and comes out on the 

In the picture Plate XV, taken from the tomb of Ram eses I V, 

^ I , Fair Entrance, is written at one end of the tunnel; <=> T , 

A AO V\ 

Fair Exit, at the other. As the solar bark could not be represented 

inside the dark tunnel, it is placed above. 

3. The proof . Lit. the taste, | tepit, with the tongue as a 

determinative, in the sense of a probe. The hand of an Egyptian 
hero is said to taste his enemy. In the Bremner Papyrus the 
god tastes Apep four times. The same conception is found in the 
Homeric poems, 

aX\' 076, daaaov 
r^/evffofieO' aWi'jXiov xe^Kij/jeaii/ e^/x^crjffiv.* 

though in Greek the taste comes generally to the patient rather than 
to the agent. 

* Iliad, 20, 258. 



Chapter XXXIX. Saqara. Grab 24. 

Lepsius, Denkmdler, Abth. Ill, 131. 265. 

Chapter XXXIX. 
Papyrus Musee du Louvre, 93. 

Chapter XL. Papyrus, Leyden Museum, No. IV. 


4. This passage, which would be most interesting if we could only 
get it accurately, is wretchedly corrupt. It is impossible from the 
variants to oi)tain a text grammatically intelligible. The Scorpion 
goddess is Isis. 

Chapter whereby the Eater of the Ass is kept back. 

Back, serpent Haiu, (i) whom Osiris execrateth. May Thoth 
cut off thy head, and may there accrue to me whatsoever property 
proceedeth from thee [according to] what was decreed against thee 
by the Company of the gods for the accomplishment of thy slaughter. 

Back, thou whom Osiris execrateth, from the Neshemet galley, 
which saileth towards the south with favourable breeze. 

Pure are ye, all ye gods who overthrow the enemy of Osiris. 

The gods upon the larboard utter loud acclamation. 

Back, thou Eater of the Ass, whom the god Chas, (2) who is in 
the Tuat, execrateth. 

Know me ! {Repeated four times). 

" Who art thou ? " 
I am * 

Down upon thy face ! (3) thou who art eating at my sanctuary. 

I am the Season, which cometh at its own will. 

'* Come not against me ; thou who comest without being called, 
and who art unknown." 

I am the master of thine utterance, and the check upon thy 
pride. (4) 

O Ha-as, whose horns (5) Horus doth cut : by my children, the 
cycle of gods in Pu and Tepit, thou art severed from thy fold and 
thy fold is severed from thee. 

And he who cutteth thee oif cometh forth as the Eye of Horus ; 
thou art kept back and assailed, and stopped (6) by the breath of my 

* There is a lacuna here in the only MS. containing the text. The dialogue 
continues through the next line of the original. 

N 2 


thou god who devourest all wrong, and carriest off with 
violence; (7) there is no wrong in me, my tablets (8) are free from 
wrong. Let me not suffer violence before the Divine Circle ; let 
not disaster be hurled upon me. 

1 am he who giveth or taketh according to thy behest. 
Let not iVbe seized, let him not be devoured. (9) 

He is Possessor of Life, and Sovereign Lord (10) on the Horizon. 


The translation of this chapter is based upon the important 
papyrus T 5 of Leyden, known as Lb. This is the only MS. which 
contains the whole chapter. All other copies begin after the sixth 

line. The usual chapter begins in Lb with a [] n ^°^, which is 

the ordinary way of indicating a various reading. But the difference 
of reading applies rather to a mere paragraph than to the whole 
chapter. In this case we should expect ^^ or something equivalent. 

The Eater of the Ass is a Serpent, but who is the Ass ? 

Here, as in each case of mythological name, the animal is not 
meant, but something which is connoted by it. The name of the ass 
is given to it in consequence of one of its characteristics. It is 
^"^^ ^ f=iii- But this is one of the seventy-five names of the 
Sun-god in the Solar Litany.* And he derives this appellation from 
his fructifying power. 

But if the Ass is the Sun, who is the Eater of the Ass ? This 
must be Darkness or Eclipse of some kind. 

1. Haiu, the serpent who devours the sun, is undoubtedly the 
same as nil 'j _^ "^^^^i Haiii^ the serpent who in the Pyramid texts is 
ordered to lie down (Unas, 545, &c.), and cease from his attacks. 

2. The god C has, ^^^* 

3. The usual chapter begins here. The text of Lb has generally 
been followed, but in some places later authorities have been 

4. Pride or boastings, wwvx ^^. O dnta, "glory," cf. glorior. 
The speaker addresses his adversary as being a miles gloriosus. 

* Naville, La Litanie du Soleil, p. 49 and 55, with the plates corresponding. 


/VSAAAA [ <^ Qj. I V^ 

^ W 1 o _M-lll i^ ^ JT 

by a viper, are t 

I . 

lose of the 

The horns here spoken of, as possessec 
deadly Cerastes, which are spines projecting from the arched eye- 
brows of the creature. See picture in Long's Egyptiati Antiquities 
of British Museum, II, p. 316, copied from the great French work. 

But the Sun-god is also called in his Litany* ^3:^ (J vS\ | 

- - III . ^--JTi 

. And a picture of the godf under the name 

exhibits him as characterized by a pair of hooked weapons, 
suggested apparently by the mandibles of a beetle. 

6. Stopped. There are three important variants here <=:>, 

r—r-l AAAAAA \ f \ 

<=:^, and ^ . And the last of these is possibly a corrupt 
reading from M- • The first two are synonymous. <:z:r> 

C ■;- 

may in certain contexts mean destroy, but it only signifies ' bring to 
a limit, to an end, stop,' like the tg/^ in lep-fxa, ter-min-o. It is used 
in many cases, such as the staunching of blood, where no destruction 
is intended. ^^ s=> ^ 1 j] r^^^ is stop in thy place. 

7. There is a picture in De7ikm., Ill, 279, of the god who carrieth 

off with violence \^^ a' m " '^"'' ''^ ^^ ^ mummied form 

holding the Tdni sceptre. 

8. Tablets, \\^ ifi I • These are the tablets on which Thoth 

has written down the evidence taken at the Weighing of the Words, 
the examination at the Psychostasia. They are mentioned again at 
the end of Chapter 41. 

9. Here I follow the general authority of the later texts. 

I o Sovereign Lord (, K f§ • This word is closely connected, 

and was so from the first, with S-^ ' seize.' The best commentary 
upon it may be derived from the legal terms usucapio, saisine, seisin. 
The Sovereign Lord of Egypt is in our current legal phrase '■'■seized 
of the Two Earths," that is of the whole Universe, North and South. 

* In the 64th invocation. 

t Lefebure Tombeau de Seti I, pi. XVII. 



Chapter whereby one avoideth the Slaughter which is carried out 

ifi the Netherworld. 

Tmu, let me be glorified in presence of the god in Lion form, 
the great god ; that he may open to me the gate of Seb. 

1 prostrate mj'self to earth to the great god who is in the Nether- 
world, Let me be introduced into the presence of the company of 
gods who preside over those who are in Amenta. 

O thou who art at the gate of Tebat ; god with the Red Crown, (i) 
who art in Amenta ; let me feed, let me live by the breath of air and 
accompany the great Cleaver, (2) and the Bark of Chepera. 

Let me speak to the divine Boatman at the gloaming, let me 
enter in and let me go out ; that I may see who is there ; that I may 
raise him up and speak my words to him. 

O Breathless one : (3) Let me live and be saved after death. 

thou Bearer ofpeace offerings, who openest thy mouth for the 
presentation of the tablets, (4) for the acceptation (5) of the offerings 
and for the establishment of Maat upon her throne; let the tablets be 
brought forward, and let the goddess be firmly established. 

1 am Osiris, the great god, the eternal king, who numbereth his 
seasons and who lifted up his right arm, who judgeth the great ones 
and giveth mission to the gods of the great Circle (6) which is in the 


The most noteworthy difference between the older recension of 
this chapter and that of the Saitic and later periods is that in the 
latter the god addressed at the opening is Osiris Unneferu, who is 
identified with Tmu. In the older recensions the identification may 
be seen in another way. Tmu is the god invoked, and in answer he 
says that he is Osiris, the great god. 

I. God with the Red Crown 1^ cj] is 11 \l^\J^ , one of 

the titles of Osiris with the ^ crown. See Plate XV from Lefebure, 
Tombeau de Seti 7, part IV, pi. 34. This litle, derived from the 
crown "'^''^y ^ is Net-td or Nait-td. It was borne by the high 




Tomb of Rameses IV. (Musee Guimet, Vol. XV, Flatea/.) 
Chapter XV. Notes 3 and 9. 

Tomb of Rameses IV. (Musee Guimet, Vol. XV, Plate 40.) 


Tomb of Rameses IX. (Musee Guimet, Vol. XVI, Plate 6.) 
Chapter XLI. Note i. 

Chapter XLVII. 

Leyden Papyrus, No. 16. 

Tombeau de Seti I. 
(Musee Guimet, Vol. IX, Plate 34. 

















S) '<^- 

















priest at Coptos (Brugsch, Diet. Geogr., pp. 1374, 1377), and the 
King of Egypt derived his title Is^ from the Crown \J of the 

North which he wore as representing Osiris, or rather the heir of 
Osiris, Horus. 

2. The great Cleaver, n«=^ "^^f ^ , the name of the god who 

cleaves his path through the sky. 

3. Breathless one, S "^ (]( Q | o ( ( ^ ^ Osiris. 

4. Thoth is the person here addressed, and the speaker is Osiris. 
The tablets are those containing the evidence at the trial at the 

5. Acceptation j-r ^^. ( j J>eka, besides the physical sense of 

comprehendere, 'to lay hold of with the hands, has that of 'taking 
in, embracing with the mind,' and perhaps ' setting forth in words.' 

6. On the Sarcophagus of Seti (Bonomi, pi. 3. D), and the other 
copies of the same text, there is a picture of these A \ ^"^ ^ 

1 1 Vihli})- '^^'^^ is the title written over them. But the text 

D D 

peaks of them as ^ -Ji 1 ^ -J|. 



Chapter whereby one hindereth the slaughter which is wrought at 
Sutenhenen. (i) 

Land of the Rod, of the White Crown of the Image, and the 
Pedestal of the gods. 

I am the Babe. (2) {Said Four Tifues.) 

Serpent Abur ! (3) Thou sayest this day, " The Block of 
Execution is furnished with what thou knowest," and thou art come 
to soil (4) the Mighty One. 

But I am he whose honours are abiding. 

1 am the Link, (5) the god within the Tamarisk, (6) who 
connecteth (7) the Solar orb with Yesterday. {Four Times.) 

I am Ra, whose honours are abiding. 

I am the Link, the god within the Tamarisk. 


My course is the course of Ra, and the course of Ra is my 

My hair is that of Nu, (8) 

My two eyes are those of Hathor, 

My two ears those of Apuat, 

My nose that of Chenti-chas, 

My two hps those of Anubis, 

My teeth those of Selkit, 

My neck that of Isis, the Mighty, 

My two hands those of the Soul most Mighty, Lord of Tattu, 

My shoulders those of Neith, Mistress of Sais, 

My back is that of Sut, 

My phallus that of Osiris, 

My liver is that of the Lords of Cher-abat, 

My knees those of the most Mighty one, 

My belly and my back are those of Sechit, 

My hinder parts are those of the Eye of Horus, 

My legs and thighs those of Nut, 

My feet those of Ptah, 

My nails and bones those of the Living Uraei, 

There is not a limb in me which is without a god. And Thoth 
is a protection to my flesh. 

I shall not be grasped by my arms or seized by my hands. 

Not men or gods, or the glorified ones or the damned; not 
generations past, present, or future, shall inflict any injury upon me. 

I am he who cometh forth and proceedeth, and whose name is 
unknown to man. 

I am Yesterday, " Witness of Eternity " is my Name : the 
persistent traveller upon the heavenly highways which 1 survey. I 
am the Everlasting one. 

I am felt and thought of as Chepera. I am the Crowned one. 

I am the Dweller in the Eye and in the Egg. 

It is an attribute of mine that I live within them. 

I am the Dweller in the Eye, even in its closing. 

I am that by which it is supported. 

I come forth and I rise up : I enter and I have life. 

I am the Dweller in the Eye ; my seat is upon my throne, and I 

sit conspicuously upon it. 

I am Horus, who steppeth onwards through Eternity. 


I have instituted the throne of which I am the master. 

As regards my mouth : whether in speech or in silence, I am 
right and fair. 

As regards my attributes : I hasten headlong, I the god Unen,* 
with all that pertaineth to me, hour proceeding from hour, the One 
proceeding from the One, in my course. 

I am the Dweller in the Eye ; no evil or calamitous things 
befall me. 

It is I who open the gates of Heaven ; it is I who am master of 
the throne, and who open the series of births upon this day. 

I am he Babe, who treadeth his path of Yesterday. 

I am "This Day" to generation of men after generation. 

I am he who giveth you stableness for eternity, whether ye be in 
heaven or upon earth ; in the South or in the North, in the West or 
in the East — and the fear of me is upon you. 

I am he who fashioneth with his eye, and who dieth not a second 

A moment of mine belongeth to you, but my attributes belong to 
my own domain. 

I am the Unknown one, but the gods of Ruddy Countenance 
belong to me. 

I am the Gladsome one, and no time hath been found, but 
served to create for me the Heaven and the increase of Earth, and 
the increase of their offspring. 

They sever and join not — they sever my name from all evil 
things, according to the words which I say unto you. 

It is I who rise up and shine forth ; strength proceeding from 
strength (9), the One proceeding from the One. 

There is not a day devoid of that which belongeth to it; for ever 
and for ever (10). 

I am Unbu,t who proceedeth from Nu, and my mother is Nut. 

thou who hast set me in motion (11)! for I was motionless, a 
mighty link within the close of Yesterday ; my present activity is a 
link within the close of my hand. 

1 am not known, but I am one who knoweth thee. 

I am not to be grasped, but I am one who graspeth thee. 
[Oh Dweller in the Egg ! Oh Dweller in the Egg !] 

* Another reading is Unneferu. 
t See note i on chapter 28. 


I am Horus, Prince of Eternity, a fire before your faces, which 
inflameth your hearts towards me. 

I am master of my throne and I pass onwards. The present 
time is the path which I have opened, and I have set myself free 
from all things evil. 

I am the golden Cynocephalus, three palms in height, without 
legs or arms in the Temple of Ptah(i2); and my course is the 
course of the golden Cynocephalus, three palms in height, without 
legs or arms in the Temple of Ptah. 

Let these words be said — Ababak ter-ek (13). 


This chapter is in itself most interesting, and it is one of the 
most important as illustrative of Egyptian mythology. It is impos- 
sible at present to explain every detail, but the general drift of the 
chapter is not to be mistaken. And the same drift is to be recog 
nised in the whole course of Egyptian religious literature from the 

The speaker throughout identifies himself with the divinity whose 
manifestation is the Sun ; he is not the Sun of this or that moment 
but of Yesterday, To-day and of all eternity, the " One proceeding 
from the One." 

1. Sutenhenen. The later texts say the "Netherworld." 

2. The Babe ® [ [ 6j) ^ , an appellative applied to the rising Sun. 
See Brugsch, Rev. II,'pl. 7 1, 3, where this babe is compared to the Lotus 
coming forth from the great stream y [ 



The word signifies that which is " hfted up," " un eleve," 

3. Serpent Ab-ur [ ] ^^ "^^ o^ . The two important 

MSS. Ca and Pb seem to imply a female personage, but as the verb 
in connection with the name is masculine the final o^ cannot be 
meant for a feminine ending, and it is peculiar to those two MSS. 
Ab-ur " the very thirsty," as the appellative of a viper, recalls that 
of the ct^ydv, whose bite caused intense thirst. But it may have 


originated in the fact that these reptiles are in the habit of lying in 
wait by the water side for the sake of the animals who come there to 

4. To soil: % ( ' C3 ^^ *^^ *yP^ °^ ^^^ word in the earlier 
texts. The late ones have the well known (, =;*i-=^Q. 


5. The Link V Iwl" -^'^ot^^i" ^PP^lI^tive of the Sun god, 

applied to Tmu and Horus in the oldest texts. The notion of 

is that of concatenation, connecting, combining, fastening, binding, setting 
tn order together, avv-ra^fia, avvTa^i<i, as in — h— ^^/ 9 v\ Q^ 

nectere coronam. Hence its occurrence in words signifying 'the ver- 
tebral column,' 'a row of teeth,' 'a chain of hills,' 'a body of troops' 
(^avvTa-ifia linrewv OX Trt^wv), or their 'captains,' literary 'composition' 

v\ -wvAA^ 11 j <;;;^~> (Pap. Prisse V, 6), and the seven 

divine V S() ' "' ffvpTaffffovje^, the first authors of artistic 

composition. See note to chapter 71. 

6 The god within the Tamarisk. The rising sun under his 
various names is frequently represented as being in a tree or bush, 
which partly conceals him. This is a mythological way of treating 
the light cloud or mist which so commonly accompanies the sun's 
first appearance. Tamarisk is only a provisional translation of 

(1 \\. The god Apuat, who is identical with Osiris, is said 

in the Pyramid Texts {Unas 107, Teta 66) to come forth from the 

7. Who connecteth. This I believe to be the sense of T v\ 

if the next word is (_ ^AAAAA . But the text is quite uncertain. 

T <=:=> ^ is a rope or cable (Bonomi, Sarc. II, c, 34), and like 

the Latin copula or the Semitic '^^H? Jj^^ has the sense of tie, 
bond, connection* 

* " J.A~i- non moAo funem, sed et in Alcorano saepe /oedus significat." 
Gesenius, Thesaur in voc. '^3,^. 

O 2 


When the prince of Tennu {Berlin Pap. i, Una 31) proposed a 
family alHance to Senehat, he said to him T _ 9 VQi Ue-toi 

avec moi! And he gave him his daughter to wife. 

In the expression T [ [ <^^^i nefrit signifies continuously, 

connectedly, and the sense of until is only completed by the addition 
of the preposition <czr> . 

Instead of [ ^^^ ' the Solar orb,' some MSS. read [ O , 

[1 V^ Yr\ ) t ^AAA-v^ "^J^ 5 or [ wwvA 5 5 ^^^d in each of these cases 

T must be understood as an adjective raised to the comparative 

degree by the preposition <r> : " More beautiful [my] splendour 
(colour, hair or veil) than Yesterday." None of these readings seem 
very attractive. 

8. Here follows the identification of the limbs of the deceased 
person with those of various gods. There are many similar texts 
belonging to all the periods of the Egyptian religion. For the 
Pyramid Texts, see e.g. Unas, line 218 &c., ib. line 570, &c., PeJ>i /, 
line 565, &c. Compare the Coffin of A?namu, pi. XXIV, line 11, &c., 
Naville, Litanie de Rd, p. 96, and Golenischeff, Metternichstele, lines 


9. Strength \ ^ : : , literally a wall or tower, like the 

J fV\f\rw^ ^£LJ ,.22. J_-L 

Ti^-biriri of Ps. XI, 4. 

10. ^.^.^.^^ j^ ^ ' continuously, continuously.' 

11. The interjection ^^ seems to imply that a second person 
is addressed. The passage would otherwise be translated, " I have 
set myself in motion," which would be more consistent with the 
doctrine contained in this chapter. 

12. All the more recent copies have J ' ^^^ Sanctuary 
of Ptah at Memphis. 

13. Ababa-k ter-ek. This is only one of the readings of a formula 
which had soon become utterly unintelligible to the copyists. 
Hieratic copies like Louvre 3079, published by M. de Rouge, B.M. 
10,257 (Rollin) and Leyden, T. 16, record several conjectural emen- 
dations, to which modern scholars might add others, were they so 



Chapter whereby the head of a person is not severed from him in 
the Netherworld. 

I am a Prince, the son of a Prince ; a Flame, the Son of a 
Flame, whose head is restored to him after it hath been cut off. 

The head of Osiris is not taken from him, and my head shall 
not be taken from me. 

I raise myself up, I renew myself, and I grow young again. 

I am Osiris. 


An early recension of this chapter is found in the tomb of 
Horhotep {Miss. Arch. II, p. 159), and an apparent reference on 
the Coffin of Amamu. 

Chapter whereby one dieth not a second time. 

Let the Cavern of Putrata (i) be opened for me, where the dead 
fall into the darkness, but the Eye of Horus supporteth me, and 
Apuat reareth me up. I hide myself among you, O ye Stars that 
set not. My front is that of Ra, my face is revealed, according to 
the words of Thoth ; my heart is in its place, my speech is intelligent. 

I am Ra himself, I am not to be ignored, I am not to be 

Thy father liveth for thee, O Son of Nut ! I am thy son Horus, 
I see thy mysteries, and am crowned as King of the gods. I die 
not a second time in the Netherworld. 

I. Putrata or All t=t . This name has 

disappeared in nearly all the MSS. It is mentioned in the Pyramid 
Texts {Pepi /, 332, Merira 635) as a lake traversed by the glorified 


Chapter whereby one escapeth corruption in the Netherworld. 

Here is the Osiris iV., motionless, motionless like Osiris; motion- 
less his limbs like Osiris — let them not remain motionless, let them 
not corrupt. They move not, they stir not : be it done for me as for 
Osiris. I am Osiris. 


Chapter whereby he that is living is not destroyed in the Nether- 

Oh ye recent offspring of Shu, who dawn after dawn is possessor 
of his diadem at sunrise; ye future generations of men, my springing 
forth* is the springing forth of Osiris. 


This chapter is addressed to the m ¥^^V^^ v) ^^"^^^"^^^^ 
who are known from other quarters to be human beings, as the 
younglings of the god Shu. But the reference is not to men who 
have yet lived upon the earth. They are spoken of as men of a 
future generation. Queen Halshepsu on her obelisk when speaking 
of them connects them with the period of 1 20 years, that is as if we 
said "men of the next century." Before their appearance upon the 
earth they circle round the Sun, and the glorified dead hold con- 
verse with them (chapter 124, 6). 

The Egyptians, like many other ancient nations, held the 
doctrine of the preexistence of souls. They held it not like 
philosophers or poets, but as an article of their popular and tradi- 
tional creed. 


Chapter whereby the Seat of a person is not taken from him in the 

Chair and Throne of mine, which are coming to me and circhng 
round to me ; divine ones ! 

• The Day-spring. 


Chapter XLVII. 


Chapter L. 

Chapter L. 

Papyrus of Ani. 

Chapter LVII. 

Nicholson Papyrus. 
(.Egyptiaca, Plate 5.) 

Papyrus of Ani. 

Papyrus, British Museum, No. 9949 
Chapter LXI. 

Chapter LVIII. 

Papyrus of Ani. 

Chapter LXIV. 


Papyrus du Louvre, iii, 93. 

Papyrus du Louvre, in, 93. 



Lanzone ^Diz. Egiz.). 

Papyrus du Louvre, iii, 93. 




1 L^v nr 



la \ 


IK Sif 

Saquara. Lepsius (Denkin., Abth. Ill, Bl. 264). 

Lanzone {Diz. Egiz.). 

Leyden Sarcophagus. 

Wilkinson (Mat. Iliirog., 
Plate 23). 

\M A 




Lepsu's (Todt., Plate 21). 

Lepsius (Todt., Plate 23). 


I am a noble Sahu (i), grant that I may become one of those 
who follow the great god. 

I am the Son of Maat, and wrong is what I execrate. 
I am the Victorious one. 


I. Sdhti fi ^ Q 1 is not a mummy, as it is sometimes 

rendered, but a living personality in mummied form. 

are identical with X and XI respectively. 


Chapter zvliereby one cometh not to the divine Block of Execution, 

The four (i) fastenings of the hinder part of my head are 

He who is in heaven it was who made firm the fastening for him 
who was fainting upon his two haunches on that day when the fleece 
was shorn. 

The fastenings of the hinder part of my head were fastened by 
Sutu and the company of gods in his first triumph. Let there be no 
disaster. Preserve me safe from him who slew my father. 

I am seized of the 'Two Earths.' 

The fastenings of the hinder part of my head were fastened by 
Nu, on the first time of my beholding the Law in virtue of which 
the gods and their symbols (2) come into existence. 

I am the Heedful one, and become the executioner for you, ye 
great gods (3). 


The antiquity of the chapter is proved by its occurrence on the 
second coffin of Mentuhotep ; but its condition there is such that 
no one can read it who is not already familiar with it from other 
sources. It begins, Aelteste Texte, p. 22, line 34, and goes on till 
the red letters at hne 50. The text, in spite of its importance, is 
very inaccurate. 


1. The four fastenings. The number /?z^r is only found in the 
oldest copies. The later copies have a different text. It is im- 
possible to say what kind of fastening is meant. — *— might be a 
ligament or a vertebra — though more probably the latter. But it 
might be a combination of several pieces. ^{jT ^^^ ^ is the 

occiput, and this suggests the hypothesis of cervical vertebrae. But 
the number of these is not four but seven. Of these three are 
peculiar ; the Atlas which supports the head, the Axis upon which 
the head turns, and the Vertebra prominens with its long spinal 
process. But see the Vignette of chapter 42 from Pd where four 
vertebrae are figured. 

2. Symbols^ or symbolical representations, 1 ■ 1 ^v\ ^^ 1 or 

■^\\\ ^ 

3. The Heedful one ^^^^, perhaps ^^_^^. Unas 584, 
Pepi I, 199 and 667. 


Chapter whereby one goeih not headlong in the Netherworld. 

I execrate, I execrate, I do not eat it. 

That which I execrate is dirt. I eat it not, that I may appease 
my Genius. 

Let me not fall into it ; let me not approach it with my hands, 
let me not tread upon it with my sandals. 


The Chapters numbered 51 and 52 are not found in the most 
ancient papyri, but the substance of them and their formulas are 
met with on the ancient coffins* and in the Pyramid texts. See, for 
instance, Unas 189, Teta 68, with M. Maspero's note on the latter 
text. I do not, however, believe, as M. Maspero does, that these 
texts convey the idea " so frequent [!] among half-civilised peoples, 

* There is a chapter in Lepsius, Alteste Texte, p. 34, with the same title as 
chapter 51, but the contents are different. 


of another life in which the deceased will have nothing to eat and 

drink but excremental matter." That the ft 1 ' ^ which I translate 

/\ 000 

' dirt ' and ^ '~s~' ' lye ' are of this nature is quite certain, but they 

are objects of abhorrence to the Sun-god, like the dead rat and the 
putrid cat in chapter ^;^, because he is a consuming fire, and " what- 

soever he findeth upon his path he devoureth it," A^ 1 1 f\ ^"^ 

JL> 1 \^ Unas 515. It is only natural then that the 

deceased who is identified with the Sun-god in these texts should 
express his execration of such offensive matter. He is not afraid 
of being limited to this food, his fear springs from the opposite 


Chapter whereby o?ie eateth not dirt in the Netherworld. 

I execrate, I execrate, I do not eat it. 

That which I execrate is dirt. I eat it not, that I may appease 
my Genius (i). 

Let it not fall upon me ; let me not approach it with my hands, 
let me not tread upon it with my sandals. 

Henceforth let me live upon corn (2) in your presence, ye gods, 
and let there come one who bringeth to me that I may feed from 
those seven loaves which he hath brought for Horus and upon the 
loaves for Thoth. 

"What willst thou eat?" say the gods to him. 

Let me eat under the Sycamore of Hathor the Sovereign, and 
let my turn be given to me among those who rest there. 

And let me manage the fields in Tattu and prosper in Helio- 

And let me feed upon the bread of the white corn and upon the 
beer of the red barley. 

And let the forms (3) of my father and of my mother be granted 
to me ; the gate-keepers of the stream. 

Let room be thrown open for me, let the path be made, and let 
me sit in any place that I desire. 




(i) Here, as in the corresponding passage in the preceding 

chapter and in several other places, the later texts often read ' — ' , 
which is a serious error. 

(2) The unintelligible (I ^ QA of the later texts should be cor- 
rected to 6 {Alieste Texte 42, lines 50, 54 and 67). The 

— H — ° ° ° r\ 

error may be traced to a form of the word with the prothetic (_ . 

There are several words varying in their applications which may be 
traced to the same origin. 

seser ' spica ' a point, hence an ear of corn, and 

H — 6 

*^~~^ , ''^~~^ ' spiculum,' an arrow, a javelin, are very clearly 
-H — ^=^^ — H — < — m. 

connected, and the notion in both is, as in the Hebrew l^lb^, that 
of 'shooting iorih,' proferre, protendere. 

— M — "^t?^ , a term applied to horned animals, has surely nothing 

to do with the Coptic cyptX? of Leviticus xv, 19. It refers to the 
pointed weapons presented by the beasts. 

H ^ is 'put forward' in the way of speech, and may be 

command or prayer, or simple statement. 

IS *^^~^ the builder's line is something ' stretched out ' pro/a 
— ♦.— Q. 

tu7n, protensuin. 

And with reference to walls, buildings, and the like, ^ 

H I ^ I 

may always be translated by proferre, protendere. 

(3) The forms, f J^|| "^t f J^|> ^s in the Turin 

Todtenbuch. There is a most interesting text but unfortunately 
imperfect on the Leyden Coffin M.3 (M. PI. 13). The deceased is 
told that on arriving at the mysterious gate he will find his father 

and his mother, ''^^ U ^^ -^ . This is followed by "1 H and 

then apparently by ^^^ but the middle sign is almost entirely 
effaced. This would mean ' at the resurrection of thy body.' 


Chapter 7vhereby one is not made to eat dirt or to drink lye. 

I am the sharp-horned Bull, who regulateth the sky, the Lord of 
the risings in heaven ; the great Giver of Light, who issueth from 
Flame ; the Bond of Time, richly supplied with years ; the god in 
Lion form, to whom is given a march of Glory. 

I execrate, I execrate, I do not eat that which my Genius 

Let it not enter into my stomach, let it not approach to my 
hands, let me not tread upon it with my sandals. 

Let me not drink lye, let me not advance headlong in the 

I am the possessor of bread in Heliopolis, who hath bread in 
Heaven with Ra, and bread upon earth with Seb. 

It is the Sektit boat which hath brought it from the house of the 
great god in Heliopolis. 

I am gladdened in my very entrails, and am associated with the 
divine mariners, who circle round to the East of Heaven. I eat as 
they eat, and I feed upon what they feed. I eat bread from the 
house of the Lord of offerings. 

Whereby one eateth not dirt. 

I execrate, I execrate ! I do not eat it. s 

Dirt is what I execrate ; I do not eat it. 

I execrate lye, I do not drink it. 

Let me not approach it with my fingers, let me not tread upon it 
with my sandals. 

Seb, the father of Osiris, hath ordained that I should not eat dirt 
or drink lye, but my father hath four times said that I should eat of 
the red corn. 

There are seven loaves in Heaven at Heliopolis with Ra, and 
there are seven loaves upon earth with Seb, and there are seven 
loaves with Osiris. 

P 2 


It is the god of the Sektit galley, and of the Maatit galley, who 
hath brought them to me at Heliopolis. 

I shout with joy, and my Genius shouteth with joy, because I 
am in Heliopolis, and I live in excellent condition before Ra, on the 
day when bread is presented in Heliopolis. 


Chapter 53A is taken from the papyri of the older period, 53B 
is a still older text from the Coffin of Horhotep. 


Chapter whereby air is given in the Netherworld. 

I am the god in Lion-form (i), the Egg in the Great Cackler, 
and I watch over that great Egg which Seb hath parted from the 
earth (2); my Life is the Life thereof, and the same is true of my 
advance in life and of my breathing of the air. 

I am the god who keepeth opposition in equipoise (3) as his Egg 
circleth round. For me dawneth(4) the moment of the most 
mighty one, Sut. 

O ye gods who are pleasant through the alternate successions of 
the Earth, who preside over sustenance and who live in the Blue (5), 
do ye keep watch over him who abideth in his Nest ; the Infant god 
who cometh forth towards you. 


The text here followed is that of Pa which is much preferable to 
that of Ani. There is a far older text, that of Horhotep, line 344 
and sqq., but it is too inaccurate to serve as the basis of a transla- 
tion. It is however very valuable for other purposes. 

(i) The god in Lion form. These words are not in Horhotep, 
the chapter beginning as in later texts " Oh Tmu let there come to 
me the air which is in thy nostrils." The word for air is written 


^— i (lines 344 and 346) as in other places. 


(2) It is a mistake to speak of a mundane egg, of which there is 
no trace in Egyptian mythology. Seb, the great cackling goose, 


lays the golden egg, which is the Sun ; but \J does not mean 

' lay upon the earth,' but ' divide, separate from the earth,' The egg 
springs from the back of Seb. 

(3) Who keepeth opposition in equipoise. This sense may be 
inferred from Pa, but is made very clear by the JI, ^ ll\, 
of Horhotep. The equilibrium of forces is maintained by the revo- 
lution of the Sun, 

(4) Dawneth, J t_J /j( . Horhotep ; whose text breaks off 
without a word on Sutu. 

(5) The Blue, ^ 11^^^^ 'lapis lazuli.' The French Vazur 

H ^ O O O 

exactly corresponds to the Egyptian, for the word azure is derived 
from lazulum. 

Ancients and modern differ greatly, as is well known, from each 
other as to the impressions derived from colour. It seems strange to 
read in the tale of the Destruction of Mankind that the ' hair of Ra 
was of real chesbet,' that is ' dark blue.' But we have an exact paral- 
lel to this in Greek. Kvavof is lapis lazuli in Theophrastus, who 
even mentions the artificial lapis made in Egypt. But in the 
Homeric poems the hair of Hector (//., 22, 401), and the hair and 
beard of Odysseus {Od., 16, 176), as well as the eyebrows of Zeus 
(//., I, 528; 17, 209) are described as Kvaveai. 


Another chapter whereby air is given. 

I am the Jackal of jackals, I am Shu, who convey breezes, in 
presence of the Glorious one (i), to the ends of the sky, to the ends 
of the earth, to the ends of the filaments of Cloud (2). 

I give air to those Younglings as I open my mouth and gaze 
with my two eyes. 


1, The Glorious one. This is the most usual reading. Fa has Ra, 

2, Filaments of Cloud. Cloud is the sense, not the translation of 


i I v"^' °^' ^^ ^* ^^ ^^^° written, ("^iJirf^ 8 S Ml, which is the 
name of some tree or shrub which has not been identified. The 
filaments [) ^ or j ^^ , which are among its characteristics, point 
in this context to the long fibrous forms presented by the cirrus 



Another chapter of breathing. 

Oh Tmu ! give me that delicious air which is in thine own 

It is I who hold that great station which is in the heart of 

I watch over that egg of the Great Cackler, my strength is the 
strength thereof, my life is the life thereof, and my breath is the 
breath thereof. 


Chapter for breathing air and command of water in the Nether 

Let the Great One (i) be opened to Osiris; let the two folding 
doors of Kabhu (2) be thrown wide to Ra. 

O thou great Coverer (3) of Heaven, in thy name of Stretcher (4) 
[of Heaven], grant that I may have the command of water, even as 
Sut hath command of force (5) on the night of the Great Disaster : 
grant that I may prevail over those who preside at the Inundation, 
even as that venerable god prevaileth over them, whose name they 
know not. May I prevail over them. 

My nostril is opened in Tattu, and I go to rest in Heliopolis, 
my dwelling, which the goddess Seshait (6) built, and which Chnum 
raised on its foundation. 


If the Sky is at the North I sit at the South ; if the Sky is at the 
South I sit at the North ; if the Sky is at the West I sit at the East ; 
and if the Sky is at the East I sit at the West. 

And drawing up my eyebrows (7) I pierce through into every 
place that I desire. 


This chapter and the following are recensions and combinations 
of extremely ancient texts. 

The first portion of the present chapter follows the ancient text 
of Horhotep. Even at that early period two recensions were in 
existence, and are copied one after the other. The translation here 
given is the nearest possible approach to the original text. 

The second portion (beginning with My nostril) dates from the 
papyri of the Theban period, though we must depend upon later 
authorities for the entire Section. 

1. The Great One <c:r> J4 urit — Heaven. 

2. KabJm Zl ) X \^ v'^'wvva, literally the Cc(?/ (water) is another 
name for the Sky,* and is here in parallelism with the Great One. 

3. Coverer Q /. r^ , a name applied both to the Nile, as 

covering the land during the inundation, and to the Sky as the 
covering above us. Cf. my paper on Nile Mythology, P.S.B.A., 
November, 1890. 

4. Stretcher | "^ , which I consider as a nasalised (per- 
haps the original) form of D ]) stretch. The papyri read 

^ at pet ' Cleaver of the Sky,' but the word at. 

without the determinative ^'=:=>-, may also mean stretch, as in the 
expression >oC ■g' ) -^ ) • 

5. Force ^ _^'"' f( |^ ^, like the Latin z;zV, may, 
but need not, be of a criminal nature. The name of the goddess 

• The name occurs repeatedly in the Pyramid Texts, and even the very 
expression i-^-^^-^ I I IV ^■■?* Unas, 375, and the Litany at Pepi I, 631. 


^ ® J) in this place is a manifest blunder of the more recent 


6. The goddess Seshait ^f^ ^ commonly but erroneously called 

Safcli, through an error against which Lepsius {Aelt. Texte, p. 3) 
and Brugsch {Zeiischr., 1872, p. 9) have both spoken. The real 
name of the goddess, as I have elsewhere* shown by actual variants, 

is fl czsa "^N, ^ ^ Seshait (Teta, 1. 268) or fl "^^^ ^ (Louvre, 


A. 97). She is so called from the root r-3-1 , ^^ Ti[o] , writing, that 
being one of her occupations. 

7. Drawing up my eyebrows I <=^\^ rn i .V ^^^^ 

scornful pride, superciliously, like the Greek ras ocppv'i avaavav. 



Chapter for breathing air and command of water. 

Let the door be opened to me 1 

Who art thou ? What is thy name ? 

I am One of You ! 

Who is with thee ? 

It is the Merta. 

Turn away then (i) front to front, on entering the Meskat. (2) 

He grants that I may sail to the Abode of those who have found 
their faces. 

Collector of Souls is the name of my Bark, Bristler of Hair is the 
name of the Oars, Point\ is the name of its Hatch, Right and 
Straight the name of the Rudder. 

The picture of it is the representation of my glorious journey 
upon the Canal. 

Give me jars of milk and cakes and flesh meat at the House 
of Anubis. 

If this chapter is known he entereth after having gone out. 

* On some Religious Texts of the Early Egyptian Period in Trans, Soc 
Bibl. Arch., Vol. IX, p. 303. 
+ All this part is corrupt. 




The 58th and 122nd chapters are reproductions of the same 
text, the earliest copy known being that of Ani. 

1. Turn away then. Merta as we have seen is the name given to 
the goddess pair Isis and Nephthys. It is therefore not possible to 
account for the masculine pronoun ^^ as having reference to 

Merta. ^^ must be taken in the sense of ideo, idcirco, then, 

2. Meskat, or according to another reading Meschenit. 


Chapter for breathing air and command of water. 

Oh thou Sycomore of Nut, give me of the water and of the wind 
which are within thee. 

It is I who hold that abode which is in Heracleopolis, I watch 
over that Egg of the Great Cackler. My strength is the strength 
thereof, my life the life thereof, and my breath the breath thereof. 


On the mythological tree in heaven which produces both wind 
and tvater, that is the rain-cloud, see my Egyptian Mythology, 
particularly with reference to Mist and Cloud, in Trans. Soc. Bibl. 
Arch., Vol. VIII. i- 

The same kind of imagery is still current in Europe. German 
authorities tell us about the ' Wetterbaum,' which in some places is 
called ' Abraham's Tree,' in others, ' Adam's Tree.' The Yggdrasill 
myth is supposed to have the same origin. The Rainbow is the 
heavenly Mountain Ash of a well known Swedish and Esthonian 
riddle. The water from heaven w-as supposed in Egypt to be 
especially refreshing for the dead-. 


Another Chapter. 

Let the doors of Heaven be open to me, let the doors of Kabhu 
be thrown wide to me ; by Thoth and by Hapi, the great Coverer of 
Heaven, at daybreak. 



Grant ye that I may have the command of water even as the 
mighty Sut had the command of his enemies on the Day of Disaster 
to the Earth. May I prevail over the Long-armed ones in their 
corners, * even as that glorious and ready god prevaileth over them, 
whose name they know not. May I prevail over the Long-armed 


V Another Chapter. 

I, even I, am he who proceedeth from the Weeper (i), and 
whose attribute is Overflowing. (2) I (3) have the command of it as 


I. The great Weeper is primarily Heaven, and it is so in this 
place. The Nile god who proceeds from it also bears the same 

Jn '^^ AAAAAA 
^^ AW^. 

3. /. The original is in the third person ; in reference to " he 
who proceedeth," &c. 

Chapter LXH. 
Chapter whereby water is drank in the JVetherworld. 

Let the Great One be opened to Osiris ; let the Kabhu be thrown 
wide to Thoth, the Coverer, Lord of the Horizon in his name of the 
Divider of the Earth. 

May I have command of the w-ater even as the might of Sutu 
had over his enemies. 

It is I who traverse the Heaven : 

I am Ra : 

I am the god in Lion form : 

I am the Steer; (i) 

I eat the haunch, and pierce through the joint.! 

* The four cardinal points; the Eastern and the Western '^ ^— R > ^"d 

the Southern-and the Northern 

1=^ a^ 

t The sacrificial offerings C^V and "^^3 . 


I go round the Sechit-Aarru. 

There hath been assigned to me Eternity, without end. 
And lo ! I am the Heir of Endless Time, and my attribute is 


I. The Steer ^ 4? ^V^*^^^^^ 5^ smau, a solar title frequent in 
the Pyramid texts. His mother. Heaven, is called 1 j^ 7r% 

<::i=>, or (as the name is written Teta 359) I 
She is called the Spouse on the Mountain U , and by a play 

upon words 

The usual meaning of I Vv ]U jJi like that of the Greek x^o7 

or the Hebrew fc^tLH , is the light green shoot of plants in spring, 

and this is the key to the sense of the proper name. The goddess 
Demeter had a temple at Athens under the name of Chloe, and it is 
in allusion to this that Sophocles calls her ei-xKoos {Oed. Col. 1600). 

This Egyptian goddess was ^"^^^ J©, a principal deity at 

Enchebit, she had the White Crown and the wig with two plumes. 
She is described as having drooping dugs, and as suckling her son. 
Cf. with this information from Unas the whole chap'-er beginning 
with line 283 of Pepi I. 


Chapter whereby one is not burnt with fire, but drinketh water in 
the Netherworld. 

Bull of Amenta ! let me be borne to thee ! 

1 am that Rudder of Ra, wherewith he conveyeth the Ancient (i) 

I am not burnt, I am not consumed. 

I am Babai, the eldest son of Osiris, who striketh the eye of 
every god (2) in Heliopolis. 

1 am the Heir, the primary power of motion and of rest (3). 

Q 2 

ii6 EOOK OF thf: dead. 

I have made firm my name, and have preserved it that I may 
have Hfe through it. 

Chapter whereby otie is twt boiled in water. 

I am that ready Rudder wherewith Ra conveyeth the Ancient 
ones, and I raise the effluxes (4) of Osiris to the Tank from flames 
impassable ; a wrecked one, (5) but not to be consumed. 

I lie helpless as a dead person, (6) and I arrive at the lair of the 
Lion who defieth slaughter, ... (7) following the road by which I 
set out. 


The Chapters 63A and 63B are united into one in the later MSS. 
without any other division than ^^^, indicative of a different 
reading. None of the early papyri contains both chapters. The 
text of 63B is extremely corrupt, and without rational interpretation. 

T. / am that Rudder of Ra, 7vherewith he conveyeth the Ancient 
ones. This passage is twice found in Horhotep (311 and 329), 

the word for Rudder being written ^\ Tk C ^^-t^ . 

2. Who striketh the eye, [ -^-^ \ . The peaceful determina- 
tive may perhaps be intended to diminish the force of the very 
expressive \ in the verb of striking. But I believe that this 
passage may fairly be illustrated by the words of Lucretius IV, 
324 and following : — 

Splendida porro oculi fugitant vitantque tueri, 
Sol etiam caecat, contra si tendere pergas. 
Praeterea splendor quicumque est acer adurit 
Saepe oculos ideo quod semina possidet ignis 
Multa, dolorem oculis quae gignunt insinuando. 

3. The primary power of fjiotion and of rest. These words have 
a modern sound, but they express the sense of the original, ^^ 



4 . Effluxes^ \\ rt3 , the /x^Vs t^^ vital sap, as it were, of the 

body of Osiris, which is the source of Hfe both to men and to 
gods,* and in default of which his own heart (Unas 12) would 
cease to beat. It is celebrated in all the mythological texts extant 
from the time of the Pyramids down to the latest inscriptions of 
Denderah and Edfu, and even in Demotic documents. | All 
moisture was supposed to proceed from it, and the Nile was 
naturally identified with it. 

In the Pyramid texts (Pepi 66) X \>'v\'\\ ^^ 
\\ is put in parallelism with ^ ^ |. 

5. A wrecked one. So I understand ^^^^ from Chapter 125, 38, 

but the whole context here is so doubtful that no translator who 
respects himself would warrant the sense. 

6. / lie helpless like a dead person. P AA , heft is the 
condition of an infant on the knees of its nurse. And I understand 
li\ V ^ ^"^ ^'■^ ^^^^ known euphemistic application to the dead. 

7. -»^ Yf^ ^- -^ ^^ "^^ X!&o%\. probable reading here, but it is a 
hapax legomenon with nothing in the context to explain it. 

Chapter whereby one cometh forth by day from the Netherworld. 

I am Yesterday, To-day, and To-morrow, for I am born again and 
again ; mine is the unseen Force, (i) which createth the gods and 
giveth food to those in the Tuat (2) at the West of Heaven ; I am the 
Eastern Rudder, (3) the Lord of Two Faces, who seeth by his own 

* In one of the ancient chapters preserved in the tomb of Horhotep, the 
deceased, speaking in the person of Horus, talks (319) of quenching his thirst 

with the ^^ _^ [^ of his father Osiris. 

t See a very interesting passage in Pap. Rhind 4, 4, with I'rugsch's 


light; the Lord of Resurrections, who cometh forth from the dusk 
and whose birth is from the House of Death. 

Ye two divine Hawks (4) upon your gables, who are giving 
attentive heed to the matter ; ye who accompany the bier to the 
tomb, and who conduct the ship of Ra, advancing onwards from the 
highest place of the Ark in heaven— the Lord of the Shrine (5) 
which standeth in the centre of the Earth ; 

He is I, and I am He. (6) 

Mine is the radiance in which Ptah fioateth over his firma- 
ment. (7) 

Oh Ra, who smileth cheerfully, and whose heart is delighted 
with the perfect order of this day as thou enterest into Heaven and 
comest forth in the East : the Ancients and those who are gone 
before acclaim thee. 

Let thy paths be made pleasant for me ; let thy ways be made 
wide for me to traverse the earth and the expanse of Heaven. 

Shine thou upon me, oh gracious Power; (8) as I draw nigh to 
the divine words which my ears shall hear in the Tuat ; let no pollu- 
tion of my mother be upon me ; deliver me, protect me from him 
who closeth his eyes at twilight and bringeth to an end in darkness. 

I am the Overflower, and Kam-ura (9) is my name : I bring to 
its fulness (10) the Force which is hidden within me. 

Oh thou Great One, who art Shoreless, (11) and callest upon 
the Powers of the South, at the moment when the god is carried 
forth, saying : — 

"Behold the Lord of his Flood; see, the Shoulder is fastened 
(12) upon his neck and the Haunch upon the head of the West" 
offerings which the two goddesses of the West (13) present to me 
when the weeping bursteth forth from me at what I witness, as I am 
borne round on the Tenait in Abydos, (14) and the bolts made fast 
on the gateways above your images are in the reach of thine hand 
and from within thee. 

Thy face is as that of a hound whose nostril sniffeth at the covert 
to which my feet convey me. 

Anubis is my bearer, for he who luUeth me to rest (16) is the 
god in Lion form. 

Do thou save me ! 

I am He who cometh forth as one who breaketh through the 
door ; and everlasting is the Daylight which his will hath created. 


" I know the deep waters " is my name. 

I satisfy the desires of the Glorified, who are by millions and 
hundreds of thousands . . . .* I am the guardian of their interests, 
actively working at the hours of the day and adjusting the arms of 
Sahu ; twelve in circling round, uniting hands, each of them with 
another. But the sixth of them in the Tuat is the ' Hour of the 
overthrow of the Sebau,' which cometh here in triumph ; the same 
which maketh way into the Tuat ; the same which is yoked with 

I shine forth as the Lord of Life and the glorious order of this 
day : the blood which purifieth and the vigorous sword-strokes by 
which the Earth is made one. 

I sever the horns (17) from those who unite in resistance to me ; 
the hidden ones who rise up in opposition against me ; those who go 
upon their bellies. 

I come as the ambassador of the Lord of lords to avenge the 
cause of Osiris in this place. Let not t the Eye consume its tears. 

I am the Guide of the house of Him who dwelleth in his 

I am come from Sechem to Heliopolis to inform the Bennu of 
the matters of the Tuat. 

Oh goddess Aucherit, who concealest that is within thee, but 
raisest up forms, like Chepera, grant that I may come forth and see 
the orb of the sun, and walk forth in the presence of the great god, 
who is Shu and abideth for eternity. 

I travel on high, I tread upon the firmament, I raise a flame 
with the daylight which mine eye hath made, and I fly forward 
towards the splendours of the Glorified in presence of Ra daily, 
giving life to every man who treadeth on the lands (18) which are 
upon the earth. 

Oh thou who leapest forth, conductor of the Shades and 
Glorified ones from the Earth, let the fair path to the Tuat be 
granted to me, which is made in behalf of those who are in faint 
condition and for the restoration of those who are in pain. 

Who art thou, who devourest in Amenta ? 

I am He who presideth in Restau. "He who entereth in his 

* The text is too corrupt here for any plausible translation, 
t Aoi is omilted in many copies. 


own name, and cometh forth in quest ; the Lord of the Eternity of 
the Earth " is my name. 

She who hath conceived hath set down her burden ; 7ohich 
turneth round before descending ; the door is shut at t/ie wall which 
is reversed . . .* 

His Eye hath been given to Horus and his face brighteneth at 
the dawning of the day. 

I am not exhausted : I become the Lion god and the palm 
flowers of Shu are upon me. 

I am not one who drowneth. 

Blessed are they who see (19) the Bourne : (20) beautiful is the 
god of the motionless heart who causeth the stay of the Overflowing. 

Behold ! there cometh forth the Lord of Life, Osiris thy support, 
who abideth day after day. 

I embrace the Sycomore, (21) I am united to the Sycomore. 

I part the two deities of morning that I may come to hold the 
Eye, (22) and cause it to rest in its place. 

I am come to see Ra at his setting, and I unite with the breeze 
at his coming forth : my two hands are pure for adoring him. 

ISIay I be restored ! INLay I be restored ! 

I fly up to heaven and I alight upon the earth ; and mine eye 
turneth back there towards the traces of my footsteps. 

I am the offspring of Yesterday; the tunnels {2;^) of the earth 
have given me birth, and I am revealed at my appointed time. 

May I be under shelter from the warlike handed god who 
cometh behind me, may my flesh be sound and may my glories be 
a protection to the limbs of one who waiteth for the purpose of 
taking counsel. May the Cycle of the gods listen to what I say. 

To be said on corning forth by day ; that one may not be kept back 
on the path of the Tuat, whether on efitering or on coming forth ; for 
taking all the forms which one desireth ; and that the soul of the person 
' die not a second time. 

If then this chapter be known the person is made triutnphant upon 
earth [and in the Netherworld] and he performeth all things which 
are done by the living. 

This chapter was discovered on a plinth of the god of the Hermu 

* The copies of this paragraph are as discordant as they are unintelligible. 
It is idle to guess at the meaning until a better text can be discovered. 


Bark (23) by a master builder of the wall in the time of King Septa, 
the Victorious. (24) 

This composition is a secret ; not to be seen or looked at. 

Recite the chapter when sanctified and pure ; not approaching 
women, not eating goat^s flesh or fish. 


This is one of the most important as it is one of the most ancient 
chapters. The text of it was aheady doubtful at the time of the 
Xlth dynasty. It had been handed down in two recensions, both 
of which were inscribed on the coffin of Queen Mentuhotep, the 
discovery of one of these being attributed to the time of King Septa 
of the 1st dynasty, and that of the second to the time of Menkaura, 
the king of the third pyramid. These two recensions are also found 
in the papyrus of Nebseni. The MSS. present innumerable various 
readings, few of which are of the slightest value. These have been 
collected, as far as they could be discovered, in the French and 
some other Museums in 1876, in a very admirable work upon the 
chapter, by M. Paul Guieysse,* who has translated and commented 
upon it and and all the variations of it known to him at the time. 
Since then the papyrus of Nebseni has been published, and M. 
Naville has given all the variants found in the few existing papyri of 
the best period. I have notes of the readings of the papyri in the 
British Museum, and also those of a cast (now in the British 
Museum) taken from a block in serpentine, belonging to the 
Museum of the Hermitage in St. Petersburg. 

With such light as could be derived from these extremely diver- 
gent authorities I have done my best (taking as the basis of my 
translation the texts in the papyrus of Nebseni and the rubric in which 
the discovery is ascribed to the time of king Septa) towards ex- 
hibiting the chapter in as intelligible a form as seems to me possible. 
Some passages as yet defy translation in consequence of the cor- 
ruption of the text. 

Some years before his untimely death M. de Rouge read his 
translation of this chapter before the Academic des Sciences. It is 
much to be lamented that this has never been published. I have, 
in addition to the versions of other scholars, a copy of one by 

* Eludes Egyptologiques ; sixieme livraison. 



Mr. Goodwin, with whom I read this and other chapters nearly 
thirty years ago. But this kind of literature is not one of those in 
which his marvellous sagacity showed to advantage. 

In reading this and almost every other chapter of the Book of 
the Dead, it is absolutely necessary to bear in mind that different 
divine names do not necessarily imply different personalities. 
A name expresses but one attribute of a person or thing, and one 
person having several attributes may have several names. It is not 
implied in this chapter that the Sun is the Nile or the Inundation, 
but that the same invisible force which is manifested in the solar 
phenomena is that which produces the inundation ; He is the 
Inundator. But he has many other names and titles. 

In this chapter, as in others before it, the speaker at one time 
talks in terms identifying him with some divinit)-, and at another as 
a simple mortal petitioning some favour. 

'=^'^ c=s=i X 1 -9 , . , -f_ ^ « 

1. c> U (*^- , 1 <^^^ or, at a later period ^^ Vs\ , 

signifies ofie whose force is concealed or unseen. It is a theological 
term, frequent at all periods of the Egyptian religion, and implies 
that the deity is not to be confounded with its external manifestation. 
The Sun that we see hides as truly as it reveals the Sun-god ; who, 
as this chapter shows, has other manifestations. 

2. Those in the Tuat ^ ^^ ^—^ ^ i called in the Pyramid 
Texts IK ^ V\ ) Pepi Ij 1815. The more recent texts read 

^ "^ ^ 1 " the gods of the West." 

3. Cf Pepi I, 174. 

4. Tjc'O divine Hawks upon yotir gables. They are mentioned 

in the Pyramid Texts* as J J mmO O^, Teta, 183. 

They represent the two divisions. North and South, of the kingdom 
of Horus. Cf. Rochemonteix, £:dfu, p. 55 and many other such 
passages as that found there. 

5. The Shrine which standeth in the centre of the Earth. This 
Shrine is also mentioned in the ' Book of Hades.' Cf Bonomi, 
Sarc. 4c. 

* Here as in the name of i ^" ''• Tmu, the long sign is written first though 
read last. 


6. He is /, atid T am He. Cf. the Pyramid Text—" Oh Ra 

Teta is thou, and thou art Teta . . . . , thou risest as Teta, and Teta 
riseth in thee, etc.," Teta, 337. 

7. Ptah fioateth over his fir7nament. The meaning of the verb is 
shown in early texts by the determinative, as in the parallel passage 
of the 17th chapter. 

8. Oh gracious Potver, ^^^ — • The adjective is also 

written #¥\ ._A-^. The usual determinative "i^iC^ has its origin 
in the hieratic form of ^, see Prisse Papyrus. 

9. Kam-urii ^ 1 ^^^^ -^^/www, 'The great Extender," a name 

applied to Osiris, as the Nile. "Thy two sisters, Isis and Nephthys, 
come to thee, and they convey to thee Kamit urit [the great Extent] 
in thy name oi Kam-urd [the great Extender]." Teta, 274. 

10. / bring to its fulness, etc. The yearly inundation is the 
mature result of the innate force belonging to the god ; the evep^/ij^ia. 
of his ei'epyei'a.. This translation remains the same whether the 
reading be ^>^ or [q1. 

1 1. Shoreless, ■'-^ "^^^ |^^ . ^^ or 1 — t , implies an enclosed 
space, a basin or channel with fixed limits. The inundation has no 
determinate banks. Its course is from south to north, hence the 
reference to the deities of the South. 

12. Shoulder and Haunch. The usual sacrificial joints. This 
passage was at an early date added to the paragraph which opens 
the chapter. 

ci— n V 

It is said of Ra at Edfu 

1 3. The two goddesses of the West, - 


. " He setteth m 

the West." The deities in question are Isis and Nephthys, who are 
also the deities of the East or Sunrise under the name of ( - 
•^^^-11^; Unas, 461. 

/VWVNA /W\^/\A 

In the passage of the Pyramid Texts just referred to it is stated 
that these " divinities in Ununait open their arms to the god as he 
stands up erect on the eastern side of the firmament." 

Ununait is the place of rising, springing up. 

14. The Tenait in Abydos. This feast has already been men- 

R 2 


tioned in Chapter I. It was one of those commemorative and 
representative of the death of Osiris, of his mutilation, mummifica- 
tion and burial. Prescriptions for carrying it out are found in the 
great text at Uenderah, published by Diimichen and Mariette, and 
translated by Brugsch, and Loret, and (in part) by Diimichen. 

Tenait is also the name of certain days of the month, and (Teta, 
229) of the fifth hour of the day. 

15. The bolts made fast on the gatezcays. The Pyramid Texts on 
behalf of the deceased invoke the ^^\ (, ^=^^ ^v ^s. '^W 

<=i^ V [F"' nnn' '^^^ ^^°'^ which closes the gateway of 

Heaven,' with a prayer that it may open to him (Teta, 235, compare 
line 200). 

16. He who lidleth me, / vk ^f*- The word is 

here in the dual, as corresponding to the double lion. Cf. 

important variant "Q |X g^ is found at Edfu (Rochemonteix, p. 78). 

17. I sever the horns. Cf. Psalm Ixxv, 11. 

18. The la?ids. The Egyptian word varies in the texts. The 

most authorized reading 1 ^ is used in different senses : one of 

which (and perhaps the original one) is put, put on ; ponere, locare, 
induere, figere, addere. Here it would seem from the context to 
mean locality, post, spot of earth. And I am inclined to identify 

I m this place with the well-known \>, or , as an equiva- 

\> 111 \> sss 

lent if not as a phonetic variant. 

19. Blessed are they who see T ^^W"^^^^ written T 
%^1\ _^ %\ "^ in the Pyramid Texts (Unas, 584, Teta. 42, 
Pepi 1, 181 and 199), where it is in parallelism with v\ \\ . 

20. The Bourne, [ M. On the goddess [ \ q, Menait, 

cf. Teta 2S8, Pepi I, 70, 154, 163. 

21. The Sycamore of Dawn repeatedly mentioned in the Book of 
the Dead. The Pyramid Texts also (Pepi I, 174) speak of the tall 


Sycomore of Sut in the Eastern Sky on which the gods congregate 
and sit, in expectation of the arrival of the Glorified one. 

21. To hold the Eye, m \\\>\ ^^^^"- Later texts, 

like the Turin copy, have k fl^^- The two verbs here (like 
I J ® 1 1 which is also found as a variant) are synonymous in the 
sense of embracing, holding,''' enclosing, fastening, staying, proppiiig. 

According to the ancient myth Sut deprived Horus of his Eye, 
which was recovered by Thoth, and by him restored to its owner. 
The following passage from an inscription at Edfu (Rochemonteix, 
p. 25) is in strict accordance with the oldest mythological texts. 

ii "J u s^ ^ -^ c. ^^.^ sp 

I =^=i Wv / c^ "Asten, who restored the 

Eye of Horus to its Lord, who preserved the Eye {ut'at) from 
suffering harm, who made fast the Eye {ttutrit) in its place, and who 
pacified Horus with his Eye." The different synonyms designating 

the Eye are important as showing that the word ^v^ i ^^. ^^ is 

here used in the sense of the daily light of the sun. 

The other part of the same text as Edfu gives additional variants. 

® I I Ol £- — 1 1 /VV\A/vA H— " ^ S\vF J J AAAAAA (f— ' '' i 

^|\ "^^^^and^^^<:^ ij^^n. Here the 

Eye is called •¥■ '^ , 'Hr -^^ , and ^ . But in other 

1 -^^ ci <rrr> -C2>- 

places the Ut'at stands for a less frequent moment of the solar pro- 
gress. In the Pyramid Texts for instance ® O V^ L \^ ^ 

" holder of the Southern Eye of Horus" might perhaps designate the 
Summer Solstice. And a later text connects the Eye with the 
opening of the year. 

The priestly title |;^|, 'holder of the Eye,' is like all such 

titles, that of the divinity whom the priest personates. The god 

* C/". the expressions O 1 J ^s, Teta, 258, 262, and ® 

n n ^^ 6M!i yv./v^/v\ POv LU 1— _! yvwvNA 

. 1 I S is not a mere gate, but a hold, or keep. 

zr2 -^) olZl 


himself is hieroglyphically represented by the sign ^^u of an ape 
holding the Eye. 

"• ^^^ ^--^^' ^ <^ f!T' ^ ^ S' ^'''' ^91 ; 

y\<>^3 F Rjj] , Horhotep, 213. See my note Froc. 
Soc. Bibl. Arch., 1873, p. 385. 

The Coptic AKOpi, which is generally supposed to be a serpent, 

is more probably an earth-worm, like S^^ 

\ "^ ^'^' he who 

The Pyramid Texts have another word which I understand of 
the tunnels through which the Sun, Moon, and Stars pass from 

West to East, n ^^1 *^=°^ ■> ^s opposed to X ] T^ , the paths 

of the upper world. Anubis is called 11 ><f^ b=^^=^ (Pepi I, 

80), and these passages are (1 - - o V^ ® ^, 'v Y Y ^^'^'' ^^^' 
" between the two divine forms " (a lion at each end). C/. Teta, 319, 
where it is said of the Stars f ^v f 1v | *s'=°=fe' ' ^^^^ ^^^ 

r e e \\ ^, o .c^::^ ' , that at their triumphant course 

through the tunnels the bones of the Akeru gods quake 

"1 ffl 

23. The god of the Hennu Bark, — ^ 

resides in the \ vl ^A£, ship referred to in chapter I. The god 

of this ship is commonly named Sekaru in the texts, but Hennu is 
also one of the names of Horus. On the connection between the 
two names see Teta, line 270. 

24. King Septa ( """hr^ ) of the 1st dynasty, who has been 

identified with the Usaphais of Manetho. 

The other account of the discovery of the chapter is thus de- 
scribed in the rubric of the second recension. 

This chapter was discovered at Hermopolis upon a slab of alabaster, 
inscribed in blue, under the feet of this god [Osiris], at the time of King 
Menkard, the victorious, by the royal prince Hortataf when he was 
journeying for the purpose of inspecting the temples .... * and he 

* There is no certainly about the text of the next few words. 


carried off the slab in the royal chariot^ when he saw what was 
on it. 

The rubric farther prescribes that a scarab of hard stone en- 
circled and purified with gold * should be placed upon the place of 
the heart of the deceased, and that the ' words of power ' contained 
in the 30th chapter, " Heart mine of my mother," etc., should be 
repeated. The gold leaf or plate has been found on some scarabs, 
but has disappeared from nearly all. 

The 'Ritual of Parma,' which speaks of two metals, 1 ^^"^^ 

smu, and silver (the latter for the rim), directs that the scarab should 
be put at the throat of the deceased. According to this authority it 
was the 30th chapter, not the 64th, which was discovered by Prince 
Hortataf in his inspectorial tour. 


Chapter whereby one cometh forth by day and prevaileth over the 


Oh thou who shinest forth from the Moon, thou who givest light 
from the Moon, let me come forth at large amid thy train, let me be 
revealed as one of those in glory. Let the Tuat be opened for me. 
Here am I : let me come forth upon this day, and be glorified. Let 
the glorified ones grant to me that I live and that mine adversaries 
be brought to me in bonds before the divine Circle ; may the Genius 
of my mother be propitiated thereby, as I rise up upon my feet with 
a sceptre of gold in my hand, and lop off the limbs. May I rise up, 
a Babe [from between] the knees of Sothis, when they close 
togethe . (i) 


The first part of this chapter is nearly identical with Chapter 2. 
No copy of it is found in the papyri of the older period. In place 
of it M. Naville has published a chapter bearing the same title, and 
which is found in five ancient papyri. These texts however are 
extremely discordant and corrupt, and in the more difificult, and to 
us more interesting, passages must have been quite unintelligible to 

* I understand by this that the gold is intended to keep the scarab free from 


the copyists. The second word, for instance, of line 8 is ri in Ca, 
the corresponding word is . . htu in Za, tai in Pb^ rati in la and //// in 
Aa. A discrepancy not less violent is encountered after the next 
three words. The oldest extant form of the chapter is that of Aa, 
the papyrus of Nebseni ; it is also the shortest, and the other forms 
appear to me to exhibit signs of interpolation. But M. Naville was 
quite right in taking the text of Ca as his basis for the collation of 
the texts. 

I. This whole passage, as it stands, in the MSS. is extremely 
obscure, and I can only make sense of it by conjecturing that a 
preposition has been omitted by the copyists. 

The knees of a goddess are frequently mentioned in connection 
with the birth of a divinity. Here the Babe is mentioned {cf. opening 
of Chapter 42), and the closing of the knees. The word dnh, 'live,' 
has for. its primitive meaning ' rise up,' and it is in this sense that 
I translate it here. 


Chapter whereby o?te cometh forth by day. 

I know that I .have been conceived by Sechit and that I am born 
of Neith. 

I am Horus, who proceedeth from the Eye of Horus ; I am Uat'it, 
and I come forth like the Hawk which soareth aloft and resteth upon 
the brow of Ra at the prow of his Bark in Heaven. 


Chapter whereby the doors of the Tuat are opened and otie cometh 

forth by day. 

Let the doors be opened of the caverns of Nu, and let the feet 
be loosened of those who are in glory. 

Let the caverns of Shu be opened, that he may come forth at 
large, and that I may issue from my funereal pit to my seat which is 
at the prow of the Bark of Ra ; let me issue without disaster to my 
seat which is at the prow of the Bark of Ra, the all-radiant one, as 
he riseth up from his lair. 


Chapter whereby one cometh forth by day. 

Let the two doors of Heaven be opened to me : let the two 
doors of Earth be opened to me : let the bolts of Seb open to me, 
and let the First Mansion be opened to me, that he may behold me 
who hath kept guard over me : and let him unloose me who hath 
wound his arms around me and hath fastened his arms upon me 
into the earth. 

Let the Re-hunit (i) be opened to me, let me pass into the 
Re-hunit ; let the Re-hunit be given to me, that I may come forth 
by day whithersoever my heart desireth. 

Let me have possession of my heart, let me have possession of 
my Whole heart ; let me have possession of my mouth, let me have 
possession of my legs, let me have possession of my arms, let me 
have possession of my limbs absolutely; let me have possession of 
my funereal meals, let me have possession of air, let me have 
possession of water, let me have possession of the stream, let me 
have possession of the river, let me have possession of the banks. 

Let me have possession of all things soever which were ritually 
offered for me in the Netherworld. Let me have possession of the 
table which was made for me upon earth — the solicitations (2) which 
were uttered for me " that he may feed upon the bread of Seb." 

That which I execrate, I eat it not. Let me feed upon the bread 
of the red corn of the Nile in a pure place, let me sip beer of the 
red corn of the Nile in a pure place ; let me sit under the branches 
of the palm trees [in Heliopolisj in the train of Hathor, when the 
solar orb broadeneth (3), as she proceedeth to Heliopolis with the 
writings of the divine words of the Book of Thoth. 

Let me have possession of my heart, let me have possession of 
my Whole heart ; let me have possession of my arms, let me have 
possession of my legs, let me have possession of my funereal meals, 
let me have possession of air, let me have possession of water, let me 
have possession of the stream, let me have possession of the river, 
let me have possession of the barks. 

Let me have possession of all things soever which were ritually 
offered for me in the Netherworld. Let me have possession of the 
table which was made for me upon earth. 

Let me be raised up on the left and on the right ; let me be 
raised up on the right and on the left. 



Let me sit down and let me stand up, and strain for the breeze 
[with] my tongue and mouth like a skilled pilot. (4) 

If this scripture is known, he will come forth by day and he will 
travel over the earth in the midst of the living, ujiinjurcd for ever. 


Copies of this chapter are found on the coffins of Mentuhotep 
and Sebak-aa at Berlin, and have been published by Lepsius in his 
Aelteste Texte, pi. 8, 21, 22^ and 34. They are unfortunately in 
very mutilated condition, and my translation follows the text of the 
Theban papyri. 

1. The Re-hunit in this place is clearly not an Egyptian locality, 
but a passage between the Netherworld and heaven or earth. 

2. Solicitations, [I ^o m I Q(\ ambire, ambitio, and in a bad 

sense ambages. 

3. This passage explains what is meant in Chapter 28 by the god 
of the Broad Face. One of the papyri {la) adds the well known epithet 

of the setting sun 


It is Hathor who proceeds to Heliopolis, as the feminine suffix 
which is used in the oldest texts, proves.. 

4. M'. Lefebure (Papyrus de Soutimes, p. 3, note 8) understands 
the passage as meaning '■'■ I seek the direction of the wind m order to 
avoid it." But I am inclined to recognize a superstition still current 
among sailors, the "whistling for a breeze." 

The oldest copies and the more recent ones have different 
readings, and though the words uha hemu occur repeatedly in the 

Pyramid Texts, the second word is not written ® ^^^^ ^ ■ > y ^ , 

as in the Theban papyri, but ® ^^^ ^ ^^^"^^ . 

Otherwise said : 

I am a Flaming One, and brother to a Flaming One. 

I am Osiris, brother to Isis. He who avengeth me is my son 
Horus, in company with his mother, upon mine adversaries ; adver- 
saries who have done to me all Avicked and evil things. 


Chains have been put upon their arms and hands and feet in 
consequence of the evil things which they have done to me. 

I am Osiris, the eldest of the great cycle of the gods (i) and heir 
of his father Seb. 

I am Osiris, the Lord of the heads of life ; powerful before and 
behind ; his phallus extendeth to the limits of the human race.* 

I am Sahu, who assigneth the bounds as he saileth round the 
starry throng of Heaven, the body of my mother Nut, who conceived 
me at her will and brought me forth at her desire. 

I am Anubis on the day of the Rending asunder. 

I am the Bull in the Field ; I, even I, Osiris, who shut up his 
father and his mother on the day when the great slaughter took 
place. My father is Seb and my mother is Nut. 

I am Horus, the eldest of Ra as he riseth. 

I am Anubis on the day of Rending asunder : I am Osiris. 

O great One, who enterest an'd speakest to him who presenteth 
the tablets and guardeth the door of Osiris^ (2) grant that I may 
come in and be glorified, let me be appraised, and let me be made 
vigorous, that I may come and avenge myself. 

Let me sit at the cradle (3) of Osiris, and put an end to nly 
suffering and pain ; let me be made strong and vigorous at the 
cradle of Osiris, so that I may be born with him and renewed. 
Said twice. 

Let me seize that Thigh (4) which is under the place of Osiris^ 
with which I may open the mouth of the gods and sit by him, like 
Thoth the Scribe, sound of heart, (5) with thousands of loaves, beer, 
beef, and fowl upon the table of my father, and the flesh of oxen 
and birds of various kinds, (6) which I offer to Horus, which I 
present to Thoth, and which I sacrifice to the Lord of Heaven. 


Another Chapter. 

I have come to an end (7) for the Lord of Heaven. I am written 
down as sound of heart, and I rest at the table of my father Osiris, 
King of Tattu, and my heart is stirred by his country. I breathe 
the eastern breeze by its hair (8) ; I grasp the north wind by its 

* Cf. note on the Ass of Chapter 40. 

S 2 


side lock ; I grasp the south wind by the skin as I make the circuit 
of heaven on its four sides ; I seize the east wind by the skin, and I 
give the breezes to the faithful dead amid those who eat bread. 

Jf this scripture is knoivn upon earth he will come forth by day, 
he will walk upon earth amid the livi?ig : his name will be uninjured 
for ever. 

Notes to Chapters LXIX and LXX. 

These last two chapters are always found together, and always 
appended to the ancient Chapter 68. This is the case not only in 
the papyri, but in tombs like that of Bakenrenef. 

1. The later texts say " the eldest of the five gods." 

2. Who presenteth the tablets and guardeth the door of Osiris. 
See picture of Thoth in the Psychostasia. 

3. Where Osiris renews his birth. 

4. The Thigh. The iron instrument so called used in the 
ceremony of ' Opening the mouth ' of the deceased. 

5. Sound of heart implies that the conscience of the deceased 
has been recognized as blameless. 

6. Oxen and birds of various kinds. These kinds are named in 
the text, but we have no corresponding European names. 

7. I have come to an end. The first two words of this chapter 
are evidently copied from the end of the last, but instead of menhu, 
' sacrificial slaughter,' the notion of mend or meni ' coming to an 
end,' has been substituted. Later texts read " I do not come to an 

8. Jts hair. All this paragraph sounds very strangely, and 
translators are tempted to understand that the hair, side-lock, and 
skin of the deceased are acted upon by the winds.* But the 
feminine suffix shows that the converse is the case. The speaker 
catches the air and distributes it, as we are afterwards told, to the 
faithful departed. 

Chapter zvhereby one cometh forth by day. (i) 

O Divine Hawk, who comest forth in Heaven, Lord of 
Mehurit. {2) 

* But we " catch Time by the forelock," and so did the Greeks. 


Make thou me sound, (3) even as thou hast made thyself sound, 
who revealest thyself, (4) who disrobest thyself, and presentest thyself 
to the Earth. 

May his will towards me be done by the Lord of the One Face. 

I am the Hawk in the Tabernacle and I pierce through [that 
which is upon] the Vail. (6) 

Here is Horus, the Son of Isis : Horus the Son of Isis. 

Make thou me sound, even as thou hast made thyself sound, 
who revealest thyself, who disrobest thyself, and presentest thyself to 
the Earth. 

May his will towards me be done by the Lord of the One Face. 

I am the Hawk in the Southern Heaven, and Thoth in the 
Northern Heaven, who appease the Flame when raging and who 
convey Law to the god who loveth it. 

Here is Thoth : Thoth. 

Make thou me sound, even as thou hast made thyself sound, 
who revealest thyself, who disrobest thyself, and presentest thyself to 
the Earth. 

May his will towards me be done by the Lord of the One Face. 

I am Unbu of En-areref, the Flower of the Abode of Occultation. 

Here is Osiris : Osiris. 

Make thou me sound, even as thou hast made thyself sound, 
who revealest thyself, who disrobest thyself, and presentest thyself to 
the Earth. 

May his will towards me be done by the Lord of the One Face. 

O thou who art upon thy two legs [<?/• who art terrible upon thy 
two legs], at thine own hour, owner of the Two Twin Souls, and who 
livest in Two Twin Souls. 

Make thou me sound, even as thou hast made thyself sound, 
who revealest thyself, who disrobest thyself, and presentest thyself to 
the Earth. 

May his will towards me be done by the Lord of the One 

O thou who circlest round, within thine Egg, Lord of Mehurit. 

Make thou me sound, even as thou hast made thyself sound, 
who revealest thyself, who disrobest thyself, and presentest thyself to 
the Earth. 

May his will towards me be done by the Lord of the One Face. 

Sebak standeth erect, surrounded by his high places, and Neith 
standeth erect in the midst of her alluvial grounds, in order to reveal 


themselves, to disrobe themselves and to present themselves to the 

May his will towards me be done by the Lord of the One Face. 

Oh ye Seven Divine Masters, (7) who are the arms of the Balance 
on the Night wherein the Eye is fixed ; ye who strike off the heads 
and cleave the necks, who seize the hearts and drag forth the whole 
hearts, and accomplish the slaughter in the Tank of Flame : ye 
whom I know and whose names I know, know you me as I know 
your names. 

I advance to you, advance ye to me : live in me and let me live 
in you. Convey to me the Symbol of Life which is in your hands, 
and the Sceptre which ye grasp. (8) 

Award to me the life of yearly speech through countless years of 
life in addition to my years of life ; countless months in addition to 
the months of my life ; countless days in addition to the days of my 
life ; and countless nights in addition to the nights of my life, that I 
may come forth and beam upon my own images, with breath for my 
nostrils, and eyes which see, amid those who are at the Horizon, on 
that day when brute Force {9) is brought to a reckoning. 

If this Chapter is known there is icell-being on earth with Rd 

and a fair abode with Osiris, and the person is glorified in the 

Netherworld. There are grant-ed to him the sacred cakes and the 

coming forth into the presence * in the course i)f each day, undeviatingly, 

for titties infinite. 


1. The title as here translated is taken from the oldest known 
MS., that of Nebseni. But the Papyrus Pc, which is of the same 
period, has " Chapter for entering after going forth by day, and for 
making transfortnations in all forms," and this title or a very similar 
one is found on other papyri. The most recent form is that in the 
Turin copy — Chapter for coming forth by day and repelling brttte 
Force, so that the person may tiot be seized in the Nethenuorld, but 
that his soul may be ttiade sound iti the Ta-t'eserit. 

2. Lord of Me hurit =^1.0x6. of Heaven, that is the Sun-god. The 
invocation is repeated a little farther on, "O thou who circlest within 
thine Egg, Lord of Mehurit." The god is also said to be the owner 
of " the Two Twin Souls," namely Ra and Osiris. 

* Namely, "of the great god." This ellipse is very frequent. 


3. The verb is here in the second person, not in the first. This 
is shown by those texts which give the name of the person, instead 
of the pronominal suffix, as the ol)ject of the verb. 

4. Thyself = Here, in all but the later copies, the pronoun of the 
third person is used, in accordance with a well known P^gyptian 

5. Lord of the One Face =^ /xovo-n-poawTi-o'i in opposition to TroXy- 
TrpdaieTTo^, which is an epithet of the Sky, on account of its many 
changes of aspect. The Moon too has a variety of phases, whereas 
the Sun is eminently the "Lord of One Face." From another point 
of view the god, at the beginning cf chapter 64, is called the "Lord 
of Two Faces," the bright and the dark. The Pyramid Texts have 
the parallel conception of the Two Eyes of Horus, one white and 

one black, j^s^ j^5^ ^^, Y (Unas 37). 

6. This passage receives illustration from the great inscription of 
Pianchi, who at Heliopolis paid a visit to the great Tabernacle 
I I ^^^ [— — ] I q£ j-j^g Sun-god, the doors of which he opened and 
afterwards sealed up with the royal seal. Before going up the steps, 
to it he had to lift the Vail ( 1 1 crS=i ) 5, ] <^r Curtains which con- 
cealed it, and perform sprinklings and offer incense and flowers. 
Two important words (of which the first has the interesting variant 

q| and tire second is written J \\ in the oldest texts) are 

thus made clear. 

The god is said, according to the different readings, to pierce 
" through, the Vail " or " through zvhat is upon the Vail." 

It will be remembered that the Hebrew Holy of Holies was 
separated from the Sanctuary by a curtain upon which the figures of 
Cherubim were woven, that before the curtain of the Holy of Holies 
stood the altar upon which incense was offered each morn and 
evening, and that in sin-offerings the priest sprinkled blood seven 
times before the Vail of the Sanctuary.. 

7. The Seven Divine Masters, X^ ^ I or \ \\ \ \ ^ I,* 

were the offspring of Mehurit, and assumed the form of Hawks, f 

* In the Prisse Papyrus this word is to be understood of a scholar or sage, 
whose word is of authority. 

t They have human heads on the Louvre Sarcophagus D. 7- 


They were the inventors and patrons of all the arts and sciences, 
and they assisted Thoth in composition and in the measurement of 
the earth. See references in Brugsch's article, Zeiis., 1872, p. 6. 

They are, I believe, to be identified, like the Seven Rishis of the 
later Sanskrit literature, with the seven stars of the Great Bear. In 
this conception the Polar star is represented by Thoth. 

8. The Symbel of Life and the Sceptre, the -r- and . 

9. Brute Force r\ ^\ , see chapter 57, note 5. 


Chapter whereby one cometh forth by day and passeth through the 

Ammchit. (i) 

Hail to you, ye Lords of Rule, (2) devoid of Wrong, who are 
living for ever, and whose secular period is Eternity. (3) I make my 
way towards you. Let me be glorified through my attributes ; let 
me prevail through my AVords of Power, and let me be rated 
according to my merit. 

Deliver me from the Crocodile (4) of this Land of Rule. 

Let me have a mouth wherewith I may speak, and let my 
oblations be placed before you ; because I know you, and I know 
your names : and I know the name of that great god to whose 
nostrils ye present delicacies : Tekmu is his name. And whether 
he maketh his way from the Eastern Horizon of Heaven, or 
alighteth at the Western Horizon of Heaven, let his departure be 
my departure, and his progress be my progress. 

Let me not be stopped at the Meskat ; let not the Sebau have 
mastery over me ; let me not be repulsed at your gates, let not 
your doors be closed against me; for I have bread (5) in Pu and 
beer in Tepu. And let me join my two hands together (6) in the 
divine dwelling which my father Tmu hath given me, who hath 
established for me an abode above the earth wherein is wheat and 
barley of untold quantity, which the son of my OAvn body offereth 
to me there as oblations upon my festivals. 

Grant me the funereal gifts, beef, fowl, bindings, incense, oil, 
and all things good and pure upon which a deity subsists, regularly 
and eternally, in all the forms I please. 



Chapter LXV. 
Papyrus du Louvre, III, 93. 

Chapter LXVIII. 
Papyrus du Louvre, III, 89. 

Chapter LXVIII. 
Lepsius, *'Todt.," 
Plate XXV. 

Chapter LXXI. Chapter LXXI. 

Lepsius, "Todt.," Plate XXVI. Papyrus of Nebseni, British Museum, 9900. 

iiiiniii | i i'iiiiiiiiiiii 

Chapter LXXII. 
Papyrus du Louvre, III, 93. 

Chapter LXXil. 
Papyrus, Berlin Museum, II. 


Chapter LXXIII. 
Papyrus of Ani, British Museum. 

Chapter LXXIV. 
Papyrus of Ani, British Museum. 



Chapter LXXII. 
Lepsius, "Todt.," Plate XXVII. 




Chap. LXXIV. Chap. LXXIII. 
Lepsius, "Todt.," Plate XXVII. 



s. IZ 

i\ 7 

Chapters of the Transformations or Changes. 
Cedar Coffin, in the Gizeh Museum, 

Published by Brugsch-Pasha, " Zeitschr. fiir Aeg. Spr.," 1867. 


Let me come down or go up to Sechit-aarru and arrive in 

I am the god in Lion form. 

If this book is learnt upon earth, or executed in 7vriting upon the 
coffin, he will come forth by day in all the forms he pleaseth, with 
entrance into his house without repulse. And there shall be given to 
him bread and beer and flesh-meat upon the table of Osiris. He will 
come forth to Sechit-aarru, and there shall be given to him wheat and 
barley there, for he will flourish as though he were upon earth, and he 
ivill do all that pleaseth him, like those gods who are there: un- 
deviatingly, for times infinite. 


This chapter is often found not only in papyri but upon coffins, 
in accordance with the rubric at the end. The earhest copy is on 
the coffin of Queen Mentuhotep. A very fine copy is on the ala- 
baster sarcophagus of Seti I, and our museums are rich in funereal 
monuments inscribed with this ancient text. A very similar text is 
found at the end of chapter 99. 

1. Ammehit is the name given in chapter 149 to the sixth abode 
in Amenta, but here and in other places it is simply one of the 
names of the Netherworld. In the inscriptions, for instance, of the 
tomb of Queen Tita,* " passing through the two folding doors of the 
Ammehit" is in parallelism with "going in and out of the divine 

2. Lords of Rule. Tb-^ ' tl^e reading in most documents, but 
there are others which an equal claim to authority. The in- 
vocation is sometimes made to the LJ " those who are possessed 

I I I I 1 1 

of a ka," that is the "spirits made perfect," those who have already 
passed through the requisite trials, besides the gods who have never 
passed through the stage of mortality, all of whom are possessed 
of a ka. 

The invocation, according to another reading, which is that of 

chapter 99, is addressed to the T V:> 1 LJ "those who are 

beautiful or perfect of ka." Here the papyri add lords of rule, and 

* Brugsch, Rec, II, pi. 63. The whole tomb has now been published by 
M. Benedite in the Mhitoires ae la Mission Archeologiqitc ati Caire, tome 5. 



the invocation, whatever the reading may be, is always addressed to 
those who have in their power the laws which regulate the universe. 

3. Whose secular period is Eternity. 9 vl fc^ hentd is the 

period of 120 years (see Proc. Sec. Bibl. Arch., XIV, 264) which 
was their alwv., aevtivi, corresponding in idea, not in actual time, to 
our century. The secular period of the gods is eternity. 

4. The Crocodile. Are we to understand this of the crocodile- 
headed monster pictured in the represensations of the Psychostasia ? 
These pictures are not known to us from as early a date as the 
chapter itself, but they may have existed. Perhaps, however, this 
passage may have suggested them. 

5. Bread. The Egyptian word ^r^ ta, like its homonym «===, 

\xn'^\\Q?, somtihmg pierced ox perforated. The sacrificial cake H^H 

in Leviticus viii, 26 has the same meaning and, hke ^''^/D a pipe, is 

connected with ^^H, perforavit, cojifodit, aperuit, profanavit. See 
Froc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., 1893, p. 386. 

„ I? ta, a door or gate, and some other homonyms evidently 
come under the same conception ; cf. porta and Treljiw. 

is identical with Chapter IX. 


Chapter whereby the legs are set in motion upon earth. 

Do what thou hast to do, O Sekaru {twice) ; as The god who is 
in his own house, and as The god who standeth on his legs in the 

I shine above the Leg (i) as I come forth in Heaven, but I lie 
helpless with corpselike face. 

Oh I faint, I faint, as I advance ; I faint, I faint before the teeth 
of those whose mouth raveneth in the Netherworld. 


I. The Leg. In this place, as in chapter 98 and other texts, a 
constellation in the northern sky is meant, which many years ago I 
identified with Cassiopeia. 



Chapter LXXVII. 
Papyrus of Ani, British Museum. 

Chapter LXXVIII. 
Papyrus of Ani, British Museum. 

Chapter LXXVIII. 
Lepsius, "Todt." 

Chapter LXXVIII. 
Leiden Papyrus, 
T. i6. 

Chapter LXXVIII. 
Lepsius, *'Todt." 

Chapter LXXIX. 
Papyrus du Louvre, III, 89. 

Chapter LXXIX. 
Papyrus of Sutimes, Bibl. Nat. 

Chapter LXXXI. 
Papyrus of Ani, British Museum- 



Chai'ter LXXXUI. 
Papyrus of Ani, 
British Museum. 

Chapier LXXXIV. 
Papyrus of Ani, 
British Museum. 

Chapter LXXXII. 

Papyrus of Ani, British 


Chapter LXXXIII. 

Papyrus, Berlin Museum, 

No. 2. 

Chapter LXXXV. 
Papyrus du Louvre, III, 89. 

Chapter LXXXVI. 

Papyrus, Leyden 

Museum, IL 

Chapter LXXXVI. 

Papyrus of Ani, British 


Chapter LXXXVII. 
Papyrus, Berlin 
Museum, No. i. 


This constellation, according to chapter 98, is in the Northern 

sky and in the Great Stream \\ , by which I understand 

the " Milky Way." This position is also in accordance with the 
ancient text on the Coffin of Amamu, pi. XXVI, line 22. The Zeg 
is as close to the Pole as the Great Bear (called the Thigh in 
Egyptian Astronomy) but in the opposite direction, and in con- 
sequence of this position it never sets below the horizon. Hence in 
the Pyramid Texts (Pepi I, 411 and Merenra 589) it is called 

Y> <=> ^^9; I ® ¥\ V P . And here, according 

to these texts, as in the Book of the Dead (see chapter 86), purifi- 
cation was obtained. 

The god ^ 2 ^.^ \^ V\ ' ^^-^ (also named among the 42 

judges) whose face looks backwards, and who is said to be gate 
keeper of Osiris, must be a star {e.g. 7 Cepheus) in the immediate 
neighbourhood of the Polar Star which represented Osiris. On the 
ancient coffins of Amamu and Sit-Bastit there is a chapter* for 

AAA^AA -^ 

assuming the form of a Vulture r^^^ — , V\ Z^ , in which the speaker 
says "I am the Vulture god who is on the ^<==> ^ ." 

I suspect that in the formula ^ I S ^ J I "^ "^ ^^| ^ 1 

said of Osiris on the stelae of the twelfth dynasty, the constellation 
in heaven and not a place at Abydos was meant. 


Chapter whereby one cometh to Heliopolis and receiveth a seat there. 

I have come out of the Tuat : I am come from the ends of the 
Earth, lighting up the Tank, whither the desires of them who bring 
salutation guide me. I pass through the noble dwellings of those 
who are coffined. I open the dwelling of Remrem, I reach the 
house of Achsesef. (i) I am led on to the noble mysteries, and I 
enter into the house of Kemkem. 

* It was afterwards incorporated with chapter 149. 

T 2 



[The Tet amulet (2) layeth its two hands upon me and assigneth 
me to its sister, and the custody of its mother, Kehkehit, who 
setteth me upon the Eastern path of Heaven upon which Ra ariseth 
and mounteth on high each day. 

May I too arise, and be led on, and assume the mummied form 
as a god, and let them set me upon that noble path] whereon Thoth 
travelleth when he appeaseth the two Combatants (3) as he goeth 
to Pu and advanceth to Tepu. 


I. These gods are not often mentioned. But we are told in 
the inscriptions of Rech-ma-ra {Mission Arch, du Caire, V, 127) 

I great hall of the Prince 


that Achsesef is master of the i | 

of those in Amenta. Cf. Todt., 142, 13 and 21. 

2. The Tet amulet, ||, has a chapter of its own, chapter 156. 

Divinity was supposed to reside in this and the other religious 
symbols, which are often represented in pictures with hands and 
feet. The annexed Vignette is from the Louvre papyrus III, 93, 
at ch. 93. 

' [ The part of this chapter which is within brackets is ancient, but 
is omitted in late copies. 

3. The two Combatants. Sut and Horus. 


Chapter whereby all/or?ns are assufned which one pleaseth. 

I have made my way into the Royal Palace, and it was the 
Bird-Fly (i) who brought me hither. 

Hail to thee, who fliest up to Heaven, to give light to the stars 
and protect the White Crown which falleth to me. 

Stable art thou, O mighty god, for ever, Make thou for me a 
path upon which I may pursue my course. 



I. The Bird-Fly, (1 J ^^^^v^ ^^ ' ^^ ^^^'^ S^*^) see Proc. 
Soc. Bibl. Arch., 1892, p. 396 and following, and also 1893, p. 135 and 
following. In the papyrus of Nebseni the name has for determina- 
tive an insect, which M. Lefebure has identified with the mantis. 
This deity, according to ancient texts, was the Tiller of the Rudder 
of the Neahemit ship of Osiris 


Chapter whereby one assiimeth the form of the Golden Hawk, (i) 

I set myself to view : I set myself to view as the Golden Hawk, 
which cometh out from its Egg ; and I fly and I hover as a Hawk of 
four cubits across the back. My two wings are of the green gem of 
the South. (2) 

I come forth from the cabin of the Sektit Bark and I raise 
myself up from the Eastern Hill. 

I stoop upon the Atit Bark, that I may come and raise to me 
those who are in their circles, and who bow down before me. 

I display myself and gather myself together as the beautiful 
Golden Hawk with the head of a Heron, to listen to whose 
utterances Ra cometh every day, and I sit down in th? midst of 
all the great gods of Heaven. 

The fields lie before me ; the produce is before me ; I eat of it, 
I wax radiant upon it, I am saturated with it to the satisfaction of 
my heart. 

Nepra hath given to me my throat, and I am in possession of all 
that pertaineth to my person. (3) 


I. This is the first of a series of chapters relative to the "Trans- 
formations," the subject of which is treated in the Introduction. It 
is sufficient here to repeat that the Egyptian ' Transformations ' have 
nothing in common with Metempsychosis, as understood in the 
Greek or Indian religions. The change of form in the Egyptian 
idea depended upon the will of the person ; it was not a penance 
for sin, but a means of glorification. And all the forms assumed in 


the Book of the Dead by the deceased are well known forms of the 

2. Green gem of the South \ -^^^-^ . This has generally been 

understood as representing the green feldspar of which many ob 
jects in our museums are made. But Dlimichen {Zeitschr., 1872) 

has shown that the I ' of the East ' is a synonym of Mdfkait, 

emerald, and M. Naville has referred to Pliny, who {Hist. Nat., 
XXXVII, 17) speaks of the Egyptian emeralds 'qui eruuntur circa 
Copton oppidum Thebaidis in coUibus, ex cautibus.' The same 
author quotes Juba in reference to Eihiopic gems as being 'alacriter 
virides, sed non facile puri aut concolores.' 

3. Nepra is one of the names of Osiris, considered as giver of 
corn, o Ylvpo(/)6()0's. By Throat is here meant the organ or power of 
swallowing, deglutition. 

Chapter whereby one assumeth the form of the Sacred Hawk, (i) 

Oh Horus ! come thou to Tattu, make clear to me the paths, 
and help me to make the round of my dwelling places. 

Look thou upon me and exalt me, impart to me Terror, and 
rouse in me Might, so that the gods of the Tuat may fear me, that 
their battlements war in my behalf there ; and that he may not assail 
and slay me in the house of darkness, who enwrappeth the dead ; 
the god who hideth his name ; or that the like be done by them. - 

Oh ye gods who give ear to the words ; ye foremost ones, ye who 
are in the train of Osiris ; hush ye up, gods, that which a god 
speaketh with a god who is giving ear to a case of Divine Law ! 

And that which I have said to him say thou, Osiris. 

Grant to me that change of existence which hath issued from thy 
mouth on my behalf, that I may see thine own attributes and survey 
thy Powers. (2) 

Grant that I may come forth and have the mastery of my two feet, 
and that I may be there like the Inviolate One on high ; that the 
gods of the Tuat may fear me and their battlements war on my 

Grant that I may run together with thy Punners, but remain 
firm upon my pedestal like the Lord of Life; let me be united with 


Isis the Mighty ; may they protect me against slaughter, from him 
who looked upon death. 

Let me advance to the goal (3) of Heaven. I claim words from 
Seb, and I pray for sustenance from the Inviolate one on high, so 
that the gods of the Tuat may fear me, and that their battlements 
may war on my behalf, when they see thy supplies for me. 

I am one of those Bright ones in Glory : may my attributes be 
fashioned like the attributes of him who cometh forth to Tattu ; may 
I be invested (4) with the Soul of him who telleth thee what con- 
cerneth me. 

Oh impart to me Terror and rouse in me Might that the gods of 
the Tuat may fear me and their battlements war on my behalf. 

I am the Bright one in Glory, whom Tmu himself hath called 
into being, and my origin is from the apple of his eye, (5) who 
hath made and glorified and honoured those who are to be with 
him. For he is the Unique in Heaven, whom they extol as he 
cometh forth from the Horizon, and the gods and glorified ones 
who are with him fear him. 

I am one of the worms which the eye of the Lord of Oneness 
hath brought into being. 

Verily, before Isis was, who gave birth to Horus, I grew up and 
waxed old, and was honoured beyond those in Glory, who were with 

And I arose as the Sacred Hawk, whom Horus had invested 
with his own Soul for the seizin of his inheritance from Osiris at 
the Tuat. 

And the god in Lion form, who presideth over those who are 
at the House of the Nemmes (6) which is in its caverns, said to 
me : — 

" Go back to the confines of Heaven, for thou art invested with 
the attributes of Horus : for thee the Nemmes is not, but free 
utterance is thine, even to the confines of Heaven." 

And I took possession of the inheritance of Horus from Osiris 
at the Tuat, and Horus repeated to me that which his father Osiris 
had said to him in the early time, on the Burial Day of Osiris. 

" The Nemmes hath been given to me by the god in Lion form, 
that thou mayest advance and go upon the path of Heaven, so that 
those who are on the confines of the Horizon may see thee and that 
the gods of the Tuat may fear thee, and that their battlements may 
war on thy behalf." [Aahat. (7)] 


At the divine words all they who are at the funereal shrine of 
the Lord of Oneness bend low. 

Oh thou who art raised above thy coffin and bereft of the 
Nemmes, the god in Lion form hath reached the Nemmes to me, 
and wings are given to me. 

He hath given me strength through his back, through his back, 
and through his most powerful might, that I fall not upon Shu. (8) 

I propitiate my fair brother, the Master of the two Uraei. 

I, even I, am he who knoweth the paths of Heaven ; its breezes 
are upon me, the raging Bull stoppeth me not as I advance whither- 
soever there lieth a wreck in the Field of Eternity, and I pilot 
myself towards the darkness and the suffering of the deceased ones 
of Osiris. 

I come daily through the house of the god in Lion form, and I 
pass forth from it to the house of Tsis the Mighty, that I may see 
glorious, mysterious and hidden matters, even as she hath caused 
me to see the divine offspring of the Great One. 

I am invested with the soul of Horus, so that I see what is in it, 
and when I speak hard by the Doors of Shu they respond to the 
moment. (9) 

It is I who have charge of the seisin of the inheritance of Horus 
from Osiris at the Tuat. 

It is I, even I, who am Horus in Glory. I am master of his 
diadem, I am master of his Light, and I advance to the Goal of 
Heaven. Horus is on his seat, Horus is upon his throne. 

My face is that of the Sacred Hawk, my back that of the Sacred 
Hawk : I am equipped as bis r^-^ster. 

I come forth to Tattu, tL..t I may see Osiris. 

I incline myself before him, I incline myself to Nut : they behold 
me, and the gods behold me ; the Eye of Horus and the Flame 
which is in the Two Eyes. I'hey stretch out their arms to me. 
And I stand erect and prevail in opposition to evil. 

They open to me the bright paths ; they open to me the bright 
paths ; they see my attributes, they listen to my words. 

Hail to you, ye gods of the Tuat, ye of repellent face and 
aggressive front, who tow along the Stars which set, and make the 
bright paths of the Hematit (10) for the Lord of the Soul Most 
Mighty : Horus hath ordained that ye should lift up your faces and 
look upon me. 

And I display myself as the Sacred Hawk whom Horus hath 


invested with his soul for taking the possession of his inheritance 
from Osiris at the Tuat. 

I set aside the long-haired gods and passed on through those 
who had charge of their dens in my sight : I made my way and 
passed on and reached those who presided over their caverns, and 
those who had charge of the House of Osiris ; and I speak to them, 
and make them recognize the god of Mighty Terrors, who is armed 
with horns against Sutu. I make them recognize who it is that hath 
seized for himself the divine provisions and hath equipped himself 
with the powers of Tmu. 

A gracious pass grant they to me, the gods of the Tuat, as many 
as there are who preside over their caverns and have charge of the 
House of Osiris. 

Behold me, I am come to you and have carried off and put 
together my forms . . . .(11) 

I make bright the paths which are in the Horizon and the 
Hematit in Heaven. I make firm the battlements on behalf of 
Osiris, and I make the paths bright in his behalf. 

I have done according to the command that I should come forth 
to Tattu to see Osiris, and tell him of the fortunes of that great Son 
of his whom he loveth, and who hath pierced the heart of Sutu. I 
have seen the death. 

Yea, I tell them the divine plans which Horus carried out in the 
absence of his father Osiris. 

O Lord of the Soul Most Mighty, behold me ; I come, raise 
thou me up that I may see the Tuat. 

May all the paths which are in Heaven and upon earth be open 
to me, and let there be no repulse for me. 

Thou art exalted upon thy throne, Osiris; thine hearing is 
good, Osiris ; thy back is strong, Osiris ; thy head, Osiris, is firmly 
fastened, thy throat is made fast, thine heart is glad, thou art 
confident in the strength and courage of those around thee. Thou 
art established in strength as the Bull of Amenta. 

Thy son Horus is seated upon thy throne, and all that liveth 
is subject to him. Endless generations are at his service, endless 
generations are in fear of him ; the cycle of the gods is in fear of 
him, the cycle of the gods is at his service. So saith Tmu, the Sole 
Force of the gods ; not to be altered is that which he hath spoken. 

Horus is the offering and the altar of offering ; twofold of aspect ; 
it is Horus who hath reconstituted his father and restored him. 



Horus is the father, Horus is the mother, Horus is the brother, 
Horus is the kinsman. Horus proceedeth from the essence of his 
father and the corruption which befell him. 

He ruleth over Egypt, and the gods are in his service. He hath 
carried off endless generations, and given life to endless generations 
with his Eye ; the sole one of its Lord, the Inviolate one. 


This chapter is seldom found in the complete shape which it has 

in the Turin Todtenhich. The shortest copy of it is that in the 

tomb of Horhotep {Miss. Arch. Fr., p. 158) ; it has but a few lines ; 

but they are very important, as giving the earliest form of the formula 

Q:A -vwwv <:::2:> czn ^ [1 MT^ [1 ^\ , which is an invocation 
to the battlements. The common reading, which adds the pro- 
nominal suffix "'-'"^■^ both to the verb and to its subject, is 

ungrammatical. The papyri Ati, Fg, and Ij, rightly omit the suffix 
after the verb, in the early part of the chapter. 

The coffin of Amamu has a chapter of the same title, but with 
quite a different text. 

I. Sacred Hawk. Between this and the Golden Hawk of the 
last chapter the vignettes make no distinction but that of colour, 
which is indicative of age rather than of kind. The typical Egyptian 
Hawk may be identified wnth the Falco Lanarius, or with the 
Peregrinus, but naturalists tell us that " the Lanier of BufTon is the 
perfect state of the male Peregrinus," and that "the Lanner of 
Pennant is a young female Peregrine." 

2. Thy powers, '^^^ baiu. 

3. The goal fi vj r^ or fi /-^^^ \^ ' ^ ^vord we have already 

met in chapter 72 (^e'd- Note 3), and which occurs later on in the 
present chapter. It is apparently connected with the verb of motion, 

\jI j^ , and seems here to correspond to the Greek ^a\/3ec69, or the 

Latin carceres, the two posts which were at once the starting point 
and the goal. 

" signum unde reverti. 
" Scirent, et longos ubi circumflectere cursus." * 

* Aeneid, V, 130. 


4. Invested 9 ^ Q , which is connected with ft 1 1 . 

The determinative Q is the symbol of investiture, which is also 
expressed by the sign x^ . A mummied person is called ^rt>^«, 
in virtue of his investiture. 

5. Apple of the eye, literally point, thorn ; ^^ 1 A -C2>- . 

/^/^/SA H 

6. The Nemmes \ ^ yp^. is the royal head-dress in the form 

of a wig. This chapter is the only one in the Book of the Dead in 
which it is referred to, but other religious texts mention it. It rs 
one of the objects provided for the deceased in the pictures of 
ancient coffins. (See Aelteste Texte, p. 35.) 

7. [Aahat.] In this place different MSS. introduce one or more 
words followed by the sign ^, determinative of divinity. But the 
whole text which follows is extremely unsatisfactory. The prudent 
scribe who copied Pg has the words " I am the great god," and with 
them ends the chapter. 

8. Fall upon Shu, or before Shu, who represents Daylight. 

9. The passage is obscure through the absence of the right 
determinative Tinnnr after ^'""^^ V\ • The portals of Shu, the 
gates of Morning, answer the summons of the god who comes as 
Horus. " ^x— . ^^'^s the sense of obviam ire, occurrere. 

Hetnatit Q — ^ C^ , a place near the Horizon, not 


mentioned in the Book of the Dead except in this chapter. It has 
disappeared in the later recensions. 

II. Here follow one or two divine names unknown to the 
copyists, and by them written at random. 


Chapter iv hereby one assumeth the forni of the Chief god of the 

Divine Cycle. 

Hail to thee, Tmu, Lord of Heaven, who givest motion to all 
things which come into being; thou who comest forth from the 
Earth and createst whatsoever is begotten : Lord of the things 

U 2 


which are ; who givest birth to the gods ; great god, self-produced ; 
Lord ot Life, who givest vigour to the men now living : 

Hail to you, ye Lords of pure things, ye whose abodes are 
hidden : 

Hail to you, ye Lords of Eternity, ye whose attributes are con- 
cealed, and the place where ye reside is unknown. 

Hail to you, ye gods who are in the divine circuit and the 
Kabhu ; ye gods who are in Amenta and ye, O Divine Cycle which 
is in Heaven : 

Let me come to you, let me be purified and strengthened, let 
me be enriched and gifted with power, let me have possession and 

I bring in offering to you perfume, incense and natron. Stop ye 
the outpourings of your hearts against me. I am come to put a 
stop to all the wrong things which are in your hearts, and to do 
away with the false charges which have been made to you. 

But I bring in offering to you well-bemg.* I lift up in offering 
to you Maat. 

I know you and I know your names, and I know your attributes, 
though it be not known what by you may be brought to pass. 

I come before you and make my appearance as that god in the 
form of a man who liveth like a god, and I stand out before you in 
the form of that god who is raised high upon his pedestal, to whom 
the gods come with acclamation, and the female deities with jubila- 
tion, when they see him. 

T come before you and make my appearance on the seat of Ra, 
and I sit upon my seat which is on the Horizon, and receive the 
offerings upon their altars. I drink the sacred liquor each evening, 
in the form of the Lord of all creatures, and I am exalted like that 
venerable god the Lord of the Great House, whom the gods rejoice 
at seeing at his beautiful comings forth from the womb of Nut, to 
whom Nut each day giveth birth. 

* Perhaps laiher gIofj>, splendour, I ^^^ )> U which implies something to 
be seen. 



Chapter whereby o?ie assumeth the form of the god who giveth 
Li^ht to the Darkness. 


It is I who complete the vesture of Nu, the Light which shineth 
before him, Hghting up the darkness. I unite with the two brother- 
gods who are upon me through the mighty Words of Power of my 
mouth. I raise up the fallen one who cometh after me. I fall 
along with him in the vale of Abydos when I go to rest. 

I have seized upon Hu from the place in which I found him. 
And I have lifted off the darkness through my power. I have 
rescued the Eye from its eclipse against the coming of the Fifteenth 
day, and balanced Sutu in the mansions above, against the Great 
one who is with him. 

I have equipped Thoth [with light] in the house of the Moon. 

I seize upon the Crown. Maat is upon me, and the Emerald 
and the Crystal of her months. 

This field of mine is of Azure in the festival thereof 

I lighten up the darkness and overthrow the devouring 
monsters, (i) 

Those who are in their own darkness worship me, and they rise 
up to me, covering their faces, who mourn and are prostrate : look 
ye therefore upon me. 

I am the Craftsman (2) of Nu, but I come not up in order that 
you should hear of this. 

I am the Craftsman of Nu, who lighteneth the darkness, and I 
have come to dissipate the darkness, and that light should be. 


1. Devouring fnonsters, ^^^^ _P I I I ' 

2. The later recensions have ^ or ^ ^ ^ M^ wife. The older 
papyri omit the feminine ending, which is inconsistent with the rest 
of the chapter. I understand 'C or c? ^ , in the sense of artist, 



Chapter ivhereby one assumeth the form of the Lotus. 

I am the pure Lotus which cometh forth from the glory which is 
at the nostril of Ra, and I make my journey and pursue it for Horus, 
the great god beloved. 

I am the pure Lotus which cometh forth in the field. 

This little chapter is not without its special difficulty. Are we to 
read [T] ^^. (1(1 as a word implying motion, with A as its 

determinative, or as implying invocation, with QAas its determinative? 
The copyists differed and some of them changed the word into 
I so that there should be no ambiguity. But this 

ra o'^ 

does not clear up the words which immediately follow ; hence Ba 
has suppressed them, whilst other copyists have given themselves no 
trouble as to the sense of what they wrote. 


Chapter whereby one assumeth the form of Ptah, eateth bread, 
drinketh beer, and sitteth in the midst of the great gods. 

I fly like the Hawk, I cackle like the Smen-goose, I alight on the 
right side of the Aat, on the feast of the Great One. 

I execrate, I execrate : I eat it not. Dirt is what I execrate : 
I eat it not. That which my Genius execrateth let it not enter 
into me. 

Let me therefore live upon that which is put before them ; the 
gods and the glorified ones. Let me live and enjoy the bread 

and * Let me then eat them in the presence of the gods and 

glorified ones. Let me enjoy and eat them under the foliage of the 
date trees of Hathor, my sovereign. Let the oblations be made, of 
bread and beer in Taltu, and bondings of the head in Annu. Let 

* The word seems to have been uninleUigible to the copyists, who differ 
widely from each other as to its orthography. 


my vesture be girt upon me by Tait. Let me sit whereever it 
pleaseth me. 

My head is that of Ra and I am summed up as Tmu : Four 
times the arm's length of Ra : four times the width of the world, (i) 

I have come forth with the tongue of Ptah and the throat of 
Hathor that I may record the words of my father Tmu with my 
mouth, which draweth to itself the Spouse of Seb, and the proclama- 
tion of whose lips inspireth fear. 

I repeat the acclamations at my success on being declared the 
heir of the Lord of Earth, Seb, from whom I issue. 

Seb purifieth me, and giveth me his Theophanies. (2) The 
dwellers in Annu bow their heads to me. I am their Master. I am 
their Bull. More powerful am I than the Lord of Time ; I am the 
author and the master of endless years. 

I. Not in length but in periphery. The I ] 

i CZS3 I I I I I I 

implies a quadrangular figure, and so do {f^^ ^ . Of this 

==== nil 
quadrangle, North, South, East, and West, are not cardinal points or 

angles, but sides. 

2. Theophanies, v\ . This is the true meaning of the 

word, whether in reference to the Sun rising in the sky or to the 
king upon his throne. 

Chapter whereby one assumeth the form of the Bennu bird. 

Let me wheel round in whirls, let me turn like the Turning 
One, let me flourish like a flower and keep myself hidden like the 
Hider. (i) 

I am the Barley corn of every god. 

I am the four Yesterdays of those seven Uraeus deities who are 
born in Amenta; Horus who giveth light by means of his own body; 
the god who is against Sutu when Thoth is between them, as in that 
dispute of the Prince of Sechem with the Spirits of Annu where 
the river is between them. (2) 


I come forth by day and disclose myself at the head of the gods. 
I am the god who chaseth all boastfulness. (3) 


1. There is here a play on the words /«;, heper^ ru( and set The 

Turning One is the god Chepera. The Tortoise ^^. *^^ 

derives its name (the hider), from the habit of drawing its body within 
its shell. On the flight of the Bennu see the first note of next 

2. The Nile lies between the opposite shores of the Nomes of 
Letopolis (Sechem) and Heliopolis (Annu). 

3. The later recensions have " I am Chonsu who ptitteth a stop 
to all boastfulness." But in the early copies Chonsu is taken in its 

primitive sense the chaser and does not require the verb <zr> to 

govern 'boastfulness.' 

Chapter whereby one assunieth the form of the Herns haw. ( i ) 

Thou who boldest the bound victims ; ye knives over their heads 
and locks and fleeces; (2) ye aged and bright ones who are armed 
with the fated moment. 

I come to heaven but I strike upon the earth ; and conversely. 

It is my power which produceth victory and raiseth the height 
of heaven, and I make the lustrations which yield the extent of earth 
to my feet against the sinful cities as I advance and cut in pieces (3) 
those who are involved in rebellion. (4) 

I leave the gods upon their paths but I strike the Wakers who 
are in their coffins. 

I know not Nu, I know not Tatunen, I know not the Red ones 
when they bring opposition to me. 

I know not a Word of Power to whose utterance I listen. 

I am the Red Calf upon the tablets. 

This is what the gods say when they raise their voice. 

Let your countenances be without restraint towards him who 
Cometh to me, 


The morning dawns are independent of you, ye have not the 
charge of them ; but my alternations are in my own hands. I say 
not the wrong instead of the right. 

Day after day unswervingly turneth back upon my eye-brow. 

And Evening is the beginning of my voyage to celebrate the 
solemnity of the Reclining and the Embrace of the Aged one who 
hath charge of the Earth. 


1. Both the Betmu and the Shenshen (which I here translate 
' Hernshaw ') are Herons. They fly to a great height in spiral 

2. The true reading here seems to be '^_^ Yr\ from \\ 

' shear.' 

3. Cut in pieces. The papyrus of Ani gives the valuable reading 

n (g . 

4. Rebellion. So I understand -^^ ^ j , a wrongful and violent 

rising, i7ravaaTaai<s. 


Chapter whereby one assumeth thefortn of a Soul, (i) that one may 
not cotne to the dungeon. Imperishable is he ivho knoweth it. 

I am a Soul. I am Ra who proceedeth from Nu, and my soul 
is divine. I am he who produceth food, but I execrate what is 
wrong and look not upon it. 

I am possessor of Maat and subsist by means of it. 

I am the Food which perisheth not ; in my name of the Self- 
originating Force, together with Nu, in the name of Chepera, from 
whom I am born daily. 

I am the Lord of Daylight and I execrate Death, let me not 
enter into the dungeons of the gods of the Tuat. 

It is I who give glory to Osiris and propitiate the hearts of 
those who are with him, my own friends. 

They inspire the fear of me, and put forward my might to those 
within their domains. 



And behold me, how I am raised upon my pedestal and upon 
my throne. 

I am Nu. They shall not overthrow me who do wrong. 

I am he whose orbits are of old ; my soul is divine, it is the 
Eternal Force. 

It is I who create the Darkness which maketh its seat at the 
confines of Heaven. 

My Soul hath come, far advanced in age, and I create the 
Daikness at the confines of Heaven at my pleasure. 

I reach the limits, and I advance upon my feet. 

I take the lead and I traverse the steel firmament which maketh 
a curtain. (2) I put a stop to the Darkness and the worms ; I 
whose name is hidden. 

I drive away aggression from before the Lord of the two hands, 
who is my own Soul. The Uraeus divinities are my body. My 
image is Eternal, the Lord of years, the King of Everlasting. 

I am exalted as Lord of the land of Rebu : ' the Youth in 
Town, the Lad in the Country ' is my name ; and my name is 

I am the Force which createth Heaven and maketh its abode 
in the Netherworld. 

Not to be seen is my nest ; not to be broken is my Egg. 

I am the Lord on High. I have made my nest on the confines 
of Heaven, and I descend to the earth of Seb and put a stop to 
evil. I see my father, the Lord of the Gloaming, and I breathe. (3) 


1. Soul. The Egyptian word which in our modern languages 
we translate as Soul has already been explained as meaning Force. 
It is so translated in this chapter in several passages where this sense 
is emphatically required. 

2. A curtain, ^ set, literally a skin. Cf. Ps. civ, 2, "Who 

stretchest out the heavens like a curtain," where the LXX render 
' curtain ' by ^epi'nv and the Vulgate hy pellein. 

3. Here the chapter ends in Fc. The few words which follow 
in other MSS. were unintelligible to the copyists and are written 
very variously. 



Chapter ivherehy one ass it met h the form 0/ the Swallow, (i) 

I am the Swallow ; I am the Swallow. 
I am the Scorpion-bird, daughter of Ra. 

ye gods, whose perfume is delicious : Flame which proceedest 
from the Horizon : O thou who art in the place whence I have 
brought the keeper of his fold — -let me have thine arm that I may 
make my observation at the Tank of Flame, that I may advance as 
an envoy and come with the report of it. 

Be it opened to me, in order that I may tell what I have seen. 

Horus is in command of his bark. There hath been given to 
him the throne of his father, and Sutu that son of Nut is under the 
grappling hooks which he made for him. 

1 have ascertained what is in Sechera. I have touched with my 
two hands the Heart of Osiris. (2) 

And that which I went in order to ascertain I am come to tell. 
Come let me enter and report my mission. 

And I, entering and ascertaining who cometh forth through that 
gate of the Inviolate one, I purify myself at that great stream where 
my ills are made to cease, and that which is wrong in me is pardoned 
and the spots which were on my body upon earth are effaced. 

Keeper of the Portal, let the path be made for me, for I am 
as one of you. Let me come forth by day, and walk upon my own 
legs. Let me have the feet of the Glorified. 

1 know the mysterious paths and the gates of Aarru from whence 
I come. Here am I, and I come that I may overthrow mine 
adversaries upon earth, though my dead body be buried. 

If this chapter be known he 7vill re-enter after coming forth by day. 


I. The Swallow /wwvN •^^^. The objection to this meaning 

is that the bird in question was eaten ; and that doves or pigeons 
would be less meagre food than the Swallow, and therefore more 
probably intended in the Egyptian texts. But Swallows are still 
eaten at Rome, where like Clive Newcome we may be regaled 
not only with "wild swans and ducks" but with '' robins, owls, 
and oiwvolai Te iraaL for dinner." And Willughby, the naturalist 
found a large quantity of swallows being sold for food at Valencia in 

X 2 



The flat head, the short legs, and the tail of the bird are charac- 
teristic not of the pigeon but of the swallow, and on many pictures 
{e.g., pi. xxi, vignette from Leyden papyrus) we are reminded of the 
song — 

'^H\6'' ifKOe ')(^E\ibu3v .... 
eVt f^aarepa \evKa 
ivri vwra fieXaiva. 

It is not quite plain why the name of Scorpion should be given 
to the bird, but the name fi c--^^ ^ of the insect in itself implies 

nothing more than the characteristic whiteness of colour. 

2. Touched with my two hands the Heart of Osiris. 

A \^ s^ is the origin of the Coptic (To^ 'touch.' The 

word Heart has dropped out of the later texts {e.g., the Turin copy), 
but in the older papyri it is found in the form of (1 \ or ^ . 

In Chapter 86 


Additional Note 


has unquestionably the sense of ascer- 

taifting by inspection. The Abbot Papyrus in its account of the 
enquiry respecting the spoliation of the royal coffins gives ample 
evidence of this meaning. And the word there used for reporting 

the result of the inspection is, as is Ch. 86, ' v [, (2 ^h semiiu, in 

Coptic T-<LJUt.e. 

But it is well to remember that I [ 


has another use ; which 

perhaps implies the existence of two homonymous roots. In a 
passage quoted in Note 21 to Ch. 64, it certainly signifies restore. 
And this may possibly be its meaning in the rubric of Ch. 64. The 
journey of Prince Hortataf may have had reference to the 
restoration, not simply inspection, of the temples. In this sense it 

111 3 P or 1[ rv^ sapu. The Coptic word for 

is often written 



ii-zoKaQiaiavai in Hosea xi, 1 1 and Acts i, 6 is Tc^O. 



Chapter 7ohereby otie assumcth the form of Se-ta. 

I am Seta — full of years. 

I lay myself down [in death], and I am born daily. 
I am Seta at the confines of the earth. I lay myself down [in 
death], I restore myself and I renew myself daily. 


Se-ta y^ lUSt' li'^Grally Filins terrae, is a common noun 

signiying an earth-worm. It is applied to the Sun as rising out 
of the earth. There are several pictures at Denderah representing 
the Sun-god Hor-sam-ta in the form of the worm rising out of the 
Lotus of Dawn. See pi. xxiii, from Mariette, Dend. I, 47 and 48. 


Chapter whereby one assumeth the form of the Crocodile god 


For I am the Crocodile god in all his terrors. 
I am the Crocodile god in the form of man. (2) I am he who 
carrieth off with violence. I am the almighty Fish in Kamurit. 
I am the Lord to whom one bendeth down (3) in Sechem. 


1. Sebak is not always named in the papyri. The ideogram of 
the crocodile was in some copies read emsuh and in others sebak. 

2. In the form of man ^^ ^ r m • ^^ ^^^'^ ^^''Y different 

readings this is the most intelligible. 

3. To whom one bendeth down, literally ' master of bendings.' 


Chapter whereby the Soul is united to the dead Body. 

Oh thou who Bringest ; Oh thou Runner, who dwellest in thy 
Keep, (i) thou great god; grant that my Soul may come to me from 
whatsoever place wherein it abideth. 


But if there be a delay in the bringing of my soul to me, thou 
shalt find the Eye of Horus standing firm against thee, like those 
undrowsy Watchers who lie in Annu, the land wherein are thousands 
of reunions. 

Let my Soul be caught, and the Chu which is with it, whereso- 
ever it abideth. 

Track out (2) among the things in heaven and upon earth that 
soul of mine, wherever it abideth. 

But if there be a delay in thy causing me to see my Soul and my 
Shade, thou shalt find the Eye of Horus standing firm against thee. 

Oh ye gods who draw along the Bark of the Eternal one : ye 
who lift up above the Tuat, and who raise up the Sky : ye who 
enable the Souls to enter into the mummied forms; ye whose hands 
grasp the cordage, hold firm with your ropes and stop the adversaries 
that the Bark may rejoice and the god proceed in peace. 

And now grant that my Soul may come forth in your train from 
the Eastern horizon of Heaven for ever and ever. 


The oldest papyri present a much shorter form than the later 
ones. That portion which is here separated by a line from what 
goes before it first appears on the sarcophagus of Seti I and in the 
papyrus of Ani. The vignette is a very favourite decoraticn of 

1. Keep I |i of which the regular variant in this chapter is 
not sah but ® f | sehen. 

2. Track out, D ^ is investigare, e^i-vpeiciv, to follow the 

traces like a dog. See Denk. II, 3, where the word occurs in the 
title of "master of the trackers," determined by a man holding a 
hound in leash. It is from this notion that the sense of sis'hi or 

looking appears in ^ V 

-^3^ , Wist. 



Chapter whereby Memory is restored {\) to a person. 

Oh thou who choppest off heads and cuttest throats, but restorest 
memory in the mouth of the dead through the Words of Power which 
they possess : thou seest me not with thine eyes, thou perceivest not 
with thy feet ; (2) thou turnest back thy face, thou seest not the 
executioners of Shu, who are coming behind thee to chop off thine 
own head and to cut thy throat. Let not my mouth be closed, 
through the Words of Power which I possess ; even as thou hast done 
to the dead, through the Words of Power which they possess. 

Away with the two sentences uttered by Isis when thou camest 
to fling remembrance at the mouth of Osiris (3) and the heart of Sutu, 
his enemy, saying : — 


Of this chapter we have unfortunately but one copy in Fa, of the 
Musee Borely. This is defective both at the beginning and at the 
end, and the text is inaccurate. The later copies are so inaccurate 
that it is impossible to reconstitute the text. It is precisely on those 
points where grammatical accuracy is required for fixing a definite 
sense that the manuscripts are hopelessly defective. The preceding 
translation is verbally correct, I trust, but I do not pretend that it is 
intelligible. It stops where the papyrus Fa stops. 

1. Restored. The reduplication in ^ — ^ here gives the verb this 

2. It is not only in Egyptian that verbs of sight are applied to 
other perceptions. Aeschylus says ktvttov UhopKa in Sept c. Th. 104, 
and the Hebrew writers furnish similar examples. 

3. At the Jtiouth of Osiris and the heart of Sutu. To justify this 
translation the same preposition ought to govern mouth and heart. 
But I do not know any copy in which this occurs. The Turin reading 
is simply absurd. 



Chapter whereby the Soul is secured frofn imprisonment in the 


Oh thou who art exalted and worshipped, all powerful, almighty 
one, who grantest thy terrors to the gods, who displayest thyself upon 
thy throne of grandeur, (i) let the way be made for my Soul, my Chu 
and my Shade. Let me be thoroughly equipped. 

I am a powerful Soul ; let the way be made for me to the place 
where Ra is and Hathor. 

If this Chapter is kfioicn, he taketh the form of a fully equipped 
Chu in the Netherworld^ and does not suffer imprisonme7it at any door 
in the Atfienta, either in coming in or going out. 


I. There is no safe text here, ' grandeur ' is only meant to indicate 

the existence of <cr> in the original. But there certainly ought to 

be something different from what any of the MSS. supply. 


Chapter whereby the Tomb is ope?ied to the Soul and to the Shade of 
the person, that he may come forth by day atid ?nay have mastery 
of his feet. 

That standeth open which thou openest, and that is closed which 
thou closest, oh thou who art at rest; (i) thou openest and thou 
closest to my Soul, at the bidding of the Eye of Horus : who 
delivereth me, who establisheth the glory upon the brow of Ra : [the 
god] of stretched out steps and rapid paces, who maketh for me a 
wide path and vigorous limbs. 

I am Horus, the avenger of his father, who lifteth up his father 
and who lifteth up his mother with his staff. 

Let the path be opened to him who hath mastery of his feet, 
that he may look upon the great god within the Bark of Ra on the 
day of the Soul's Reckoning ; and my Soul is then at the front 
during the Reckoning of the Years. 



Chapter LXXXVIII. Cuaptek LXXXMII. 
Papyrus, Leyden, Papyrus of Nebseni, British 
No. II. Museum, No. 9900. 

Chapter LXXX\"II. 
Mariette, "Denderah." 

Chapter LXXXVII. Chapter LXXXVIII. 
Papyrus of Ani, British Museum. 

Chapter LXXXIX. 
Papyrvs of Ani, British Museum. 

Chapter XC. 
Papyrus, Musee Bore'y, Marseilles. 

Chapter XC. 
Lepsius, Todtenbuch. 

Chapter XCII, 
Papyrus du Louvre, III, 89. 



Chapter XCII. 
Papyrus, British Museum, 9949. 



!"i ir 

jxy — -« 




' \ 

Chapter XCII. 
Papyrus, Boulaq, 21. 

Chapter XCII. 
Papyrus of Ani, British Museum. 

Chapter XCIII. 
Papyrus, Louvre III, 93. 

Chapter XCIV. 
Papyrus, Louvre III, 9. 

Chapter XCV. 
Papyrus, British Museum, 10,009. 


May the Eye of Horus deliver for me my Soul, and establish my 
splendour upon the brow of Ra, and may my radiance be upon your 
faces who are attached to the person of Osiris ; imprison not my 
Soul, put not in custody my Shade. 

Let the path be open to my Soul and to my Shade that it may 
see the great god within his sanctuary, on the day of the Soul's 
Reckoning, and may repeat the words of Osiris whose place is 
unseen, and of those who are attached to the person of Osiris and 
have the custody of Souls and Spirits, and who shut up the Shades 
of the Dead who would do an injury to me. (2) 

Let the path be thrown open (3) to thy Genius* and to thy Sou!, 
Glorified one, who art provided with those who conduct thee ; sit 
thou at the head of the Great ones in thy place ; thou shalt not be 
imprisoned by those who are attached to the person of Osiris and 
who have the custody of Souls and Spirits and who shut up the 
Shades of the Dead. It is Heaven that shall hold thee. 


I. I cannot agree with those who have hitherto translated this 
chapter. The only grammatical interpretation which seems possible 
for the first sentence depends upon the sense given to the suffix 

ta. I take this as representing the second person singular. 


H» ^'^^ > ^^^ person ai rest (Osiris) is the one invoked, and is here 

translated by the vocative. 

2. The words which follow are evidently the words of Osiris and 
those attached to him, which are addressed to the deceased and are 
repeated by him. The text here, as indeed everywhere, is very 

J\ . I have explained the sense of the 

3. Thrown open, [1 *~ 

verb ** mes {Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., 1882, p. 70) as stretching out, 
of which notion J\ is the determinative. ^ 

X . J/i?i'/ z^rt^ is 'pandatur via.' 


-«— fl . 

IS = 

The Egyptian ka. 



Chapter ^ahenby one avoideth being conveyed to the East in the 

Oh thou Phallus of Ra, who fliest from the storm, disablement 
ariseth from Baba who useth against me might beyond the mighty 
and power beyond the powerful. 

If I am conveyed away, if I am carried off to the East ; if all 
evil and injurious things of a feast day of fiends are perpetrated 
upon me through the waving of the Two Horns, then shall be 
devoured the Phallus of Ra and the Head of Osiris. 

And should I be led to the fields wherein the gods destroy him 
who answereth them, then shall the horns of Chepera be twisted 
back, then shall blindness (i) arise in the eyes of Tmu and destruc- 
tion, (2) through the seizure of me, and through my being carried 
off to the East, through there being made over me a feast day of the 
fiends, through all the murderous work perpetrated upon me. (3) 


This chapter contains one of those threats (of which there are 
other instances) made to the gods. The speaker is in fact so 
identified with divinity that any evil which happens to him must he 
conceived as involving the same calamity to the gods and to the 

There is a very considerable difference between the earlier and 
the later texts. There is very great confusion in the text of the 
Turin Todtejibuch as compared with that of the Cadet papyrus. 

(i) Blindness, J ^ '^ in the earlier and '-■'^■"'^ in the 
/www JlT I I I ^ ° ° 

later texts. The latter form, which has for determinative pearls 
or globules of some kind, reminds one of the disease formerly called 
gutta seven a. 

(2) Destruction A ^^1=^ ^^\ "^^^^^^^^^ But this word is written 

in different ways in the papyri. With M+i as a sufifix it would mean 

'my destroyer.' Ca gives J|j as a determinative, and thus creates a 
god Hetniii, or at least a name punning upon that of Tnu, to which 
it is united. 


3. The more recent texts, like those of the Turin Todieiibuc/i, 
insert a negative particle before the mention of each disaster. They 
pray that the Phallus of Ra may not be devoured, that the blindness 
may not come upon Tmu, and so on. 

Chapter whereby one prayeth for a Palette and an Inkstand. 

Oh mighty one, who seest thy father, and who hast charge of 
the Book of Thoth. 

Here am I, I come and am glorified and filled with Soul and 
Power and provided with the writings of Thoth, which I bring in 
order to purify the tunnel which is in Sutu. (i) I bring the Palette 
and I bring the Inkstand as the instruments of Thoth, the secrets 
of which are divine. 

Here am I, as the Scribe ; I bring the remains of Osiris; (2) and 
the writing which I have made upon them is decreed by the great 
god to be good, daily, among the good. Thou hast decreed, Horus 
of the Two Horizons, that I shall be the author of Maatandtend (3) 
it daily to Ra. 


1. In Sutu ; that is, in Darkness. See chapter 96. 

2. The remains, Q -L {^.'^^- This word, though commonly 

applied to corruption and impurity of dead matter, is taken in an 
inoffensive sense when applied to the gods. Compare, e.g., Pepi I, 
line 477 and following. 

3. Tend, \ |[[ J\ mesi (not sebi) stretch out, pandere, 


Chapter whereby is opened the place wherein Thoth resteth. 

I am the Dread one (i) in Storm, who guard the Great one (2) 
against assault. 

I smite like the Flint-god : I sprinkle like the Sprinkling-god. (3) 

\ 2 


I am the protection (4) of the Great one against assault and I 
give vigour to the sword which is in the hand of Thoth (5) in the 


The papyrus ^^ gives this chapter the title of "assuming the 
form of the Smen-goose," and Dr. Birch published the text of this 
papyrus in the Zeitschrifi of 1869 (p. 25) as one of those additional 
chapters which "do not occur in the Ritual of Turin." This is of 
course an error of oversight. This chapter is in the Turin lodten- 
b/jch, and the papyrus Ad merely gives it under an erroneous title, 
which was evidently meant for another text. 

I, The Dread one, v\ ^ . Instead of this Ad has 

^AAAAA ^ . J 

\#/ -T| , which I cannot regard otherwise than as a simple 

blunder of the scribe. \^ is a well known anaglyph in certain 

scenes, but there is no evidence of its being a variant of the name 
of Chnemu. 

2. Two of the ancient papyri Ca and Ad read ITorus, the others 
have the Great goddess, and so has Ad in the next line. The more 
recent texts have (not urit, 'the great one,' but) Jtrerit, 'the crown.' 

3. The Sprinkling god "^^X C3t=l % Jj Aashu. This god 

is mentioned but once in the Book of the Dead, and his name is 
here interpreted conjecturally in consequence of the function 

assigned to him and of the not unlike word (I ^.=»p as ' spit.' 

4. Protection. I read y | instead of <§>^| in the early papyri. 

5. Thoth. The recent texts have Chepera, an evident error. 
The allusion is to the storm or distress from which Thoth rescues 
the Eye of Horus. 


Chapter whereby is opened \_t he place'] where Thoth [resteth]. 

I am he who dwelleth in the middle of his own Eye. I have 
come that I may deliver Maat to Ra, and may propitiate Sutu with 
the libations for Akar and the red victims of the Faithful of Seb. 



Said at the Bark : Staff of Anubis, may I propitiate those four 
Glorified ones who follow after the Master of [all] things. 

I am the Master of the champaign at their behest, and I am the 
Father of the inundation, when he who hath charge of the canals is 

Look therefore upon me, oh ye great and mighty gods, who are 
foremost among the Spirits of Annu ; let me be exalted in your 
presence. I am a well-doer towards you. Lo I come, that I may 
purify this Soul of mine in the most high degree ; let not that 
impediment proceeding from your mouth be issued against me 
which giveth one over to ruin : let me be purified in the lake of 
propitiation and of equipoise : let me plunge into the divine pool 
beneath the two divine sycomores of Heaven and Earth. 

Now let my Fold be fitted for me as one victorious against ail 
adversaries who would not that right should be done to me. 

I am the Only one ; just and true upon the Earth. It is I who 

siy it. 

♦ * ♦ 


Chapters 96 and 97 are really but one chapter, which M. Naville 
has found in only two MSS. of the early period. The end of what 
Lepsius calls chapter 97 is hopelessly corrupt. On comparing the 
three copies given by M. Naville (two of them being from the 
papyrus of Nebseni) it will be seen how impossible it is to restore a 
grammatical text out of such discordant materials. The difficulty is 
not removed by having recourse to the papyri of a later period. 

Chapter whereby one saileth a ship in the Netherworld. 

Oh thou Leg in the Northern Sky, (i) and in that most con- 
spicuous but inaccessible Stream ; I rise up and come to light as a 
god, I am conspicuous but inaccessible. 

I rise up and live, and bring myself to light as a god. 


I cackle even as the Smen-goose, but I stoop (2) like the Hawk 
at the nets of the Great Fowler. 

I sail across the Sky, and Shu standeth erect and the Achmiu 
Stars (3) are instantly active in raising the ladder which lifts the 
Setting Stars away from destruction. (4) 

And I bear that which repelleth mischief as I make my voyage 
over the Leg of Ptah. 

I come from the Lake of Flame, from the Lake of Fire, and 
from the Field of Flame, and I live 

I stand erect in the Bark which the god is piloting at the 

head of Aarru, (5) and the Achmiu Stars open to me and 

my fellow citizens (6) present to me the sacred cakes with flesh. 


There is but one papyrus of the older period which contains any 
portion of this chapter, and it does so very imperfectly. 

On referring to M. Naville's edition it will be seen that not only 
the title but the greater part of the chapter is destroyed. The later 
copies have texts so different from the original form, that it is unsafe 
to attempt a restoration except within very strict limits. 

It is absurd to attempt a translation from a mixture of divergent 
and, at the same time, incorrect texts. 

1. See note to chapter 74. The Stream which is so conspicuous 
but cannot be reached is the Milky Way, and the Leg is the constel- 
lation Cassiopeia in the Northern Sky. 

2. Stoop, [ ^^. This comparison occurs repeatedly in the 
Pyramid Texts, and others of the early periods. 

3. Achmiu Stars l^\® ^^^ V:^ :jIc so Ab, giving another 

proof that the word is to be taken as a noun, and not as a negative. 

4. See chapter 30A, on "The Crocodile of the West who lives 
on the Setting Stars." 

5. So Ab, but perhaps wrongly. I dare not fill up the lacunae of 
this text. 

6. Felloiv-citizens. The translation here is necessarily conjec- 
tural. But I understand by fellozv-citizens {avfiiroXi-rai) the dwellers 
of that city of which the deceased says, in chajjter 17, "I arrive at 



Chapter CIII. 


British Museum, 

No. 9,900. 

Chapi'er XCVII. 
Papyrus, British Museum, No. 9,90c. 

Chapter XCVIII. 
LeI'SIUS, Todtenbuch. 

£r ia 11 

Chaptur civ. 

Papyrus, British Museum, 

No. 9,900. 


1 fl 


Chapter XCIX. 
Papyrus, British Museum, No. 9,900. 

Chapter CV. 

Papyrus of Sutimes, 

Bibl. Nat. 

Chapter CV. 
Papyrus, British Museutr, No. 9,900. 

Chapter CVIII. 

British Museum, 

No. 9,900. 



Chapter XCIX. Papyrus Busca. 

Chapter XCIX. 
Papyrus, Berlin Museum, No. 2. 

Chapter XCIX. 
Papyrus, Brit. Mus., No. 9905. 

Chapter XCIX. 
Papyrus, Musee du Louvre, No. Ill, 89. 

Chapter XCIX. 
Papyrus Brocklehurst, II. 



































« — 

Chapter XCIX. Papyrus, British Museum, No. 9900. 


my own city, ^•"* -^"^ this city is explained by the ancient 

scholion as being "the Horizon" 1^ [or, as Lepsius more accurately 

translates it, ' der Sonnenberg '] of my father Tmu." It is no eaithly 
city that is thought of, but an eternal one. 

Chapter whereby one Saileth a Ship in the Netherivorld. 

Oh thou who sailest the ship of Nu over that chine which is 
void, (i) let me sail the ship; let me fasten my tackle (2) in peace ; 
in peace ! Come, come ; Fleet one, Fleet one ! Let me come to 
see my father Osiris. 

Oh thou who art veiled, let me enjoy happiness. 

Oh thou who art clouded, but manful, and who sailest round 
over that chine of Apepi ; thou of firm head and steadfast breast 
when coming forth from the fiery blows : Oh thou who art at the 
ship, let me sail the ship, let me fasten my tackle and come forth. 

This place is empty, into which the starry ones fall down head- 
long upon their faces, (3) and find not aught whereby they can 
raise themselves up. 

Narrow is the path as the tongue of Ra. (4) 

\The Patrol who goeth rounds and who piloteth the Double Earth ; 
Seb abideth stably by means of their rudders : the divine Form 
which revealeth the Solar Orb : and He who presideth over the Red 
ones. (5)] 

Let me be brought in as a distressed mariner, and let my Soul 
come to me, which is my brother, and go to that place which thou 

"Z^/ me be told my name" say, 

I. The Mooring post. " Lord of the Double-Earth in the Shrine " 
is thy name. 

* I take this opportunity of correcting my former translation, where the 
preposition ^^, which twice occurs in the passage, is both times rendered by the 
same word, from. But the sense of a preposition really depends upon the verb 
which it follows. The same English word will not suit the French de in 
' s'approcher de ' and ' s'eloigner de.' 


2. The Blade of the Rudder. " Leg of Apis " is thy name. 

3. The Hawser. "The Side-Lock which Anubis fastens on to 
the swathing work " is thy name. 

4. The Stern or Stem Posts. "The two columns of the Nether- 
world " is thy name. 

5. The Hold. " Akar " is thy name. 

6. The Mast. Bearer of the Great one whilst she passeth " is 
thy name. 

7. The Keel. " Backbone of Apuat" is thy name. 

8. The Mast-head. " Throat of Emsta " is thy name. 

9. The Sail. " Nut " is thy name. 

10. The Leathers. (6) Made of the hide of Mnevis, which Sutu 
hath scorched," is thy name. 

11. The Oars. " Fingers of the elder" is your name. 

12. The Bracement. " Hand of Isis, stanching the blood of the 
Eye of Horus," is thy name. 

13. The Rids. " Emsta, Hapi, Tuamautef, Kebehsenuf, He who 
taketh captive, He who taketh by force. He who seeth his Father, 
and He who maketh himself," are your names. 

14. The Look-out : (7) " Master of the Grounds " (8) is thy name. 

15. The Tiller .- (9) ''Merit'' (10) is thy name. 

16. The Rudder : "The Umpire, beaming forth from the water," 
is thy name. 

17. The Hull : "The Leg of Hathor, which Ra wounded, on his 
lifting her into the Sektit Boat," is thy name. 

18. The Boatman : " Off" is thy name. 

19. The Breeze., since thou art conveyed by me : "The Northern 
Breeze proceeding from Tmu to the Nose of Ghent- Amenta " is thy 

20. The Stream, since thou sailest upon me : "Their Mirror" is 
thy name. 

21. The Shallow: (11) "Destroyer of the large-handed at the 
place of purification " is thy name. 

22. The Lajtd, since thou walkest upon me: "The Tip of 
Heaven, the Coming forth from the swathings in the Garden of 
Aarru, and the Coming forth in Exultation," is thy name. 

To be said before them. 

Hail to you, Fair in Form, Lord of issues, who are springing up 
for ever, and whose double goal is eternity : turn to me your hands. 


give to me food and offerings for my mouth ; let me eat the Bat- 
bread, the 6'//^«^«-cake and the Kefen-c^t : let my place be in the 
great hall in presence of the mighty god. 

I know thnt mighty god to whose nostrils ye present delicacies. 
Tekmu is his name : and whether he, whose name is Tekmu, 
tiirneth from the East or advanceth to the West, let his course be 
my course. 

Let me not be stopped at the Meskat ; let not the Sebau have 
mastery over my limbs. 

I have bread in Pu and beer in Tepu. Let your largesses of 
this day be granted to me ; offerings of wheat and barley, offerings 
of dfi/a and of vestments, offerings of oxen, and ducks, which are 
offerings for life, health and strength, and also offerings for coming 
forth by day, in all the forms in which it pleaseth me to come forth 
in the Garden of Aarru. 

If this chapter be knotun he will come forth at the Garden of 
Aarru ; there will be given to him the Shensu-rrtf/^^, the measure of 
drink and the -^tr^tn-cake, and fields of wheat and barley of seven 
cubits {It is the followers of Horus who reap them), for he eateth of 
that wheat and barley, and he is made whole in his limbs through 
that wheat and barley, and his limbs spring up even as with those 
gods. And he comet h forth in the Garden of Aarru in all the forms 
in ivhich it pleaseth him to come forth. 


One of the Paris papyri {Pb) contains a composition bearing the 
same title as chapter 99, and ]SL Naville has published it as an intro- 
duction to the usual chapter. It is no doubt of very great interest, 
but it is the imperfect copy of a quite independent composition, 
which really has no claim to be considered a part of our Book of the 

1. See chapter 7, title and notes. Cf. the alO^p ipij/xo-i of Pmdar 
and the Latin expressions 'vacuum per inane,' 'per inania.' 

2. Fasten my tackle, ^^^^ • ^f- Unas, 508 and 639. 

In the latter place the ropes are said to be made of r^ ^"^j 
paltn leaf (?). 

3. Comp. chapter 44 on the cavern where the dead fall into the 
darkness, ' but the Eye of Horus supporteth me, and Apuat reareth 




me up.' There may be an allusion here, as there is elsewhere, to 
shooting stars. It is worth noticing that — a group which ought, I 
1 ® U" ^ 

think, to be read 

j[ '^ {Ca and Ac) has in most papyri the 
wrong determinative [q] instead of ■;jlc, which was misunderstood, and 

that Ab has even '>'<]• 

4. A corrupt passage, like the next. 

5. The corruption of the whole passage between [ ] will be best 
understood on comparing it with the names of "the Rudders of 
Heaven" as given in chapter 148; the earliest text of these names 
being (I think) the fine tablet in Detikm. Ill, 25 bis a. Three out 
of four of these names are represented by the phrases here printed in 
italics. The rest is incoherent and was certainly not understood by 
the copyists. I have followed Aa in my translation. 

6. ' The Leathers, 







thongs, or straps, like the Greek -rpoTrol for fastening the oars, 

*HpTVVavTO B' epeTfia TpoTToi's iv Sepfiari'voitri : Odyss. 4, 782. 

See note of Scholiast and cf. Aesch. Fers., 376. 

7. Look out T [1[. ^, see chapter 15, note 9. 

8. Grounds, fi I is, technically, the superficial land measure 
corresponding to the quarter of the Egyptian arura. The more 
general sense of the word I X I _^ _ T^ J is land enclosed and 

parted out for cultivation. 

The very ancient magical text (Unas 302) speaks characterically 

Q -fi n ^== [ I a p — " — m il 

of I v\ '\K ^ R , the Hippopotamus who 

k _m J P <=> -^i^ A n = 
maketh his appearance at the garden (vineyard, field, &c. Cf. 

Psalm Ixxx, 13). 

In the great inscription published in Mariette's Denderah, IV, 35, 


is used, in a sense like that of the 'Acwvico^ KtjTrot, for a 

ia/t, or (as it is also written) 

G W^ Ml 
Stone vessel in which seeds were sown for ritual purposes 

9. Ti7/er. J 

dbait ; .y^^ chapter 76, note i. 


I o. Merit. <crz> -^^ (sometimes written with ,^--5^ and other 
determinatives ; Bekenranef adds \i I is the name of each of the 

two divine sisters, Isis and Nephthys, see chapter 37, note; who are 

called «cr> ^^ fl 1 and <==> Y . But, at Edfu, Denderah and 

Philae, Merit is a synonym of the Ut'at, and one of the names of 

II. ^"i^a/Zi^ze/ ; a conjectural meaning for ^^^ ^ , which has 

not only the determinative of latid^ but those of water, ^ — i and 
^^. And in some texts it would seem to mean tnarsh, fen, 


The Book whereby the glorified one is made strong, and is made to 
embark in the boat of Rd, together with those who are with the 

Let me convey the divine Heron to the East, Osiris to Tattu. 
Let me open the caverns of Hapu, (i) clear the path of the Solar 
Orb and tow along Sekaru upon his sledge. Let the Great one 
give me strength at her fixed hour. 

I hail and give worship to the Orb, and associate myself with 
those in adoration, I am one of them. 

Let me be a second to Isis ; and let her glorified ones give me 

Let me fasten my tackle, let me stop the adversary, and force 
him to turn back his steps. 

Let Ra lend me his two hands, let not his divine Boatmen 
prevent me. Let my strength be that of the divine Eye, and 

[As to the sundering of me in the Bark of Ra, let the sundering 
be as that of the Egg and the Tortoise. (2)] 

Said over the Figure in the Text, which is written upon clean 
paper, with artist's ink, fresh and mixed with essence of Anta ; let 
the dead person have it put upon his body without inserting it into his 
limbs ; he will enter into the Bark of Rd at the round of each day, 
Thoth will appreciate him, on his coming forth or entering, undeviatingly 
for times i7ifinite. 

Z 2 


• Notes. 

This chapter appears a second thne in the Turin Todtenlmch as 
chapter 129. But in the papyrus of Nebseni it is found no less 
than three times. 

I. Caverns of Hapu. Two of the copies of this chapter in the 

pnpyrus of Nebseni give the interesting variant x c^ v> Q • p, 
is the well known equivalent of , and the fountains of the 

Nile are also indicated by the group Q Q . 

2. This passage does not occur in chapter 129, and is apparently 
an interpolation, which however is already found in ancient copies. 

Chapter of the Safeguards of the Bark of Ra. 

thou who art devoid of moisture in coming forth from the 
stream ; and who restest upon the deck of thy Bark : as thou pro- 
ceedest in the direction of Yesterday, and restest upon the deck of 
thy Bark, let me join thy boatmen. 

1 am a powerful Chu. 

O Ra, in that thy name of Ra, since thou passest through an 
Eye of seven cubits, whose pupil is of three : do thou then make 
me sound, I am a powerful Chu, let thy soundness be my soundness. 

O Ra, in that thy name of Ra, since thou passest through those 
who are perishing headlong : do thou then keep me standing on my 
feet. I am a powerful Chu, let thy soundness be my soundness. 

O Ra, in that thy name of Ra, since thou openest the secrets of 
the Ammehit, which gladdeneth the hearts of the Divine Circle : do 
thou then give me my heart. I am a powerful Chu, let thy sound- 
ness be my soundness, and the soundness of thy limbs be the sound- 
ness of my limbs. 

Secured by reason of the writing 7vith gum mixed with colours upon 
a strip of royal papyrus, put at the throat of the deceased on the day of 
burial. If these phylacteries arc put at his throat, he will rise up as 
one of the Divine Circle, and be united to the followers of Horns, 
whilst his Lamp is made firm by Isis iti heaven beside Sothis. He 
followeth Horus who resideth in Sothis. (i) His Shade becofueth 


divine as well as human. Vegetation is made to grow out of his body 
through the goddess Menkit. (2) He become th a god for ever, and his 
limbs are made vigorous in the Nethenaorld through Thoth, who hath 
done the like to Osiris, in causifig the light to rise out of his dead body ; 
1/ndeviatingly and for times infinite. 


This chapter does not occur in the earlier collections known 
to us. 

1 . Horus ivho resideth in Sot his vX [ — 1 A ^ ; cf. 
Teta, 277. 

2. Mefikit is one of the names of Hathor, but the place is 
corrupt and the true reading uncertain. 

Chapter whereby one entereth into the Bark of Rd. 

Great One in thy Bark, let me be lifted into thy Bark. Let 
me make head for thy staircase. Let me have charge of those who 
convey thee, who are attached to thee, who are of the Stars which 
never set. 

That which I abominate, I eat not : and that which I abominate 
is Dirt, let me not eat of it, but of peace offerings and of Art- 
offerings, by which I shall not be upset. 

Let me not approach it with my hands, let me not tread upon it 
with my sandals, because my bread is of the white corn and my 
beer of the red corn of the Nile. 

It is the Sektit boat and the Aatit which have brought me to the 
food and raiment which are upon the altar of the Spirits of Annu. 

Salutation to thee, Ur-ar-set, in that voyage of heaven and the 
disaster in Tennu, when those dogs were gathered together, not 
without giving voice. 

1 have come myself and delivered the god from that pain and 
suffering, that was in trunk, in shoulder and in leg, 

I have come and healed (i) the trunk, and fastened the shoulder 
and made firm the leg. 

And I embark for the voyage of Ra. 





Healed. Such is the meaning of jr '^ ^^ , as in chapter 147 . 

17, and Unas 214, no less than in a passage which does not occur 
in the most ancient texts of chapter 1 7, but which is found in the 
papyri and is derived from the early traditions. Thoth healed the 
face of Horus. 


Chapter whereby one openeth the place where Hathor abideth. 

I am a pure follower. O Ahi ; O Ahi ; (i) let me become one 
of the followers of Hathor. 


I. Ahi I fi [jl ^ r^ ) the Striker is one of the names of Horus, 
who in the inscriptions of Benihassan is called >A^ \ K^ ^^ o ' 

" Horus who striketh down men." The notion of striking was in 
later days confined to the beating of the sistrum. Priestly persons 
bore the tide of Ahi as representatives of the youthful Horus, son 
of Hathor. See Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., XH, p. 460, on " The Sun- 
stroke in Egyptian." 


Chapter whereby o?ie sitteth in the midst of the great gods. 

Let me sit in the midst of the great gods. Let me pass through 
the place of the Sektit boat. It is the Bird-fly deity (i) that shall 
convey me to see the great gods who are in the Netherworld, and 
I shall be triumphant in their presence. 

1. The Bird-fly deity., Abait ; see chapter 76, note. 


Chapter ivhereby one propitiateth (i) the Ka. 

Hail to thee, my Ka, my coeval. (2) 

May I come to thee and be glorified and made manifest and 
ensouled, let me have strength and soundness. 

Let me bring to thee grains of incense wherewith I may purify 
myself and may also purify thine own overflow. 

The wrong assertions that I have uttered, and the wrong 
resistance which I have offered : let them not be imputed to me. 

For I am the green gem, fresh at the throat of Ra, given by 
those who are at the Horizon : their freshness is my freshness 
\said twice\, the freshness of my Ka is like theirs, and the dainties 
of my Ka are like theirs. 

Thou who liftest the hand at the Balance, and raisest Law to 
the nose of Ra in this day [of my Ka] : do not thou put my head 
away from me. For I am the Eye which seeth and the Ear which 
heareth ; and am I not the Bull of the sacrificial herd, are not the 
mortuary gifts (3) upon me and the supernal powers {otherwise said: 
the powers above Nut]. 

Grant that I may pass by thee, and may purify myself and cause 
the triumph of Osiris over his adversaries. (4) 



Propitiate, c=^='. The simple root hetep signifies, what is 

^rii □ t~\ n 

implied by the ideographic sign 1 1, the taking hold, embracing, and 
kindred notions {Proc. Soc. Bill. Arch., Vol. X, p. 578). The 
notion of appeasing an angry personage is no more necessarily 
involved in the Egyptian word than in the Latin propitiare. M. 
Lefebure's translation, reunir, in the title of this chapter is perfectly 
correct as far as it goes. 

See in Denkm., HI, pi. 34, b, the picture of Thothmes HI being 
greeted by his ka. Rameses II and other kings are often repre- 
sented in the act of supplicating their own ka. 

2. My coeval ,1/1 v^ M^ or, as some might prefer, my 
duration of life. 

The pictures in the temple of Luxor {Denkm., Ill, 74 and 75) 
are well known which represent the birth of Amenophis III. The 


infant prince in each of these pictures is accompanied by his 
ka, his exact image. The ka is nursed and suckled by the same 

But perhaps the best commentary on our text is to be found in 
the picture recently published by the French Mission Archeologique 
{TefHpie de Luxor, fig. 203), in which both the royal infant and his 
ka are being fashioned by the hand of Chnum, upon his potter's 

3. Mortuary gifts ^ |^ ^ 1 , meals offered to the departed. 

The meaning of the compound group is plain enough from the 

determinatives, and such frequent forms as <cz:> | v\ V\ 

a p^^ ^ JT .m I I I 

^\ X "consisting of bread and beer," but the origin of it is 

not so clear. The usual meaning of | _p like that of the Coptic 
^pCOO'Sf is voice, but in the present group it stands for | ^ 
corresponding to .^pG, plur. ^pHOTI, Tpotpij, ^ptL'/iara, iSea/u 

and <r::> is to be understood as in the very common formula 

I I I 




The reading I v\ which is sometimes found in late 

texts is faulty and leads to an erroneous interpretation. ^^^^^^ is a 
mistake either for *^^^^ or for <:^~>, the phonetic of |. 

In such passages of the Pyramid texts as ^|\ <rr> /l[ 

_)ii^ ci (J 1 ^- — ^ 

-2:^ ^\ :® ®: w^ I (Unas 36) ^^ is a demonstrative 

not a negative particle, " Here is the mortuary meal presented for 
thee, and /lere are the two Eyes, the White and the Black, of Horus." 
4. All the early MSS. except Fd omit this last passage. 

Chapter whereby a largess is presented at Hat-ka-Ptah. (i) 

Oh thou god of nutriment, oh great one who presidest over the 
mansions on high ; [to whom bread cometh from Annu] ye who 
g^ve bread to Ptah [from Annu], give me bread and beer : let me 


be made pure by the sacrificial joint, together with the white 
bread. (2) 

Oh thou ship of the Garden of Aarru, let me be conveyed to 
that bread of thy canal ; as my father, the Great one, who advanceth 
in the Divine ship [because I know thee]. 


This is one of the chapters found on the sarcophagus of 
Horhotep. It is also inscribed on a statue, now in the Berlin 
Museum, belonging to the early part of the XVIIlth dynasty 
{Denkm., Ill, 25 h and k). These authorities do not give the title 
found in the papyri. The allusions to Anna are confined to the 
earliest text, which somewhat differs from the later authorities, and 
finishes sooner than they do. Cf. also Teta, 1. 331. 

1. Hat-ka-Plah is the name of Memphis, but as in so many 
other places it is not the earthly city which is meant. M. Naville 
has pointed out that the words " in the Netherworld " are added 
in the papyrus of Nebseni. 

2. Bread and beer are not mentioned in the earliest text, which 
has other important variants. The latest texts have the verb 

^^ r -, wash, make dean, purify, of which (I ^ ^^ on the 

Berlin statue and the Theban papyri may fairly be considered an 

older form. But Horhotep has \ Y> ^ > ^ different word and 

occurring in a grammatical construction differing from that of the 
other texts. 

The words /^^^ \\ ^^^^ d j ^ ^^^ occur as a familiar 

formula in the Pyramid texts (Unas, 185, 205; Teta, 91); but 
Horhotep interpolates | QA after a ] \^ . The determina- 
tives of the group ^^^wna ^ (3 (sometimes c?V» or ^^), show that 

the copyist understood the word as meant for the sacrificial joint. 

It is not uninteresting to note, with reference to the correctness 
of the title of this chapter, that the Pyramid ritual (Unas, 205) 
expressly says of the deceased that "the sacrificial joint with the 

white bread" are the "largess " (/^ Q^©) which he 


2 A 



[The chapter so called consists, in fact, of the first two lines of 
chapter 109. The vignette over it really belongs to chapter 108. It 
has no separate existence in any of the papyri of the best periods.] 

Chapter whereby one knotveih the Poivers of the West. 

In respect of the Hill of Bachau (i) upon which heaven resteth, 
it presenteth itself (2) three hundred cubits in length (3) and two 
hundred cubits in breadth. 

Sebak, the Lord of Bachau, is at the east of the Hill, and his 
temple is upon it. 

There is a serpent on the brow of that hill, five hundred cubits 
in length, three cubits of his forepart are pierced with swords. 

I know the name of this serpent on his hill : " He who dwelleth 
in his own flame " is his name. (4) 

Now, at the close of day (5) he tumeth down his eyes to Ra ; 
for there cometh a standing still in the Bark and a deep slumber 
within the ship. And now he swalloweth three cubits of the Great 

Then Sutu is made to flee with a chain upon him of steel (6) 
and he is forced to vomit all that he hath swallowed. Then Sutu is 
put into his prison. 

And then he saith with Words of Power : — 

Away with thee ! Steel, which art made fast upon my hand. I 
••emain in thy prison, the Bark sails on and thou seest the path ; 
but thine eyes close, [thine eye is delivered to me], thy head is 
veiled, (7) and I go on and stay thy steps. 

I am the Manful one, who veileth thy head and who cooleth the 
hollow of thy hand : thy strength is my strength. 

I am the Master of the Words of Power. 

Who is this who hath been delivered to me ? 

This Bright One, who cometh on his belly, on his hind parts 
and on the joints of his back. 

Lo ! then, I come, and thy might is in my hand. It is I who 


carry away thy might, that I may come and seize upon the Timnels 
of Ra who is united to me at sunset as he goeth round heaven. (8) 

But thou art pierced with hooks, as was decreed against thee 
of old. 

I know the powers of the West, they are Tmu, Sebak the Lord 
of Bachau, and Hathor, Mistress of Sunset. 


The chapters 108, 109, 112, 113, and 114 being so analogous to 
each other, in form, matter, style, and composition, and each being 

concerned with the divine Powers '^^ of some locality, it is in- 
teresting to know that one at least of these chapters is found on a 
monument of the Middle Empire. The others are probably not less 
ancient, and the text published by Dr. Golenischef {Zeitschr. f. 
Aegypt. Spr., 1874, p. 84) from the Sarcophagus at St. Petersburg 
already bears manifest signs of antiquity. 

Another sign of antiquity as regards the present chapter may be 
seen in the numerous forms in which it has come down to us. 
These are so different, and sometimes so irreconcileable, that it 
seems evident that tradition has handed down very corrupt texts, 
and that the original meaning of this chapter had been entirely lost 
at a very early date and cannot be discovered now. The oldest 
text is the shortest of all, but it is both imperfect and incorrect. 
The earliest papyri differ greatly from the later ones. But both the 
earlier and the later papyri have the 149th chapter which contains 
another recension of the loSth, and chapter in in the Turin and 
later papyri is another form of it. 

I. The Hill of Bachau. J'i^'^ *>-=■ "^ """^ has for 

determinative the sign -^^ which connects the word with the 
Coptic £.OT^I ' eyelids.' In the later texts the word has for 
determinative either a woman or a co7i) in the act of parturition, as 

if it were connected with j { | W) and its variants, with which 

\ \ j ^•^^ m another name of the Dawn is identified. 

2. Presenteth itself, -^^ ^c-^ . This Egyptian verb is always 
expressive of activity, and perhaps ought never to be translated 

2 A 2 


being. ^ W are 'things which are,' but -^^ , ^ , are ' things which 

I I I /s.ww\ I I 1 

' spring forth' ' come to Hght.' 

3. The oldest text (which is here the best authority) does not give 
the dimensions of the hill, but only of the serpent. The earliest 
])apyri give the dimensions of both, but make the hill so absurdly 
small that the serpent could not rest upon it. Later papyri begin- 
ning with ^have corrected the texts so as to give the hill a length 
of 300 cubits, or ^^^ (each of which is 100 cubits long). They omit 
the statement that the cubit in question is of 7I palms (ihe Royal 
cubit being of 7 palms), and also the interesting mention of the 


^■■| "balance (or measurement) of the earth." The 

relation of this ' balance ' to the rest of the sentence is not clear, 
because the MSS. differ as to the preposition which precedes. 

The Papyrus of Nebseni gives the hill 300 cubits in oreadth. 
The Todt€7ibuch of Turin reads 370 ^^ in length, and 140 cubits 
in breadth. 

4. The serpent's name is not mentioned in chapter in, nor is it 
in the earliest text. But in chapter 149 the usual name is 

^ ^^ ^^1^' "^°^^ ^"^^y written ^^f^— .^ in the Papyrus of 
Nebseni. The determinative ^V}, commonly attached to the 
name of Apepi, expresses the meaning 'sword smitten,' 'shot 
with swords,' ^KpoKTovo^. We might otherwise have understood the 
term in the sense of ^KJioKTovo^, ' slayer with swords.' The Papyrus 

of Sutimes Pd calls the serpent T ^|\ ^^^^ cz^^a ¥\ >=;^^^ ' knife- 

The proper name .^^ """^^ 3 , also written .:^^ ^;^ , 

Mates, an epithet of Apepi, or of Sutu, also means "pierced with 
swords." But the expression itself seems sometimes to be found 
in the active sense, " piercing like a sword." 

5. Close of Day, when daylight has come to ^2l stand' -if ^ . 
This is the reading of the papyri. The oldest reading is 

6. The earliest text says nothing of this, though it mentions the 
"prison of Sutech," in a passage corresponding to what the papyri 
include in the ' Words of Power ' which follow. 1 he Turin Jcdteji- 



Chapter C. 

Papyrus. Musee du Louvre, 

No. Ill, 93- 

Chapter C. 
Papyrus, Boulaq Museum, No. 21. 




Chapter C. 
Papyrus, Musee du Louvre, 
No. Ill, 89. 

Chapter CII. 

Papyrus, Musee du Louvre, 

No. Ill, 36. 

Chapter CIX. 

ROSELLINI, "Mon. del Culto.,' 

pi. XXIII. 

Chapter CII. 
Papyrus Brocklehurst, II. 

Chapter CVIII. Chapter CIX. 

Papyrus, Berlin Museum, No. II. Papyrus, British Museum, No. 9900. 





. . • r^rr—t lL_ ^ii^ 


Chapter CX. Papyrus, Ley den Mus;um. 


buck says that, "Sutu is put into his prison, and that a chain of steel 
is put upon his neck." Pictures of the serpent with the chain upon 
him will be found in Bonorai, Sarcoph., plates lo and ii.* There 
is an evident fusion in this chapter, in its later form at least, as in 
chapter 39, of the personages of Sutu and Apepi. 

7. Thy head is veiled. The 'veiling of the head,' and 'closing 
of the eyes ' of the sun are of course mythological terms for night 
time. But the mythological event was celebrated on the festival 

8. Chapter 1 11 stops at the word "Sunset." And after this, the 
text in chapter 149 changes the third to the first person, and reads : 
" But I go round the heaven whilst thou art pierced with hooks," as 
if Ra were replying to the words of Sutu. This, I confess, appears 
to me to offer a better sense than that of chapter 108. And I 
should now alter the word "stabber" in the first line of chapter 39 
to " pierced with hooks." 


Chapter whereby one knoiveth the Poivers of the East. 

I know that Eastern Gate of Heaven (the South of it is by the 
lake of Cha-ru, and the north of it by the stream of Reu), from 
whence Ra saileth with favouring gales, (i) 

I am the Teller (2) in the divine ship : I am the unresting navi- 
gator in the Bark of Ra. 

I know those two Sycomores of Emerald between which Ra 
cometh forth, as he advanceth over what Shu hath lifted up,t to 
every gate (3) through which he proceedeth. 

I know the Garden of Aarru : the wall of it is of steel. The 
wheat of it is of 7 cubits, the ears of it of 2 cubits, the stalk of it of 4 
cubits. The barley of it is of 7 cubits, and the ears are of 4 cubits, 
and the stalk of 3 cubits. 

* On this picture (plate 11) may also be seen an interesting illustration of 
chapter 39 ; the scorpion goddess putting the chain upon Apepi, in front of whom 
are the divinities to execute, with swords and hooks, the decree passed against him. 
The children of Horus are also seen occupied in the execution. 

t I.e., the Sky. 


It is the glorified ones, each of whom is 9 cubits in height, who 
reap them, in presence of the Powers of the East. 

I know the Powers of the East : Horus of the Solar Mount, the 
Calf in presence of the God, (4) and the Star of Dawn. 

A divine Domain (5) hath been constructed for me ; I know the 
name of it ; the name of it is the garden of Aarru. 


Another recension of this chapter has been incorporated into 
chapter 149. The differences lie chiefly in the order assigned to 
each of the component sentences. 

I. Favouring gales . >y ^ v\ 1 v\ \^ '=^ " sailing breezes" 

correspond to phrases like iKfievo^ ovpo9, venti secundi, trade winds, 
tail wind, stern wind. There is not the faintest authority from the 
older papyri (which are very numerous, and remarkably unanimous 

on this point) in favour of the determinative 'kJ , of the Turin 

Todtenhich^ which gives the sense of violent or tempestuous winds. 

3. Every gate. " Ra at his rising is adored by the Powers of the 
" East. They it is who effect the rising of Ra, by opening the door 
" at each of the four portals of the Eastern horizon of heaven." 
(Inscr. in tomb of Rameses VI, ChampoUion, Notices, Tom. II, p. 

4. The Calf in presence of the god. The Calf is seen in the 
vignettes of this chapter and also of chapter i. Brugsch {Rev. 
Egypt, I, p. 38) quotes texts showing that the Milch-cow 

v\ 1 T vx ^^~~qi Hor-sechauit, is the mother of the Sun-god, 

and that the infant god is the calf to whom she gives birth. The 
words " in presence of the god " are probably corrupt, but the 
variants are apparently worse. The Morning Star was equally 
identified with Horus. 

5. The divine Domain. See M. Maspero's important article "Sur 
le sens des mots Nouit et Hait," in P.S.B.A., XII, p. 235-257. 

" Nouit sert a designer un dcmaine rural d'etendue plus ou 

moins conside'rable, portant ou ne portant pas de village ou de 


maison d'habitation II etait une personne reelle, formant 

un corps complet en soi, et c'est pour cela qu'on le represente sous la 
forme d'un homme ou d'une femme apportant des produits agricoles 
et des offrandes." 

Additional Note. 

The later copies of the Book of the Dead add a few lines to the 
chapter, of which they certainly formed no part when first written. 
The most interesting portion of them is as follows : — 

" There are writings in thy possession for the grant of fields of 
corn-land in which there sprouteth corn from the effluxes of the god 
Ut'eb. The height of the corn is seven cubits, the ears of two 
cubits ; and thou shall reap it with the Glorified ones, in presence 
of the Powers of the East. Thou shalt enter boldly at the mysterious 
portals and be purified by those who are there." 

The name of the god hieroglyphically written A/^r^ was shown 

by me {Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., Vol. VI, p. 187) to be Uteb or Ut'eb. 
Brugsch, apparently without having seen my note, came to the same 
result, though he identified the god with Seb. The god is really 
Osiris, and the text just quoted is illustrated by a picture of which 
various copies are found. That here given is taken from the 
temple of Philae. 

These pictures were known from the Ramesside period, but the 

conception of Osiris which they convey ^^ Jml^ n 1 ^ {Todt., 

142, 7) is of primitive antiquity. There is a chapter among the 
texts preserved by the Coffin of Aniamu (pi. xxvii, 6) about 

"assuming the form of corn," w ^o ^\ T.Ci I, and 

which speaks of " the vegetation of life proceeding from Osiris, 
growing out of the ribs of Osiris, and giving life to this generation of 

The same idea gave rise to the name n I ^ J] which is given 

to Osiris in the Book of the Dead, in the sacred texts of the Royal 
Tombs, and in the Hymn to the Nile. But the god is also twice 


called n ^x^T[(,^in Amamu, pi. xxvii, 8. This latter form 

proves that in T I we have a compound term. 

The deity (in very late times) appears in the feminine gender 

ex. The Chapter which in the printed copy of the Turin Todten- 
buch is numbered no interrupts the series of chapters on the 
Powers of certain localities. The translation of it is reserved till 
that of these chapters is completed. It will be found at page 193. 

is only a repetition of Chapter CVIII. 


Chapter whereby one knoweth the Powers of Pit. (i) 

Oh thou of corpselike form who art in Chait and Anpit ; {2) 
thou goddess of the Net, (3) who art in Pu ; ye who preside over 
the untilled lands, ye stars and constellations (4) . . . Know ye 
wherefore Pu hath been given to Horus } 

I know it if ye know it not. 

It was Ra who gave it to him in amends of the blindness in his 
eye, in consequence of what Ra said to Horus : " Let me look at 
what is happening in thine eye to-day," and he looked at it. 

Ra said to Horus, " Look, pray, at that black swine." 

He looked, and a grievous mishap afflicted his eye. 

Horus said to Ra, " Lo, my eye is as though the eye of Sutu 
had made a wound in my own eye." And wrath devoured his heart. 

And Ra said to the gods, " Let him be laid upon his bed, that 
he may recover." 

It was Sutu who had taken the form of a black swine, and he 
wrought the wound which was in the eye of Horus. 

And Ra said to the gods, "The swine is an abomination to 
Horus; may he get well." And the swine became an abomination 
to Horus. 




Chapter CX. Bas Relief, Leyden Museum. 

Chapter CXII. 


"Abydos," I, p. 83. 

Chapter CXII. 


■Abydos," I, pi. 39. 

Chapter CXII. 

"Abydos," I, p. 82. 



Chatter CXII. 
Mariette, "Abydos," I, pi. lo. 

Chapter CXIII. 
Mariette, "Abydos," I, pi. 29. 

Chapter CXII. 

Papyrus, British Museum, 

No. 9900. 

Chapter CXIII. 
Papyrus, British Museum, No. 9964. 

Chapters CXII and CXIIT. 
Mariette, "Abydos," I, pi. 31. 


And the circle of gods said, who were with him when Horus 
came to light in his own children: (6) "Let the sacrificial victims {7) 
for him be of his oxen, of his goats, and of his swine." 

As for Emsta, Hapi, Tuamautef, Kebhsenuf, Horus is their 
father and Isis their mother. 

And Horus said to Ra, " Give me tlien two (8) brothers in Pu 
and two brothers in Nechen, of this my own body ; and that they 
may be with me as an everlasting renewal, through which the earth 
flourisheth and storms are quenched." 

And his name became that of Horus upon his Column. 

I know the Powers of Pu : they are Horus, Emsta and Hapi. 


1. On the situation of Pu, see chapter 18, note 6. The Pyramid 
Texts (Pepi I, 684) speak of the }^ '^ ^ "}" ^ ® "those of 

the Red Crown who are in Pu." 

2. Thou of corpselike form in Chait and Anpii. The sign of the 
plural, here as elsewhere, is quite consistent wiih its api)lication to a 

single person, "j^ ^ Chait is the name* of the i6th, or Men- 

desian, Nome of Northern Egj'pt, and Anpit was its metropolis. The 
nome is mentioned in the inscription of Amten in the third dynasty. 
The god is Osiris. He is invoked in the "Lamentations of Isis and 
Nephthys," and asked to come to Tattu, Anpit and Chait, which are 
but different names of one Sanctuary, Cf. Brugsch, Zeitschr., 187 1, 
p. 81, and his translation of the Mendesian Tablet, Zeitschr., 1875. 

3. Thou goddess of the Net v>V - 

This name corres- 

ponds to the Greek Diktynna. The reason why a goddess repre- 
senting Heaven should be so called may be understood by the 
Homeric epithet ~o\vw-6v applied to a net. 

If, however, the deity was male, according to the other reading, 
the reference is to -ov -/yv ''lo-^cov rfiocfuf-iov A/ktvi', who was drowned 
in the river. Plut, de Iside and Os., 8. 

4. Ye 7vho preside, etc. Brugsch {Zeitschr., 1876, p. 3) identifies 

the Egyptian f)^, ; \i> y> ^ ^vith the ^InXoTiwo's of the Demotic 

* Not Hdmehit, which is the name both of the Uit of the nome and of the 
goddess worshipped in it, whose emblem is the fish '^'^^ . 

^ 2 B 


and Greek contracts. The remainder of this invocation is so corrupt 
that the sense cannot be safely guessed at. 

5. See Herodotus, II, 47, without attaching too much importance 
to details. The pig was certainly not considered impure (^lapof) in 
the days of the third or fourth dynasty, when Amten, who had risen 
to the highest dignities, enumerates swine among the domestic 
animals it is natural to possess. And impure animals were not 
offered in sacrifice. But long before the days of Herodotus a change 
had taken place in the Egyptian religion as to the nature of Sutu. 

Plutarch and Aelian are to be read with the like caution. Some 
of their information is correct, but it is mixed up with much error. 

6. The variants ^^ "^ ^ I and "S"~ %^ ^ ^ J 1 are note- 

7. Sacrificial victims [![1 "^^ i • The substitution in Egypt 

of animal for human sacrifice is (I believe) entirely without foundation. 
And the supposed evidence of human sacrifices drawn from certain 
pictures has (I believe) been misinterpreted. 

8. The four children of Horus were also his brothers. He asks 
for two of them to be with him in each of his two cities, Pu and 
Nechen. The true sense of the passage is entirely lost in the later 
recensions and in translations made from them. 


Chapter whereby one know eth the Powers of Nechen. (i) 

I know the Mystery of Nechen : Horus, and that which his 
mother did (2) for him, when she herself uttered the cry : " Let 
Sebak, the Lord of the Marshes, be brought to us." 

He cast the net for them and he found them^ and his mother 
made them fast in their places. 

Sebak, the Lord of the Marshes, said : " I sought and I found 
the traces of them under my fingers on the strand. I netted them in 
a powerful net, as the net proved to be." 

And Ra said : " Verily, those are fishes in the hands of Sebak. 
and he hath found the two arms of Horus for him, which had 
become fishes." (3) 

And Ra said : " A mystery, a mystery, in the Net." 


And the hands of Horus were brought to him, and displayed 
before his face, on the feast of the fifteenth day of the month ; 
when the fishes were produced. 

Then Ra said : " I grant Nechen to Horus, in the place of his 
two arms ; that his two hands be displayed before his face in 
Nechen ; and I grant to him whatsoever is therein comprised on the 
feast of the fifteenth day of the month." 

And Horns said : " Be it granted to me that Tuamautef and 
Kebhsenuf be taken WMth me, and that they be guards of my body 
in dutiful service. (4) Let them be this under the god of Nechen." 
And Ra said : Be that granted to thee, there and in Sati, and let 
that be done for them which is done for those who are in Nechen ; 
yea, they are asking to be with thee. 

And Horus said : Be they with thee, so that they be with me to 
listen to Sutu invoking the Powers of Nechen : " Be it granted to 
me that I may make my entry among the Powers of Nechen." 

I know the Powers of Nechen : they are Horus, Tuamautef, 
and Kebhsenuf. 


1. Nechen, the chief hieroglyphic variants of which are ^ , 

© ® 

( U > /VWAA[— j 

/vNA/^/vA and ® , was situated in the third nome ( /oi Ten) of 

© /wvwv © ^^^ir 

Upper Egypt, and was called by the Greeks Hieraconpolis, 'city of 
the Hawks,' from the hawk -headed divinities mentioned in this 
chapter as Powers of Nechen, and of which numberless pictures are 
found on the monuments. 

2. Between these words and those which the three old papyri* 
Aa, Ae, and lb, which unfortunately do not agree together on all 
points, have a few passages here which do not appear in the later 
papyri. They read, " Horus and what his mother did, tossing in 

distressful agitation ( _4^ ^k\ v\ 4^ , KIJUL, (rukeveaeai) over the 

water." The mother then addresses persons who are not named, 
in words of which the sense is not clear ; and Ra speaks words of 
which the only certain ones are " the son of Isis." Then follows 
the usual text. 

* There is a copy of the chapter in the tomb of Cha-em-hait, which is our 
oldest authority. But it is unfortunately mutilated, and all that can be said is, 
that if the additional words were once there, they have been destroyed. 


3. This legend of Nechen is connected with that of the dis- 
memberment of HorUS (to Trepl rhi>"Qpov ^lafieXKr/nov), of which we 

have but very scanty information.* It must have been Hke a repe- 
tition of what had happened to his father Osiris. The Hmbs of 
Horus had been thrown into the water, and when Sebak threw his 
net, at the prayer of Isis, he brought up two fishes, into which the 
arms of Horus had been turned. 

Reminiscences of this story are preseived in the names of several 

localities. <s^p^ ^ " Two Fish," is the name of the Mer of the second 

Northern Nome, and of the pe/iu of the seventeenth Southern Nome ; 

just as -<s>- , "Two Eyes," is the name of the _pe/iu of the eleventh 

Northern Nome. The latter name may perhaps have reference to 
Osiris, but the same stories were probably told of both divinities. 

4. On dutiful service [J , a word omitted in the Turin 

and other texts. Brugsch {Rev. Egypt, I, 22) has discussed the sense 
of this word, and quoted numerous passages in illustration of it. 

It is of course ridiculous to identify the word with the Hebrew 
^"Tt^, the meaning of which is radically different. 


Chapter whereby ojie kno7iicth the Powers of Herinopolis. 

Maat is borne (i) over the Arm, (2) and Neith dawneth at 
Ment'ait, (3) and the Eye is illumined (4) by the one who adjusteth 
its level. 

I am led in by her, and I know what she bringeth from Kasu. (5) 
I tell it not to men ; I repeat it not to gods. 

I am come as a messenger of Ra, to make fast Maat upon the 
Arm, for the dawning of Neith at Ment'ait, and for restoring the 
Eye to him who taketh the reckoning thereof. 

I am come as omnipotent through the knowledge of the Powers 
of Hermopolis, who love the Powers which you love. 

* The Apis tablets (Zeitschr., 1882, p. 22) give the name of a place Fa-kerk- 
en Hor, which seems to refer to this catastrophe ; the Coptic KODX, KCCpX 
corresponding to the Greek iKKoirrtiv, IkkKcli', KaTaairacOat. 



Chapter CXIV 

Papyrus, British 

Museum, No. 9900. 

Chapter CXIX. 
Papyrus, Leyden Museum, No. V. 

Chapter CXVI. Papyrus, 
Musee du Louvre, No. IIL 36. 

Chapter CVII. Papyrus, 
British Museum, No. 9933. 

Ch.\pter CXXIII. Papyrus, 
British Museum, No. 9903. 

Chapter CXVII. Papyrus, 
British Museum, No. 9900. 

Chapter CXIX. 

Papyrus, Musee du Louvre. 

Cab. des Medailles. 


I am one acquainted with Maat made firm and permanent and 
reckoned out, and I take delight in reckoning out that which is 

Hail ye Powers of Hermopolis, small at the beginning of the 
month and great upon the Fifteenth Day ; Ra teacheth the mysteries 
of Night, and be it known to you that he who teacheth me is Thoth. 

Hail ye Powers of Hermopolis as I know you. 


There are two chapters (114 and 1 16) of " the Powers of Hermo- 
polis," and they have been preserved separately both in the older 
and in the more recent papyri. They are very similar in thought 
but differently worded, and each throws a certain light upon the 
other, without however dispelling the obscurity of this very ancient 
religious composition. Some farther help, however insufficient, is 
afforded by the pictures of the Book which records the passage of 
the Sun-god through the twelve hours of the night. 

[. Aladt is borne. [ 1 w 1 is the same word as [ . ^^^^^ ■> ^^e 

reduplicated form of I ^ to gush, spring forth. But in certain 

cases it acquires the sense of being borne, or conveyed, and is written 
^ in Ptolemaic inscriptions. The corresponding word in 


chapter 116 is 1 j-, ^^ , which has the same meanings. One 

of the pictures above alluded to (Lefebure, Hypogees, Toinbeau de 
Seii, part IV, pi. 31) represents a boat carrying the Moon-disk, 
raised upon a stand. 

A personage kneeling behind is supporting the feather of Maat. 

The words ^^^^ j c^ , which are written by way of explanation, 

-, — Si 

might give rise to some misunderstanding were it not for considera- 
tions mentioned in the followins; note. 


2. The Arm ^^^ in chapter 114 has for corresponding word 
V v\ in chapter 116, implying that Arm is to be taken 

in a geographical sense, as when we speak of an 'arm of the sea ' 
Now the pictures which have been spoken of have the words 

2 C 


,-r-^Si ^^ —"— , 'arm of the Urnes,' inscribed ever the stream down 

which the Sun-god takes his nightly journey. 

These pictures have only the value of a commentar)' on a very 
ancient text, but they are at least as old as the earUest papyrus 
which contains the text. 

3. Ment'ait ^S^ ^ ' ^^ ^^^ ancient reading in chapter 114, 
but the later texts have ^ ll, Tar. Chapter 116 has 

g , Mat'aii. 

4. Illumined. The texts are discordant as to the reading. I 


follow that of the two old papyri which have ? -< — ^ ; though this 
orthography, however defensible, is somewhat suspicious. 

5. Kasu. j^l I , the 'Burial Place,' was the metropolis of 

the 14th Nome of Southern Eg}-pt. Dendera is called \Jj D 
M4 "^ W. "^ © ^^^ ^" ^^^'■^ ordinary characters ^ ^ (j ^ 
X n ° I ^ • -^^^^ ^^^^' many other geographical names, it has 
the feminine form in £:i , as well as the masculine in v\ . 


Chapter whereby one cometh forth into Heaven, and openeth the 
Aminehit : and whereby the Powers of Heliopolis are known. 

I have grown from yesterday, a Great one among the Great. I 
have raised myself above all things that come into being. 

The Face is revealed to the Eye of the Only One, and the round 
of darkness is broken through. I am one of you. 

I know the Powers of Heliopolis. Doth not the All-powerful 
One (i) issue from it like one who extendeth a hand to us? 

It is with reference to me that the gods say : Lo, the afflicted 
one is heir of Heliopolis ! 

1 know on what occasion the Lock of the Male child (2) was 


Ra was speaking with Amhauf, (3) and a blindness came upon 

Ra said to Amhauf: Take the spear, oh offspring of Men. (4) 
And Amhauf said : The spear is taken. 

Two brethren came into being : they were Heb-ra and Sotem- 
anes, whose arm resteth not ; and he assumed the form of a female 
with a lock, which became the Lock in Heliopolis. 

Active and powerful is the heir of the temple ; the Active one 
of Heliopolis. The flesh of his flesh (5) is the All-seer, for he hath 
the might divine as the Son whom the Father hath begotten. And 
his will is that of the Mghty one of Heliopolis. 

I know the Powers of Heliopolis ; they are Ra, Shu and Tefnut. 


The ancient text of this chapter has most unfortunately been 
lost. A few words only remain in the fragments of Papyrus P)7i. 
M. Naville has also published what is found on an ostracon of the 
time of the XVHIth dynasty. There is no doubt that the form 
of the text which has been handed down in the later papyri has 
suffered great alterations. And a comparison between the Turin 
and Cadet papyri shows in how untrustworthy a way this later form 
of the text has been transmitted. 

Special attention has been given to this chapter by Mr. Goodwin 
(Zeitschr., 1873, p. 104), and by M. Lefebure {Melanges d'Arch., 
1874, p. 155), whose work is very much more valuable than that of 
his English colleague. But the most important study bearing on 
the relations between the older and the more recent recension is 
that of M. Naville, ' Un ostrakon egyptien,' in the first volume of 
the Antiaks du Musee Gurnet. 

I. All powerful One, ^^^ ^ c^. M. Naville observes that this 
is substituted for ^^ -^ , which is found on the ostrakon. 

Both terms are divine names ; the latter corresponding to the Greek 
TToXvcepKi'if or Trai'c.c/)Ki]<^, was the title of the high priest of Heliopolis, 
who, like his priestly colleagues all over Egypt, bore the titles of the 
god whom they represented. 

-2. T^e Lock of the Male child, Q vj v ^ Yh ''^'^^ ^^ . is not 

a 'curly wigged woman/ as generally interpreted, but the side lock 

2 C 2 


borne by Horus, and princes and princesses, as well as by other 
priests and priestesses, in honour of Horus. 

3. Amhanf. See emendation proposed {?ifra at chapter 125, 
note zi. 

4. O offspring. I follow the Papyrus Luyne in omitting the 
preposition «crr>. 

5. The flesh of his fleshy or the heir of his heir. This may 
perhaps be an assertion as to the hereditary succession of the high 
priest of Heliopolis. 


Chapter ivherehy one knoweth the Power of Hermopolis. 

Neith dawneth forth in Mat'at, and Maat is conve3'ed upon the 
Arm of the Eater of the Eye by him who reckoneth it out. 

I know it, and I am therefore led in through the Sem priest. 

I tell it not to men, I repeat it not to the gods (and conversely). 

I enter as one who knoweth not, and seeth not. 

Hail, ye gods who are in Hermopolis. Know ye me as I know 
Neith, that the Eye may be made firm and permanent. I take 
delight in reckoning out that which is reckoned. 

I know the Powers of Hermopolis who are great at the beginning 
of the month, and diminished at the fifteenth day. 

They are Thoth the Unseen, Sau and Tmu. 

If this chapter be hioivn, filth is avoided^ and lye is not drunken. 


This is the last of the chapters concerning the Powers of certain 
places. Of their positive antiquity there can be no doubt, whatever 
alterations they may have undergone. But they are relatively 
modern with respect to other chapters, e.g., the 17th. Mr. Goodwin 
used to compare them with Christian legends of the mediaeval 
period. These are ancient enough as far as we ourselves are 
concerned, but no one would think of judging by them of primitive 



The Beginning of the Chapters of the Garden of Hotepit, and of the 
Chapters of coming forth by day ; and of entering and coming 
forth in the Nethenvorld, and of arriving at the Garden 0/ 
A arm, at the Rise (i) in Hotepit and at the Grand Domain, 
blest with the breezes : that I may take possession there and be in 
Glory there : that there I may plough and moia : that there J 
may eat and drink and love : doing whatsoever things are done 
up07i earth, 

Horus is seized by Sutu : who looketh as one turning (2) towards 
the Garden of Hotepit. 

But for me Sutu releaseth Horus : and the double path which is 
nigh to Heaven is thrown open by Sutu. And Sutu taketh his 
portion of the breeze through the Power of his own day, (3) and he 
dehvereth the bowels of Horus from the gods below, 

Lo, I sail the great Bark on the Stream of the god Hotep. I 
took it at the mansion of Shu, 

The mansion of his stars is again and again renewed. (4) I sail 
upon its streams that I may come to the domains thereof. 

For I am in unison with his successive changes and his rules, 
and his papyrus, (5) and his attendant gods, and his chieftains. He 
reconcileth the two Warrior gods with those who have the charge 
of food and the beautiful creation Avhich he raiseth up; and he 
reconcileth the two Warrior go:ls with each other. (6) 

He severelh the mourners from those who quarrel with them : 
he putteth a stop to them whose hand is violent against those weaker 
than themselves : he keepeth within bounds the contentions of the 

May I have possession there. 

I know it, and I sail upon its streams that I may come to the 
domains thereof. 

My mouth is potent and secured against the Glorified that they 
may not have the mastery of me. 

May I have the investiture of thy Garden, O Hotep. What thou 
wiliest, do thou it. 

Let me be glorified there, and eat and drink there, and jjlough 
there, and reap there, and grind (7) there, and have my fill of love 


May my mouth be potent there, let me there utter my^ Words 
of Power and not be shghted. 

I am in possession of that Word of Pcwpr of mine Avhich is the 
most potent one within this body of mine here : and by means of it 
I make myself either known or unknown. 

I make my progress and I plough. 

I take my rest in the divine Domain. 

I knoAv the names of the domains, the districts ard the streams 
within the Garden of Hotep. 

I am there, I am master there, I am in glory there, I eat there ; 
I plant and I reap there ; I plough there, and I take my fill of love. 
I am united there with the god Hotep. 

I cast my seed there, and I sail upon its stream that I may come 
to the domains thereof, O Hotep. 

Lo, my mouth is armed with sharp points. There is given to 
me the abundance which belongeth to the Ka and to the Glorified. 

I give the reckoning of Shu to him who understandeth it. 

I sail upon its stream, and I range within the Garden of Hotep, 
for Ra is in the sky, and Hotep is putting together the oblations. 

I hasten to the land, and I fasten my stole upo)i me, that I may 
come forth, and that that may be given to me which hath to be 
given ; that I may have joy and take possession of the wealth which 
Hotep assigneth to me. 

Rise in Hotep, I arrive in thee, my soul is with me, and my 
provision is before the Mistress of the Two Earths, who maketh fast 
my Words of Power, which recall to mind that which I have 
forgotten. Let me live free from stiife ; and be there granted to 
me enlargement of heart. 

Let my arteries be made fast, and let me ha\e the enjoyment of 
the Breeze. (8) 

"Rise in Hotep, blest with the Breeze, I arrive in thee, my head 
is uncovered : Ra sleepeth, but there wakelh for me, and there 
shineth upon me Hesit [the Cow-goddess] (9) who lieth at the 
confines of Heaven by night. 

He standeth in my way who heapeth against me his own dross. 

But I am in my own domain. 

Great Domain, I arrive in thee and I reckon up the abundance 
as I pass on to Uach. (to) 



I am the Bull, raised on high in the Blue ; the lord of the Bull's 
field ; which Sothis describcth to me at her successive hours. 

Uach, I arrive in thee, and I eat my cakes, and take possession 
of my joints of flesh and meat and fowl. 

The winged things of Shu are given to me, and my Kau follow 
rre. (11) 

T'efait, (12) I arrive in thee, I put on the stole and fasten upon 
me the girdle of Ra, whilst he is m heaven, (13) and the gods who 
are in heaven are following Ra. 

Rise in Hotep, Lord of the Two Earths, I arrive in thee : 
I salute the stream of Teserit. (14) Lo, here am I, and all impurity 
is far from me. The great one flourisheth . . . I net the 
ducks, and I eat dainties. 

Kankanit, (15) I arrive in thee; that I may see my father and 
attentively view my mother. 

I lake care to net the reptiles ; and that which protecteth me is 
that I know the name of that god who is next to T'eserit (goddess 
with flowing locks and armed with horns), and who reapeth. 

I myself plough and reap. 

Hesit, I arrive in thee, and I encounter the Blue. 

I follow the Breezes, and the company of the gods. 

It is the Great goddess who hath given me my head, and he 
who fasteneth my head upon me is the Great god, the Blue-eyed, 
who doeth according to his own will. 

Userit, (16) I arrive in thee, in face of the mansion where food 
is produced for me. 

Smiit, (17) I arrive in thee. My heart is awake: my head is 
provided with the White crown and I am conveyed over the 
heavens : and I make thcs: things to prosper which are below me : 
a joy to the Bull of the gods above, the divine company. 

I am the Bull, the Lord of the gods ; and I make my way 
through the midst of the Emerald ones. (18) 

Isle of Corn and Barley, divine district, I arrive in thee. I 
encounter and I bear olT that which proceedeth from the head of 
Ra : the pair of horns which have the force of purification. (19) 

I make myself fast to the Block of Moorage on the heavenly 
stream, and I utter my praise to the gods who are in the Gard:;n of 



The text of this chapter handed down by the Turin papyrus 
and those which agree with it contains nothing very difificult for a 
translator, but on being compared with the older copies it is found 
to consist of a collection of small fragments of the older text put 
together without any regard to their original order or context. And 
about three-quarters of the old chapter are suppressed in the new 

The editors of the fine pipyrus of Sutimes in their notes upon 
this chapter remark, that in the Turin text the sentences are in quite 
a different order from that of their papyrus, " On peut y voir," they 
.say, " I'effet de lectures et de transcriptions en rebours du sens, par 
des scribes ayant mal compris les editions en colonncs retrogrades." 

This is, curiously enough, the very fault of the papyrus of 
Sutimes itself, which is here wrong from beginning to end,* though 
probably derived from an excellent original. It begins with the 
" Isle of Corn and Barley," and jumbles together quite incoherent 

The oldest copy of the chapter yet discovered is that of the 
Tomb of Cha-em-hait, at Thebes, and by a strange fatality it has 
been published in such a form that in order to read it correctly, we 
must begin with what is printed as line 11 and finish with line i. 
We have it also in a very incomplete condition. We miss the first 
eighteen Hues contained in the papyrus of Nebseni and the last 
words of every line. 

The papyrus of Nebseni is the only complete text we have, and 
here as well as elsewhere it is extremely incorrect. Some parts are 
so corrupt that a translation must necessarily be dependent upon 
conjectural emendations which can have no genm'ne claim upon 
the reader's confidence. We must be content with waiting till 
better authorities are discovered. 

The Gardens of Hotepit and Aanu are the Paradise, Elysian 
Fields and Islands of the Blessed of the Egyptian imagination.! 
They were supposed to be situated in the neighbourhood of the 
rising Sun, but certain features were apparently suggested by the 
islets of the Delta. 

* See Jif. Naville's remarks, Einlcilung, p. 156 
t Mission Ai-ch., I, p. 125. 


The usual meaning of the word ffofepif, c^ u ,* when 

^ III 
written according to the orthography of the Pyramid Texts, is 

oblations, offe/'ings. This, however, is only a derived meaning. The 

word really only expresses a predicate of the things offered, as 

. .0 . 
putting together, unitifig, reconciling ; Hotep might signify Rest, 

or Peace ; very appropriate names for such a garden. ^ is 

the name of a god who dwells here.f There is also a goddess here 

called Hotepit c M , mentioned in the Pyramid inscription of 

Pepi I (line 423), as mother of the great Scarab : and the same name 
is given to Hathor in the temple of Dendera. The name of Hotep 
(with different determinatives J) belongs to one of the islands of this 
blissful place. 

The Pyramid Texts furnish some interesting information not con- 
tained in the Book of the Dead. We are told that the approach to 
the Garden is over the Lake of Putrata (see chapter 40, note i), 
that there is a great lake (? that of Konsit) in the middle of the 
Garden of Hotepit, upon which the great gods alight, and that the 
AcJimiu Sekiu, the starry deities who never set, there feed the 

departed from the wood of life I ■¥" -^ lignum vita; ) " upon 

which they themselves live, in order that he too may live." Shu 
and Tefnut are mentioned as divinities of this place. But perhaps 
the most remarkable fact is that Horus had enemies even here, who, 
however, were annihilated by the divine weapons at the disposal of 
the departed worthy, who was led there in order that " he might sit 
among the stars in heaven." 

And here it was that the beatified personage sat upon his throne 
of steel, which was decorated in front with faces of the lion-god 

— \ ^^ >r5K ^^'^^^^^i t^s f^et of it being the hoofs of the great 

* Also written ^ ( Unas, 422 and elsewhere). 

t The garden is also called \ .Q }\ pKy . Another form is 

-=i C {Pepi I, 309)- 

O □ 

I AA^AAA Nebseni, I 1 Sutimes, \\ in all the later 


2 D 


Bull Snta-ura, and extended his hand to the coming generation of 

men (the \ '^ ^^^^ ^^ Q ), whilst the gods approached him in 

submissive attitude, and made offerings to him. It was, perhaps, 
from these offerings that the Garden derived its name. 

The Garden of Aarru, I Mil ^ „^ ^ ' is often men- 

tioned in connection with that of Hotepit, and may perhaps be 
considered as the most notable part of it. It is through its Gate 
that the Sun-god rises up into Heaven. 

It takes its name from a plant [I *^^^ \\ ^ aarrii (later, 

^©,B.M. 551; ( <6. ^T ", ^^^, Chapter 

17 ; vV] * Ba, Chapter no, by phonetic dissimi- 

lation of rr into nr). The usual form in later times is [ \\ 

m*"^ "^, but we find even shorter forms in MAUHl, B.M. 32, 
® <z>l © 

and JLJij . The determinative IM^ of a reptile, indicates 

a creeping, climbing^ twbiing plant, such as the convolvulus, hop, or 

Mc^ 1 ( > w \ . 
^ I <=> I , in the papyrus of Nesichonsu, 

V I I \ MR ® 
published by M. Maspero, Miss. Arch., I, p. 612. 

+ The Pyramid Texts have the invocations ( Unas, 597), " Hail to thee, 
Horus, in the domains of Horus ; Hail to thee, Sutu, in the domains of Sutu ; 

Hail to thee, Lion 


ylar), in the Garden of Aarru." 

Another derivation is suggested in the "Destruction of Mankind," line 39, 

"^ (as I read it) an augmented form of ^\ <y> > «'', which does 

not mean pluck, as in Bnigsch's translation, but bind, fasten, twine, jiectere, 
constringere, convolvere. This sense would explain the ancient determinatives 

\|jj, Aillj and lead to still more interesting results. For the ancient word 

(J ^\ <:i^> liWK , aarei'it, 'a vine,' has thus clearly the same etymological 

sense as our European word vine. '^Vi-niem . . . attaches itself to vi-tis, vt-?/ien, 

vi-tex, and — exactly like the Greek Fo1-vo^ — to the Indo-Greek root vei, ' to 

twine.' So that m- no means first 'creeper,' then ' fruit of the creeper,' finally 

drink made from the fruit of the creeper'" (O. Schia.dei, Fre/iistoric Antiquities, 

Philological speculation might make a further advance. 


The term 'Garden' implies in this connection nothing more than 
a cultivated enclosure. 

The names of different localities which are invoked by the 
deceased and appear on the vignette of the chapter, have here 
been made prominent by means of heavy type. 

1. Rise in Hotepit, or (later on) Hotep, ^^ ¥\ -^ □ , is 

/vwwA _cr^ d III 

the name of one of the localities. The word ^^, as I have often 

said, has the sense of rising up, coming to light, making an appearance, 
and like the Greek (fmlvo^uu is especially applicable to the appearance 
of daybreak, or the rise of the heavenly bodies. 

2. Turning, 

\ . The group has the apparent sense of 

building, but the primitive sense is turning, as in the making of 
pottery. The preposition <=> which follows it in this place seems 
to show that building is not meant. 

3. This, of course, sounds like nonsense, but so does the original 
as it has come down to us. The papyrus of Ani, which reads 

rn ^ , forces the sense of day upon the sign Qj which in the 

sense of turn would have been far more intelligible. There was the 
'Portion of Sutu,' and the 'Portion of Horus,' each being half 
the world, topographically, or half the twenty-four hours as regards 

I suspect that ' day ' is a faulty interpretation of the ambiguous 
O, and that the true sense of the passage is that Sutu is satisfied 
with the share which comes to his turn, and thereupon delivers 
Horus from imprisonment in the lower world. The perplexity, or 
ignorance of the copyists is seen in the very next words. One has 

As I \N. aar, is to ^-^^ «;-, so perhaps is 1 v\ v\ 

Nil aarni to vl di-ii. The first two groups are not phonetically iden- 

1 1 I <rr>i II f 1 

tical, but they are certainly allied and have very much the same meaning ; the 
last has, with some probability, been identified with the Vi)te-branch, and that, 

in conjunction with the text \U r <%/( ra ^^^^ Zeiischr., 1878, p. 107, 

and the plate corresponding). " The Vine-plant is Osiris." The Greeks, or some 
of them at least, identified Osiris with Dionysos ( Plutarch, de hide et Osiride, 
34> 35)- The god is sometimes (as in the papyrus of Nebseni) sitting in a naos 
under a vine, from which bunches of grapes are hanging. 

2 D 2 


' he who is in Merit,' others ' he who is in my mouth,' and two 
' he who is in the egg,' if this be the sense of the very questionable 

group - h ^\ ^ J] , which looks hke a mistake for -\[- 


'C. O 

well known title of Anubis. 

Amin and amin renewed 


5. His papyrus. So the word ^ mehit, which occurs in the 

rubric of Chapter 134, has hitherto been translated. But the vases 
t^ or ^, as determinatives, rather imply 'inkstand' or 'palette for 
holding colour.' In this place it is the writing itself and not the 
material, paper, ink or inkstand, which is meant. And from the 
entire context Thoth is the god who is spoken of. 

6. He reconcileth the two Warrior gods with each other., 



'^^^ . The final 
I I I 

words en aru-sen show the origin of the Coptic form It . . . epHOT 

7. Grind I \ ^cn:::^ , the Coptic from of which is CIKI. From 
the notion of ' reducing to powder,' that of the frequent word 

I '^z:^ -^^^ 'wearing away,' 'decay,' is derived. 

8. Let my arteries be made fast, and let me have the enjoyment of 
the Breeze, or that I may have enjoyment. The oldest meaning of the 
word artery, uprrjpia, in Hippocrates, Aristotle and the earlier I,atin 
writers is wind-pipe, and, in the plural, air-duds. But, even when 
the word was also applied to what we call arteries, these were 
supposed to convey air whilst the veins conveyed blood. " Sanguis 
per venas in omne corpus diffunditur et spiritus per arterias " is the 
classic doctrine in Cicero {de Natura Deorum, 2, 55). Pliny says 
{Nat. Hist., XI, 89), "arteriae carent sensu : nam et sanguine." This 
error is corrected by Galen, who has a treatise on the question 
" Whether Blood is naturally {Kcnacfivaiv) contained in the arteries?" 
The error of the ancients arose from the arteries always being found 
empty after death. The blood flowing from a wound inflicted 
upon them was inferred to have been intruded into them by the 
rupture of the veins. The Egyptian doctrine of the ' arteries ' 

^^^^ ^ (Coptic ^i.ItJULOTX) in the head, by means of 

which air is conveyed to all parts of the person, was first found by 


M. Chabas in the Berlin Medical papyrus. The passage of the 
Book of the Dead on which this note is written is no doubt the 
earhest allusion to the doctrine. 


9. Hesit [the Cozv-goddess] | jj ^, | ^ ^, | j ( 

^ is one of the many names of Isis or Hathor. She is repre- 
sented as suckling her son Horus (see picture in Lanzone, p. 844), 
and it is this which characterizes her and from which she derives 
her name. She is asked on the Louvre tablet (c. 14) for "the 
white liquor which the glorified ones love." This is distinctly called 
'milk' on the Florentine tablet 2567, and vases of her milk are 
mentioned (Diimichen, Resultate, 27, 6) in the inscriptions of 
Dendera. A picture of her given in Diimichen's Historische 
Inschriften (II, 32) identifies her with Hathor, and calls her "divine 
mother, mistress of heaven and sovereign of the gods," while others 
call her " the divine mother and fair nurse." 

There can be no doubt about the right reading of the name 
which is Hesit ; the — h — is written in so many texts (see Pepi, I, 

306, Amamu, 21, i, Lepsius, Auswahl, IX, and the form P 'cn ^t 

Philae), that there is no reason for confounding the name with that 
o{ hetemit. We must therefore attach no importance to this latter 
name when applied in the vignette of the Turin Todtcfilnuh to one 
of the divine abodes which bears the name of the goddess, and is 
written exactly like it. 

10. Uach Sp\ ^^.®'\ blooming, flowering. 

II. — The loijiged things of Shu are given to me, and my Kau 
follow me. 

V 'T? ' V ^-^ ' ^^ ^ word of very rare occurrence. 

Birch and Naville understood it of the netting, and Brugsch, of the 
pluming of birds. Both meanings may be disputed, but whatever 
Shu did, was done to birds, and these are said to be given to the 

The prayer that a person may travel over the blissful parts, 

followed by his kau [ ^ f j » H^^ > is repeatedly found on 

the early monuments. Several papyri say that the deceased is 
followed by 'the gods and the hau.' 



12. Tefait h-T^ J|, an abode abounding in ^°^ ^^\ 

I I 

The reading J_J to which 


13. He is in heaven ATi ■ 

Brugsch at one time attached much importance, has turned out 
to be one of the many blunders of the text of Sutimes. But the 

true reading is not without its difficulties. If /v7) is taken 

as equivalent to [ v\ we have a strange anticipation of a charge 

in language of which the " enigmatical " texts of the royal tombs* 
give the first intimation, but which first becomes conspicuous in the 

demotic period. In a previous passage we have -Jj [^ 1 C ^\ ATi 

D^^ITD^ i where Nebseni has ^^^ ^^ . But the important 

preposition ^^\ had already dropped out of the earlier text of 

Chaemhait. The demonstrative particle [ I which occurs in both 

places may be rendered ' there [he is],' ' le voila.' 

14. / salute the streavi of Teserit : a corrupt passage like so 

many others in this chapter. The first word 



' salute ' is rare but correct and well attested. The proper name 
is but one of the contradictory readings. It has, however, the 
advantage of being a real name and suitable to the passage, being 
that of a goddess mentioned in connection with the next abode. 
„^^ ci ^V T'eserit is a name corresponding to the classical 'A^/Xaia 
or Clara. t In the texts of the Royal Tombs she is named as 
goddess in Lh U^-l Cher-aba. And herej she is depicted as the 

* Here we already have /Vf) ^^ I, \\\ 

and ^ O = - - 


V=\ III U 111 

See my article in the Zeiischr., 1874, p. 102. 


+ It is also the name of a liquid substance ^^ZT =0=) \ _~7^ > 

a produce of the cow, such as cream or clarified butter. It occurs in all the 
lists of offerings. 

J A reference to M. Naville's collation of this chapter (line 40), will show 
the corruption and uncertainty of the text which precedes the name of the 
goddess. If we look beyond the authorities given by jM. Naville, the difficulties 
are multiplied. The papyrus of Queen Net'emit in the Louvre, for instance, 

instead of [ J ^ ^''^•> reads, ?C~^ <::z> • 


goddess with long or flowing locks (evTrXoKafio^) and armed with 
horns. She is one of the forms of Isis or Hathor. 

15. Kankanit\% etymologically akin to the verb of beating {see 
Chapter 17, note 20), but there is no reason from the notice here to 
suppose that this was a place of punishment. 

16. Userit ~\ <:zr> M^ is one of the commonest appellatives of 
Isis, especially in the later texts. The names of all these abodes, 
situated in that region of the sky where the sun rises, are derived 
from the notion of daybreak. 

17. Smait, another of these appellatives, see Chapter 62, note i. 

1 8. The Einerald ones ^N^ \\ ^ , those who are in the 

emerald light of the dawn. The sun rises (Chapter 109) through 
two sycomores of emerald. 

19. Which have the force oj purification {\i v!^ I • The 

syllable db expresses the word signifying horn as well as that signify- 
ing purification. 

The vignettes of the chapter which are here given from different 
authorities are explained in their proper place. 

Chapter luhereby one taketh the blissful path at Restau. (i) 

paths which are high above me at Restau : I am the Girdled (2) 
and the Mighty one, coming forth triumphantly. (3) 

1 am come : I am come that I may firmly secure my suit in 
Abydos, (4) and that the path may be open to me at Restau. 

Let my suit be made pleasant for me by Osiris. 

I am he who produceth the water which balanceth his throne, 
and who maketh his way from the Great Valley. (5) 

Let the path be made for me ; for behold I am iV the trium- 
phant. (6) 

[Osiris is made triumphant over his adversaries, and the Osiris 
N is made triumphant over his adversaries, and is as one of you, 
his patron (7) is the Lord of Eternity : he walketh even as ye walk, 
he standelh as ye stand, he speaketh as ye speak, before the great 
god, the Lord of Amenta.] 




I. This chapter and the following have reference to Restau, one 
of the Gates between the Netherworld and Heaven. 

It is not mentioned in the most ancient recension of chapter i 7 
(from which my translation was taken), but in all the papyri of the 
eighteenth and later dynasties it is stated that Restau was a gate 

'' - ) of 

south of An-aaref and north of the "Domain 


The papyrus of Ani has this picture of it, 


but the most interesting representations of it are in the Dublin 
papyrus {D. a), where the Sun god is seen passing between the 
folding doors, and in the papyrus of Hunefer (A. g), where the 
doors are also open and the god is sitting between them. (See 
Plates VI, II and VII b.) 

The name Restau (the feminine form — (p— ^ 

is more frequent in later texts) signifies Gate of ihe passages. These 
are the passages guarded by the faithful attendants of Osiris, but 
armed with "hurtful fingers" against the adversaries of Ra, against 
whose onslaught the deceased prays Ra for protection in chapter 17. 
A mystical interpretation will be found in chapter 119 and note. 

2. Girdled, or staled, ^^ . On the importance attached 

to this ritual investiture, the following references may (among many 
others) be useful: Unas 66, Teta 149, Pepi\, 395, Merejiia 190, 


Todt. 125 (rubric), 145, 25. The deceased prays (Chapter 82, 4) 
that he may be girt by the goddess Tait. A passage in Todt. 78, 26 
(Turin text) would be of greater interest were it not an emendation 
of those who no longer understood the ancient text. 

3. Coming forth triumphantly. This is the reading of the oldest 
authority (Nebseni), but the reading which has prevailed, not 
only here, but in Chapter 147, is "coming forth from the Crown," 

4. That I may firmly secure my suit at Abydos, The scholion 
on Chapter 17, referred to in note i, states that the "place of Maat 
is at Abydos." It is, of course, the mystical, not the geograpical, 
Abydos which is meant, and the suit 1 {res) which has to be 

settled is the final judgment of the deceased. 

5. The throne of Osiris in pictures of the Psychostasia {see 
Vignettes to Chapter 125) rests upon water, out of which there 
springs a lotus flower ; and upon this flower stand the four children 
of Horus. In a passage of chapter 147, which is an adaptation of the 

present chapter, the deceased says (I ^ p. .M. V\ ^ '-^■'^^ 

Zrt, "I am he whose stream is secret." And a Pyramid Text 

{Merenra,' 188, 193) after mention of the Great Valley [ 

and of the investiture I/w-La) proceeds, /vwv^^ 

-^ S ^w ^ — -*5 "thy water, thy fresh current, is 

a great inundation proceeding from thee." Here the deceased is 
identified with the Nile and its inundation, as in Chapter 64 of the 
Book of the Dead. 

6. The chapter ends here. The passage which follows in the 
translation is taken from the Paris papyrus Fe. 

7 . Patron, /wvw> Q ^. I ^ , a word supposed by some scholars 
to signify uncle. It occurs on funereal monuments among the desig- 
nations of persons connected with the deceased, such as brother, 
sister, nurse. A man may have several bearing the designation, and 
they are not necessarily children of the same parents {see e.g., Mariette, 
Cat. d^ Abydos, p. 110, where a man has five chenemesu, who cannot 
all be brothers either of his father or his mother). The word occurs 
repeatedly in the Prisse papyrus. I am inclined to think it means 
the legal guardian of a minor. 

2 E 


Chapter whereby one arriveth at Restau. 

I am he who is born in Restau. 

Glory is given to me by those who are in their mummied forms 
in Pu, at the sanctuary of Osiris, whom the guards (i) receive at 
Restau when they conduct Osiris through the demesnes of Osiris. 


(i) Guards, (1 ^^ ^:z:::^ V> ~^ I aaku, the same personages as 
those mentioned in Chapter 28, note 2, and they seem to me to 
be identical with the "wardens of the passages," Chapter 17, "atten- 
dant upon Osiris." There is an imperfect tablet of the 1 2th dynasty 
at Hamamat {Denkm., II, 138, c) in which thirty [ '■cz; 

mentioned along with the soldiers and other persons belonging to 


the expedition. The Pyramid Texts have the word [ 

apparently with a determinative of salutation, ^ . {Pepi I, 160, 
cf. line 82.) 

Chapter lohereby one entereth or goeth forth from Restau. 

I am the Mighty one, who createth his own light. 

I come to thee, Osiris, and I worship thee. 

Pure are thine effluxes, (i) which flow from thee, (2) and which 
make thy name in Restau, when it hath passed there. 

Hail to thee, Osiris, in thy power and thy might, who hast 
possession of Restau. 

Osiris raiseth thee up in thy power and in thy might. Osiris 
raiseth thee up in thy power in Restau, and in thy might in Abydos, 
that thou mayest go round heaven with Ra, and survey the human 


One art thou and triumphant. 


* The 

from the dead or yet unborn. 

liSfc=, Rechit, mankind actually^ living, as distinguished 





^"¥2 ^AAAAA ,^;> ■*\ 

1. Pure are thine effluxes. The true reading is / I -wwva v\ 

fX3 , a phrase which recurs in these texts. The suffix Vo^ of 
III ^ 

the first person, which is sometimes added to the first word, would 
give the sense " thine effluxes are my purification." On the meaning 

of """^ V:>fl3, see 65 B, note 4. At the end of Chapter 149 

the deceased prays, "let me be joined, let me be united with the 
sap which proceedeth from Osiris ; let me not be parted from him." 

2. Which flow from thee. 1 n \\ , sta, which has here 
the same meaning as when the Nile is said {Denktn., Ill, 13) to flow 
into the Great Sea, f I n <ir> n 1) "^^^SSS^ . The name of 

^^5 I I 

The various meanings of I r-. 

Restau is here derived from the effiuxes flozai?tg (stau) from Osiris. 

— <&— , and of the Coptic ceT, 

are all traceable to the notion of sending forth, thro7ving, and are 

easily illustrated from the Greek. Thus eK/3dX\etu is used for the 

discharge of a river into the sea ; eV/3o\a« are ' passes, passages.' 

Doors are secured by pushing the bolts, /toxXoi''? eTn^uWeiv ; they 

n c^ — (p — — " — 
O.XQ o^QntdLhy shooting back the bolt, I ri ' {M-TuxieiiQ, Abydos, 

p. 58). I pj"^ ll is exactly the reverse of tvift/iWetv acjypa^ftcoc.. 


^ O ) ^ <=^ Q ' ^OT, stercus is an UfioX^], dejectio. And 



saninare, and ever so many others are all determinations of one and 
the same concept. 

, , C^-i" , COTTe, /Se'Xo?, /3ox;?, 

^ ■■M , C^.T-, 

In such passages as 

n o -(0- ''^'^ s,*_^ I , 

the like, i-/a has the sense not of totving, but of Trof.nri], ' solemn 
procession.'' It occurs even where towing is out of question, e.g., in 

the march of military men 

I (Tombs of Amenemheb 

and Pehsukher, Miss. Arch. Francaise, V, pp. 229 and 289). 


\~^ string, rope is connected with the notion of ' throw- 

■ing ' like our own warp with werfen (Goth, vairp-ati) and pitt-tw). 

2 E 2 


Chapter CXX is a repetition of Chapter XII. 
Chapter CXXI is a repetition of Chapter XIII. 
Chapter CXXII is a repetition of Chapter LVIII. 

Chapter (i) ivhereby ofie entereth into the Great House. 

Hail to thee, O Tmu, I am Thoth. 

I have equally balanced the Divine Pair, I have put a stop to 
their strife, I have ended their complaints. 

I have rescued the Atu from his backward course. 

I have done what thou hast prescribed for him. 

And I rest since then within my own Eye. 

I am free from obstruction ; and I come that thou mayest see 
me in the house where I repeat the ancient ordinances and words, 
as a guidance wherewith thou shalt guide posterity. (2) 


I. This chapter (which is repeated in Chapter 139) is like the 
repetition of an important passage in Chapter no. But the 
differences are very considerable, and it is for criticism to decide 
the question of priority between the two recensions. 

Whichever be the earlier recension, the present one is of very great 
interest and importance. It is found on two of the most carefully 
written papyri of the eighteenth dynasty. But the most interesting 
^feature is the mythological allusion at this date (at latest) to an 
astronomical phenomenon, with reference to which later researches 
may furnish fresh evidence. 

The speaker in this chapter is said (not merely implied, as in 
Chapter no, see note 5) to be Thoth, who is the measurer of all 
things in heaven and earth, and the author and regulator of all 
science. He is here said to have established the equilibriu7n 

\\ )) ~r^ between the Divine Pair, Horus and Sutu ; that is 

Day and Night. Such an equilibrium, strictly speaking, never exists 
except at the Equinoxes. 

But the most important passage is, " I have rescued the Atu 

from his backward course." The ^ ^^Pi^j Atu is a mytho- 


logical yfi-//, who is represented as following the course of the Bark 
of Ra. The meaning of the name is, the Cleaver, Divider, Cutter 

in two . It is one of the appellatives of the Sun-god, 

with reference to his path through the sky. But what is that solar 
phenomenon specially deserving to be characterised by its motion 

backwards c^ ^^^ ? 

I do not think any astronomer would hesitate to answer, that 
Precession is meant. The cause of Precession could only be known 
to really scientific philosophers (which is out of question in this 
case), but the phenomena would necessarily be noted by those 
who had important interests in keeping their calendar correct.* 
Even the Chinese, by dint of records and without any mathematics, 
came to infer the precession of the equinoxes ; so did the Egyptians 
apparently at a very much earlier period ; and Hipparchus, who has 
the credit of the discovery, may have learnt it from them. 

Although 's^Pca^ is commonly represented as a Jish, the 

I— (— I XI5C 
same name is given to a Crustacean c^ii cissj whose organs of 

locomotion are specially adapted for backward motion. 

" Rescuing the Atu from its backward course " can mean nothing 
less than being able to correct or (in technical language) to equate 
the phenomena. 

It might perhaps be suggested that the backward course here 
spoken of has reference to the year of 360 days, corrected at an 
early period by the addition of the five supplementary days. This 
would certainly have been a very probable explanation of the clause, 
but for the direct connection which this has with what precedes, 
concerning the equilibrium between Day and Night; that is, the 

2. Posterity, <^r> \\ ^"^^^^^ ' literally, minores. The word 
in the present context seems to have a different meaning from 

* " The amount of this motion by which the equinox travels backward, or 
retrogrades (as it is called), is fer annum an extremely minute quantity, but 
which, by its continual accumulation from year to year, at last makes itself very 
palpable, and that in a way highly inconvenient to practical astronomers, by 
destroying, in the lapse of a moderate number of years, the arrangement of their 
catalogues of stars, and making it necessary to reconstruct them." Herschul. 
Astronomy, chapt;;r 4. 


what it has in Chapter no, where it is put in contrast with 


violent ones, against whom Thoth interposes 

nis protection. 

Chapter whereby one cometh to the Divine Circle of Osiris. 

My soul buildeth for me a Hall (i) in Tattu and I flourish in Pu. 

My fields are ploughed by those who belong to me : therefore is 
my palm tree like Amsu. 

Abominations, abominations, I eat them not. I abominate filth, 
I eat it not. 

[Peace offerings are my food, by which I am not upset] 

I approach it not with my hands ; I tread not upon it with my 
sandals ; for my bread is of the white corn and my beer of the red 
corn of the Nile. 

It is the Sektit boat, or it is the Atit boat, which bringeth them 
to me, and I feed upon them under the foliage of the Tamarisk. (2) 

I know how beautiful are the arms which announce Glory for 
me (3) and the white crown which is lifted up by the divine Uraei. 

O thou Gate-keeper of him who pacifieth the world, let that be 
brought to me of which oblations are made, and grant that the floors 
may be a support for me, and that the glorious god may open to me 
his arms, and that the company of gods be silent whilst the 
Hammemit (4) converse with me. 

O thou who guidest the hearts of the gods, protect me and let 
me have power in heaven among the starrj- ones. 

And every divinity who presenteth himself to me, be he reckoned 
to the forerunners of Ra : be he reckoned to the forerunners of 
Light and to the Bright ones who deck the sky amid the Mighty 

Let me have my will there of the Bread and Beer with the gods ; 
that I enter through the Sun-disk and come forth through the Divine 
Pair, that the gods who follow may speak to me, and that Darkness 
and Night may be terrified before me in Mehit-urit, by the side of 
him "Who is in his Sanctuary." 



Chapter CXXV. 
Papyrus, Musee du Louvre, III, 36- 

Chai'tkr CXXV. 
Papyrus, Musee du Louvre, III, 93. 


Papyrus du Louvre, III, 9. 


Papyri is du Louvre, III, 89. 

Chapter CXXV. 
Papyrus, Musee di i Louvre, III, 36. 

Chapter CXXIV. Pap jrrus, Musee du 
Louvre, Cab. des iMedaille 

'_ llllll.l|.U.IIi.l|.|i.llill.llnlllllIT; 

Chapter CXXV. Papyrus, Ani. 

Chapter CXXV. 
Papyrus, Paris, Sketch by Mr. Renouf 


And lo I am here with Osiris. My measure is his measure (5) 
among the mighty ones. I speak to him the words of men and 
I repeat to him the words of gods. 

There cometh a glorified one, equipped, who bringeth Maat to 
those who love her. 

I am the Glorified one and the Equipped. And better equipped 
am I than any of the Glorified. 


1. ^.//^, ^, ^Yn' ^'^ 2^ /..«/. the .,oV«o,, 
irpoSofio's, ' Vorsaal,' first room of a temple or palace. The sense of 
harim which has been ascribed to it in certain texts is entirely 
erroneous. The temple inscriptions (see Brugsch, Zeiischr., 1875, 
p. 118, and fol., and Mariette, Denderah, I, 6) leave no doubt on 
the subject. If there were " ladies of the royal antechamber," it 
by no means follows that they were wives or concubines of the 
king, and hall or antechamber convey a very different idea from 
that of the most reserved portion of the house.* 

Pictures and inscriptions on mummy cases identify the term 
mythologically with that portion of the sky whence the first rays of 
the rising sun are visible. 

The mention of the word in the Pyramid Texts {FeJ>i, I, 672) 

is in connection with the notion of food, ]) ^\. 

2. We have here a repetition of passages to the same effect as in 
Chapters 53 (A and B) and others. The Pyramid Texts {Tela, 
344) have a section nearly identical. 

3. The arjns which announce Glory for me. The clue to the 

meaning of this passage is to be found in , which is a relative 

form implying an antecedent, which can only be "the arms." 

* The V\ I mentioned in the tablet of Pa-shere-en-Ptah are not 

concubines, as Brugsch and others have thought, but female children, as Birch 
rightly asserted. Cf. my Hihbert Lectures, p. 79, note. It is the feminine 

form of ® d"^ ^. 

There is also another word, ^ , applied on the walls of tombs to 


persons {male as well as female) executing certain g)'mnastic movements. 


The arms which announce Glory for me are to be explained by 
the usages of the ancient ritual, which prescribed certain postures 

or attitudes in the ceremony of .<2>- I ''1>^ , as in other forms 

wherein the arms pla) ed a great part. These religious ceremonies 
it must always be jemembered, were considered as dramatic repre- 
sentations of what was done in the invisible world. 

4. The Hammemit, ^ ^^ ^ ^ i ' °^ ^Q "^ ^Z ^ 

^ J ' ' nH "^ S^^v'V ^ ^ ' ' ^^^ generations of human 
beings yet unborn. 

5. My measure is his measure. The meaning of L, ^^^/^^"^ 

v\ ^ Q can only be inferred from the form 


L^ ^^ ^J\ "FV which occurs repeatedly in the great Harris 

Papyrus and some other documents. 

The scribe of the Turin Todtenbuch carelessly omitted the second 
part of the phrase, and therefore altered the grammatical construc- 
tion. This is how M. Pierret came to conjecture the sense 
'proclaim,' which is not suggested by any of the ancient authorities, 
or even by the later ones. The reading of the Leyden Papyrus 
T, 16 is identical with that of the oldest papyrus. 

Part I. 

Said on arriving at the Hall of Righteousness, that N may be 
loosed from all the sins which he hath committed and that he may 
look upon the divine countenances. 

He saiih : Hail to thee, mighty god, lord of Righteousness ! 

I am come to thee, oh my Lord : I have brought myself that I 
may look upon thy glory. I know thee, and I know the name of 
the Forty-two gods who make their appearance with thee in the 
Hall of Righteousness ; devouring those who harbour mischief, and 
swallowing their blood, upon the Day of the searching examination 
(1) in presence of Unneferu. 



Fig. 14. 
Chapter CXXV. Papyrus, Leyden Museum, No. i. 


Fig. 15. 
Chapter CXXV. Lf.psius, " Denkmaler," Abth. Ill, BI. 78. 

Chaiter XVII. 

Papyrus, Musee du Louvre. 

No. 3091. 



Chaptrr CXXV. Papyrus Brit. Mus. , No. 9,901, and Papyrus Leyden, No. II, 




Verily, 'Thou of the Pair of Eyes, (2) Lord of Righteousness' is 
thy name. 

Here am I ; I am come to thee; I bring to thee Right and have 
put a stop to Wrong. 

I am not a doer of wrong to men. 

I am not one who slayeth his kindred. (3) 
X. I am not one who telleth hes instead of truth. (4) 

I am not conscious of treason. 

I am not a doer of mischief. 

I do not exact as the firstfruits of each day more work than 
should be done for me. (5) 

My name cometh not to the Bark of the god who is at the Helm. 
■^ I am not a transgressor against the god. 

I am not a tale-bearer. 

I am not a detractor. 

I am not a doer of that which the gods abhor. 

I hurt no servant with his master. 

I cause no famine. 

I cause not weeping. 
"^ I am not a murderer. 

I give not orders for murder. 

I cause not suffering to men. 

I reduce not the offerings in the temples. 

I lessen not the cakes of the gods. 

I rob not the dead of their funereal food. 
X I am not an adulterer. 

I am undefiled in the Sanctuary of the god of my domain. 

I neither increase nor diminish the measures of grain. 

I am not one who shorteneth the palm's length. (6) 

I am not one who cutteth short the field's measure. (7) 

I put not pressure upon the beam (8) of the balance. 

I tamper not with the tongue of the balance. 

I snatch not the milk from the mouth of infants. 

I drive not the cattle from their pastures. 

I net not the birds of the manors of the gods. (9) 

I catch not the fish of their ponds. (10) 

I stop not the water at its appointed time. 

I divide not an arm of the water in its course. 

I extinguish not the lamp during its appointed time. 

I do not defraud the Divine Circle of their sacrificial joints. 

2 F 


I drive not away the cattle of the sacred estate. 

I stop not a god when he cometh forth. 

I am pure, I am pure, I am pure, I am pure. 

My purity is that of the Great Bennu in Sutenhunen, for I am 
the Nose of the Lord of Air, who giveth hfe to all mortals ; on the 
day when the Eye is full in Annu, on the last day of Mechir ; in 
presence of the Lord of this land. 

And I am one who see the fulness of the Eye in Annu, let no 
harm come to me in this land, in the Hall of Righteousness ; because 
I know the names of those gods who make their appearance in it. 

Part II. 

1. Oh thou of long strides, who makest thine appearance in 
Annu ; I am not a doer of wrong. 

2. Oh thou who holdest the fire, and makest thine appearance in 
Cher-aba ; I am not a man of violence. 

3. Oh thou of the Nose, (11) who makest thine appearance at 
Chemunnu ; I am not evil minded. 

4. Oh Eater of the Shadow, (12) who makest thine appearance 
at Elephantine ; I am not rapacious. 

5. Oh thou Facing-backward god, who makest thine appearance 
at Re-Stau ^l am not a slayer of men. 

6. Oh thou of Lion form, (13) who makest thine appearance in 
Heaven ; I am not fraudulent in measures of grain. 

7. Oh thou whose eyes [pierce] like swords, who makest thine 
appearance in Sechem ; I commit no fraud. 

8. Oh thou of fiery face, whose motion is backwards ; I am not 
a robber of sacred property. 

9. Oh Breaker of bones, who makest thine appearance in Suten- 
hunen ; I am not a teller of lies. 

10. Oh thou who orderest the flame, who makest thine appearance 
in Memphis ; I am not a robber of food. 

11. Oh thou of the Two Caverns, who makest thine appearance 
in Amenta ; I am not sluggish. (14) 

12. Oh thou of the Bright Teeth, (15) who makest thine appearance 
in the Unseen Land ; I am not a transgressor. 

13. Oh Eater of Blood, who makest thine appearance at the 
Block ; I have not slaughtered the sacred animals. 


Chapter CXXV 

Fig. 17. Lkpsius, " Denkmaler," Abth. Ill, Bl. 39. 

Fig. 19. Mariette, "Deii el Bahari," Fig. 20. Rosellini, "M.C," PI. LI. 


: DEAD. 


Fig. 18. Lepsius, " Denlcmiiler," Abth. Ill, Bl. 39. 


Fig. 21. Rosellini, 
" M.C, PI. LII. 

Fig. 22. Rosellini, "M.C," PI LII. 



■ TTTrTTTr - rr i- rYr r 'TTTTT rr 


I I • 

_l L_l_ 

I i r 

r — ]c 



J I 1 

Fig. II. Chapter CXXV. 
Sarcophagus of Sebek-aa, Berlin Museum. 


Fig. 12. Chapter CXXV. Lepsius, "Denkmaler," Abth. Ill, Bl. 232 

Fig. 13. Chapter CXXV. 
LEP.SIUS, " Denkmaler," Abth. Ill, Bl. 232. 



14. Oh Eater of Livers, who makest thine appearance at Mabit; 
I deal not fraudulently. 

15. Oh Lord of Righteousness, who makest thine appearance in 
the place of Righteousness ; I am not a land-grabber. 

16. Oh thou who turnest backwards, who makest thine appearance 
in Bubastis ; I am not an eaves-dropper. 

17. Oh Aati, (16) who makest thine appearance at Annu j I am 
not one of prating tongue. 

18. Oh Tutu, (17) who makest thine appearance in Ati ; I trouble 
myself (18) only with my own affairs. 

19. Oh Uammetu, who makest thine appearance at the Block ; 
1 commit not adultery with another's wife. 

20. Oh Maa-antu-f, who makest thine appearance in Pa-Amsu, 
I am not unchaste with any one. 

21. Oh thou who art above Princes, and who makest thine 
appearance in Amu ; (19) I do not cause terrors. 

22. Oh Chemiu, (20) who makest thine appearance in Kauu ; I 
am not a transgressor. 

23. Oh thou who raisest thy voice, (21) and makest thine ap- 
pearance in Urit ; I am not hot of speech. 

24. Oh divine Babe, who makest thy appearance in Annu ; I 
lend not a deaf ear to the words of Righteousness. 

25. Oh high-voiced one, who makest thy appearance in Unsit; 
I am not boisterous in behaviour. 

26. Oh Basit, who makest thine appearance at the Shetait; I am 
not the cause of weeping to any. 

27. Oh thou whose face is behind thee, and who makest thine 
appearance at thy cavern ; I am not given to unnatural lust. 

28. Oh thou, hot of foot, (22) who makest thy appearance at 
even ; I indulge not in anger. 

29. Oh Kenemtu, who makest thine appearance in Kenemit ; I 
am not given to cursing. 

30. Oh thou who earnest thine own offering, and makest thine 
appearance in Syut ; I am not of aggressive hand. 

31. Oh thou who hast different faces, and makest thine appear- 
ance in Net'efit ; I am not one of inconstant mind. (23) 

32. Oh Busy one, who makest thine appearance at Utenit ; I do 
not steal the skins of the sacred animals. (24) 

33. Oh thoQ Horned one, who makest thine appearance at Sais 
I am not noisy (25) in my speech. 

2 F 2 


34. Oh Nefertmu, who makest thine appearance in Memphis; I 
am neither a har nor a doer of mischief. 

35. Oh Tem-sepu, who makest thine appearance in Tattu ; I am 
not one who curseth the king. 

36. Oh thou who doest according to thine own will, and makest 
thine appearance in Tebua ; I put no check upon the water in its 

37. Oh Striker, (26) who makest thine appearance in Heaven ; I 
am not one of loud voice. 

38. Oh thou who makest mortals to flourish, and who makest 
thine appearance at Sais ; I curse not a god. 

39. Oh thou of beautiful shoulder, who makest thine appearance 
at .... (27) ; I am not swollen with pride. 

40. Oh Neheb-kau, who makest thy appearance at thy cavern ; 
I have no unjust preferences. (28) 

41. Oh thou of raised head, (29) who makest thine appearance 
at thy cavern ; I have no strong desire except for my own property. 

42. Oh thou who liftest an arm, (30) and who makest thine 
appearance in the Netherworld, I do not that which offendeth the 
god of my domain. 

Part III. 
[Said upon approaching to the gods who are in the Tuat. (31)] 

Hail ye gods, I know you and I know your names ; let me not 
be stricken down by your blows : report not the evil which is in me 
to the god whom ye follow. Let not reverse (32) of mine come to 
pass through you. 

Let not evil things be said against me in presence of the Inviolate 
One ; because I have done the right in Tamerit. 

I revile not the god : let not reverse of mine come to pass 
through the King who resideth within His own Day. (33) 

Hail ye gods who are in the Hall of Righteousness, who have 
nothing wrong about you ; who subsist upon Righteousness in 
Annu, and who sate themselves with cares, (34) in presence of the 
god who resideth within his own Orb : deliver me from Babai who 
feedeth upon the livers of princes on the Day of the Great Reckoning. 


Chapter CXXV. 

Tombeau de Seti I^"' (Ann. du Musee Guimet, Vol. IX). 


Behold me : I am come to you, void of wrong, without fraud, a 
harmless one : let me not be declared guilty ; let not the issue be 
against me. 

I subsist upon Righteousness : I sate myself with uprightness of 
heart : I have done that which man prescribeth and that which 
pleaseth the gods. 

I have propitiated the god with that which he loveth. I have 
given bread to the hungry, water to the thirsty, clothes to the naked, 
a boat to the shipwrecked. I have made oblations to the gods and 
funeral offerings to the departed : deliver me therefore : protect 
me therefore : and report not against me in presence of the great 

I am one whose mouth is pure, and whose hands are pure, to 
whom there is said " Come, come in peace," by those svho look 
upon him. 

For I have listened to the words which were spoken by the Ass 
and the Cat in the house of Hept-ro. (35) 

And I have undergone the inspection of the god Whose face is 
behind him, who awardeth my verdict (36), so that I may behold 
what the Persea tree covereth (37) in Restau. 

I am one who glorifieth the gods and who knoweth the things 
which concern them. 

I am come and am awaiting that inquisition be made of Right- 
fulness and that the Balance be set upon its stand within the bower 
of amaranth. (38) 

thou who art exalted upon thy pedestal and who callest thy 
name. Lord of Air : deliver me from those messengers of thine 
who inflict disasters (39) and bring about mishaps. No covering 
have they upon their faces. 

For I have done the Righteousness of a Lord of Righteousness. 

1 have made myself pure : my front parts are washed, my back 
parts are pure, and my inwards steeped in the Tank of Righteous- 
ness. There is not a limb in me which is void of Righteousness. 

I purify me in the Southern Tank, and I rest me at the northern 
lake, in the Garden of Grasshoppers. (40) 

The Boatmen of Ra purify them there at this hour of the night 
or day (^i) and the hearts of the gods are appeased (42) when I pass 
through it by night or by day. 

Let him come (43) : that is what they say to me. 

Who, pray, art thou ? that is what they say to me. 


What, pray, is thy name? that is what they say to me. 

" He who groweth under the Grass (44) and who dwelleth in 
the OHve tree " is my name. 

Pass on, then : that is what they say to me. 

I pass on to a place north of the OUve. 

What, prithee, didst thou see there ? 

A thigh (45) and a leg. 

And what, prithee, said they to thee ? 

That I shall see (46) the greetings in the lands there of the 
Fenchu : 

What, prithee, did they give to thee ? 

A flame of fire and a pillar of crystal. 

And what, prithee, didst thou to them ? 

I buried them on the bank of the Lake of Maait as Provision of 
the Evening. 

What, prithee, didst thou find there on the bank of the Lake of 
Maait ? 

A sceptre of flint : * Giver of Breath ' is its name. 

And what didst thou to the flame of fire and to the pillar of 
crystal after thou hadst buried them ? 

I cried out after them and drew them forth : and I extinguished 
the fire, and I broke the pillar, and I made a Tank. 

Thou mayest now enter through the door of the hall of 
Righteousness, for thou knowest us. 

I allow thee not to pass by me, saith the Leaf (47) of the Door, 
unless thou tell my name : 

" The Pointer of Truth " (48) is thy name. 

I allow thee not to pass by me, saith the right side post (49) of 
the Door, unless thou tell my name. 

"The Scale-pan (50) of one who lifteth up Right" is thy 

I allow thee not to pass by me, saith the left side post of the 
Door, unless thou tell my name : 

" The Scale-pan of Wine " is thy name. 

I allow thee not to pass over me, saith the Threshold of the 
Door, unless thou tell my name : 

" Ox of Seb " is thy name. 

I open not to thee, saith the Lock of the Door, unless thou tell 
mv name : 


Bone of An-maut-ef is thy name. 

I open not to thee, saiih the Latch, unless thou tell my name : 

"The Eye of Sebak, Lord of Bachau," is thy name. 

I open not to thee, and I allow thee not to pass by me, saith 
the Keeper of the Door, unless thou tell my name : 

"The Knee of Shu, which he hath lent for the support of 
Osiris," is thy name. 

We allow thee not to pass by us, say the Lintels of the Door, 
unless thou tell our names : 

"The dragon brood (51) of Renenut" is your name. 

Thou knowest us : pass therefore by us. 

I allow thee not to pass over me, saith the Floor of the Hall, for 
the reason that I am noiseless and clean, and because we know not 
the names of thy two feet, wherewith thou wouldst walk upon us. 
Tell me, then, their names. 

" He who goeth before Amsu " is the name of my right foot : 
and "The Truncheon of Hathor" (52) is the name of my left foot. 

Thou mayest walk over us : for thou knowest us. 

I do not announce thee, saith the Doorkeeper, unless thou tell 
my name : 

" He who knoweth the heart and exploreth the person " (53) is 
thy name. 

Then I will announce thee. 

But who is that god who abideth in his own hour ? Name him. 

He who provideth for (54) the Two Worlds). 

Who, pray, is it ? It is Thoth. 

Come hither, saith Thoth, wherefore hast thou come? 

I am come, and wait to be announced. 

And what manner of man, prithee, art thou ? 

I have cleansed myself from all the sins and faults of those who 
abide in their own day ; for I am no longer among them. 

Then I shall announce thee. 

But who is he whose roof is of fire, and whose walls are living 
Uraei, and the floor of whose house is of running water? Who is il ? 

It is Osiris. 

Proceed then : for behold, thou art announced. 


Thy bread is from the Eye, thy beer is from the Eye, and the 
funeral meals offered upon earth will come forth to thee from the 
Eye (55). So is it decreed for me. 

This chapter is said by the person, ivhe?i ptirified and clad in 
raiment ; shod with 7vhite sandals ; anoifited from vases of dnta ; 
and presenting oblations of beeves, birds, inceiise, bread, beer and 

A?id thou shall make a picture, drawn upon a clean brick of clay, 
extracted from a field ifi which no swine hath trod. 

And if this chapter be written jipon it — the man will prosper and 
his children will prosper : he will rise ifi the affection of the ki?ig 
and his court : there will be given to him the shesit cake, the measure 
of drink, the persen cake and the meat offeri?ig upon the altar table of 
the great god ; and he shall ftoi be cut off at any gate of Amenta, 
but he shall be conveyed alons, with the Kirigs of North and South, 
and make his appearance as a foUoiver of Osiris : undeviatingly aiid 
for times infinite. 



For the significance of this most important chapter with reference 
to the religion and ethics of ancient Egypt I must refer to the Intro- 
duction. The notes in this place must be confined to the text and 
its elucidation. 

No copy of the chapter is known of more ancient date than the 
eighteenth dynasty, but the oldest papyri contain the three parts of 
which the chapter consists. That the chapter is of much earlier 
date than the eighteenth dynasty is quite certain from the nature of 
the corruptions which had already made their appearance in the 
earliest copies which have come down to us. But the three parts 
are not necessarily of the same antiquity. The second part seems 
to have grown out of the first and to have been suggested by the 
mention of the " Forty-two " gods and the " negative confession," as 
it is called, of certain sins. It is a tabulated form in which the gods 
are named and a sin is mentioned in connection with each god. 


Chapter CXXV. (Note 2.) 

Papyrus, British Museum, No. 9900. 

Mummy Case, Leyden Museum. 


Chapter CXXV. (Note 2.) 

Papyrus, Leyden Museum. 

Lepsius, Todtenbuch. 

Papyrus, British Museum, No. 9964. 

Mummy Case, Leyden Museum. 


The number of sins in this form is therefore forty-two; a higher 
number than in Part I. 

The two catalogues agree to a certain extent, but they also 
disagree, and the second is evidently the result of a different process 
of thought than that which gave birth to the first. The author of 
Part I is not the author of Part II, unless perhaps at a different and 
later period. Nor is there any indication in Part I of the extra- 
ordinary examination to which the deceased person is subjected in 
Part III. This in itself would not be a serious objection, but the 
matter becomes more complicated if we remember that the picture 
of the Psychostasia has the right to be considered as a part of the 
chapter. The texts which are written upon it differ, indeed, 
according to the taste of the artist, and can therefore claim no 
canonical authority. But the question as to the order of succession 
in the trials, or the precise moment at which the deceased person is 
finally freed from all anxiety as to his fate, cannot be satisfactorily 
solved on the supposition that all these documents form parts of a 
consistent whole. It seems much more natural to consider them as 
really independent compositions brought together in consequence of 
their subject matter. The artists of the Ramseside period (in the 
papyri of Hunefer and Ani) add another scene * in which the 
deceased is judged not by the forty-two assessors of Osiris but by a 
smaller company of gods (twelve or fourteen), sitting on thrones and 
bearing the names of well known divinities. 

The essential notion was that of a trial before Osiris, in which the 
man's conduct or conscience was weighed in the Balance. This trial 
is referred to in various chapters of the Book of the Dead and in 
other texts which prove that, with reference to the details, free scope 
was allowed to the imagination of the scribes or artists. 

The number of the Forty-two assessors might be thought con- 
nected with that of the Nomes of Egypt. But this number is only 
certain for the later periods of Egyptian history, and is not true for 
earlier times. Moreover the localities in which the gods are said to 
make their appearances do not correspond to the nomes, or places 
within them. Some of the localities occur more than once, and 
some of them, if not all, are localities not upon earth. Heaven 
occurs twice, the eleventh god makes his appearance at Amenta and 

* Apparently sugj^ested by the scene in the tomb of Hor-em-heb (see 
Dcnkm., Ill, 78), in the time of Amenophis III. (Plate XXXIl, lig. 15.) 

2 G 


the forty-second in the Netherworld. But the names which have a 
more earthly sound may have a mystical meaning. The first god 
makes his appearance in Annu, so does the seventeenth and so does 
the twenty-fourth. But does this mean Heliopolis of Egypt? On 
referring to an important text in Mariette's Moiiufnenis Divers, 
pi. 46, it will be seen that Annu is the Eastern Solar Aioiintain 

T n ' '^^'here the Sun rises^ and where he is saluted by the Powers 

of the East. There cannot be a more striking illustration of "the 
Divine Babe who maketh his appearance in Annu " (the twenty- 
fourth Assessor), than \.\\e picture I refer to.* 

And Chemunnu, ZZq %^ ©, is surely not the Hermopolis of 

Egypt, but the place of the Eight gods 1 1 D ^ A 1 , four to the 

Left and four to the Right of the rising sun, who hail his coming 
and help him to rise; where Shu, according to the ]\ISS. of the 17th 
Chapter, raises up the Sky, and where " the children of Failure," 
(that is, shades of darkness) are exterminated. It is not simply of 

Hermopolis nor yet of Lake Moeris that one may say r D v\ 

1 1 "'^'^^^ rjj fi) ' T" ^ ¥i^ '^^ ^^ ^^^ place of the Eight deities 
where Ra riseth {Zeitschr., 1872, p. 8). 

The same considerations apply to such names as those of 
Sutenhunen and Tattu. 

The presence of the divine "Babe," of the god "of long strides" 
(Ra), of the god " of Lion form," of the goddess Bast, of Nefer- 
tmu, of the " Striker " {Ahi, a. name of Horus), and of Nehebkau, 

not to mention others, among the Assessors, would of itself be 
sufficient to convince us that, in spite of the strange and terrific 
names of some of these personages, they are not to be looked upon 
as fiends, like Malacoda, Scarmiglione, and the rest of the demon 
crew in the Inferno of Dante. They are not evil spirits, but gods, 
all of them, "subsisting on righteousness;" there is "nothing wrong 

* The picture of the Babe lifted up into the upper world by two divinities 
speaks for itself. Of the birth of the Sun as the Winged Scarab at the beginning 
of the first hour of the day, M. Maspero, in his dercription of the text, says : 
"II est salue a ton apparition par les huit .... ' les esptits d'Orient, dieux 
du ciel, des terres, des pays etrangtrs, de la montagne d'horizon orientale qui 
est On.'" 


about them."* They are the gods who accompany Osiris, and, 
according to Egyptian theology, are his Names, his Limbs, his 
Body. If the names of some of them appear harsh or cruel, it is 
because strict Justice is inexorable, and Mercy is a quality never 
thought of in Egyptian theology. 

The exact notion of Maat in Egyptian texts is discussed in 
another part of the present work. In this chapter I have translated 
it Righteousness, because the question here is about moral conduct : 
and conformity to the strict Rule of Right towards one's fellow 
men, one's own self and the heavenly powers is what is meant by 
Righteousness. And here it is opposed to moral transgression or 
sin, not to physical evil, which itself is a very frequent result from 
the operation of the inexorable Maat. 

But in the expression, "Hall of Righteousness," the word in 
Egyptian is used in the dual number : hence the erroneous or 
inadequate translations, "the Two Truths," or "Double Justice," 
and the guesses which have been made as to their meaning. 

A very important determinative of the Egyptian word is found 
not only in the papyri but in the very earliest mention yet known 
of the Hall. The great inscription of the tomb of Peher at El Kab, 

calls it the -^^^ . The repetition of the sign © indi- 

CTZD o all© 

cates a locality in which the Sun-god is present, as in the cases of 
, , and many others. Space is divided into two 

parts ; one on the Southern and one on the Northern side of the 
god as he proceeds on his course. And when we have for de- 
terminatives two Urgei TL JL , or two ostrich Feathers j f) , we 

* This is the principle by which to judge the c^ses of the Facing-backward god 
"^T k\ ^ oil serpentine, or crocodile ^y- ^ §5^- ' ^"^ °f Uammeta 

S m §> I ^ serpentine, or crocodile ^ 


, against both of whom a passage of the ' Book of 

Hades' (Bonomi, Sarc, pi. H A) has been quoted. The book, of course, is of 
infeiior authority to the 'Book of the Dead,' but in any case it must be 
remembered that these names, as appellatives, are coinvion nouns {Uammelu is in 
the //«ra/ number in the passage in question), and may simply mean Serpents. . 
Sutu is called by th- first of tht-se names at Edfu {Zeitschr., 1871, p. 108). But 
even at Dendera (Lanzone, Diz., pi. 173, l) this 'god of serpent fact-' is 
'disastrous to the Sebau,' the enemies of Osiris and Ra, and is therefore not one 
of them. His soul is invoked like those of all the great go.'s in the royal tombs. 

2 G 2 


have to understand two goddesses Maat, one to the Left and one to 
to the Right side of Osiris. 

These goddesses are Isis and Nephthys, who play very con- 
spicuous parts in a symbolism discussed in note 2 of the present 

It would be well if evidence could be brought with equal facility 
to bear upon all the difiticulties with which the chapter abounds. 
But though a very lively interest was attracted to it ever since 
ChampoUion quoted extracts from it in his Grammar, the difficulties 
with which he did not attempt to cope have only increased with our 
knowledge of the language and its scientific treatment. The text is 
extremely doubtful in many important parts, the forty-two sins are 
not the same in all the manuscripts, and they are not assigned to 
the jurisdiction of the same gods. So important a papyrus as that 
of Sutimes omits some sins of which an Egyptian would certainly be 
expected to give an account. The same word is made to appear 
with different meanings in the same passage of the papyri when they 
are compared together. And there are not a few important words 
of which the meaning was first only guessed at by the first translators, 
but has been retained without sufficient warrant by their successors. 
The present translation is presented under the full consciousness of 
all its imperfections, and of the difficulties which have yet to be 
overcome before a version can be called satisfactory. 

A very admirable contribution towards our acquaintance with 
the first part of the chapter was made as far back as 1866 by Dr. 
Pleyte in his Etudes Egyptologiques. Since then other versions have 
appeared by MM. Deveria, Lefebure and Pierret. 

The Demotic text of the chapter, first published by Brugsch, and 
now more recently, with a complete translation, by M. Revillout, is 
in itself most interesting, but written, as it is, in the days of imperial 
Rome, cannot always be appealed to as to an authoritative exposition 
of the ancient text. 

I. The Day of searching exaviinaiion or reckoning. The word 
1.^^ has to be compared with the Coptic KtJO'f" in the 

sense of search, enquiry, ^rjreiv, ^jryjcn^. This sense is derived from 
\ a circle ( I M ^ []^ sail round) and the notion of going 

completely round a thing and approaching it from all sides. 


2. Thou riiterally heX of the Pair of Eyes vm:\ 

Pn Pn •* This title of Osiris is made clear by the 37th 

chapter, which begins with an invocation to the Sister Pair of 

Goddesses, Mcrta "T^ | ,^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^. ^^-^- ^ign- 
fying Two Eyes, and the divine Sister pair being Isis and Nephthys. 
In vignettes of the chapter (see, e.g., PI. XXXIII and XXXIV, 
figs. 14 and 16 for instances) the two goddesses appear in human 
form with their brother Osiris within the naos where the judgment 
is delivered. It is not so easy to recognise them under the form 

^^"^^ which they have in the vignette of Pd. (see PL XXXI), 

or in the picture which is found in many papyri {e.g., those of 
Nebseni, Hunefer, Ani and the Turin Todtenbuch), wherein the 
cornice or top row of the decoration surmounting the forty-two 
judges has for central figure a man (Osiris) either supporting the 
Two Eyes or extending his hands above them (see PI. XXXIV, 
fig. 14). 

We have here a symbolism of such extreme importance as to 
justify a short excursus on the subject. 

The Two Eyes ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^ most frequent symbol on all 
funereal monuments ; on the most ancient coffins, such as those of 
Apaanchu, Antuf, Taka {Denkjii., II, 98, 146, 147), Mentuhotep 
{Aelteste Texte, pi. 9 and 25), Sebak-aa (Gio. d'Athanasi, pl. 3) and 
Amamu, as on mummy cases generally, and on funereal tablets. 
Between the Eyes on many tablets we frequently find the sign Q , 

and this is often followed by the sign of Water "^Z^ or the Vase ^ , 
and very frequently by both. Very often we have two signs Q, one 

by each Eye, and not less frequently a pair of jackals, fiJ^sv or ^^ 

facing each other. No two tablets are exactly alike, but the 
meaning is always the same. 

Nor is the meaning changed when the tablet is headed by the 
Winged Disk ^Qj or,:^^ even though the Eyes are not seen. 

* The ''^ is not to be fi or fy. The sign W is merely the ideogram 

of the number 2, like the letter ^ in Coptic. The belief in an Egyptian dual 

With \\ as a final syllable is an illusion, though a very pardonable one, of our 


Their place is supplied by two Uraei, sometimes crowned with the 
n and the >/, insignia of Southern and Northern sovereignty. 

On a fine tablet of the twelfth dynasty {Denkm.^ 11, 136Z'), the 
sign Q is attached to each Uraeus, and this device is repeated on 
innumerable monuments. 

According to another device the Two Eyes are represented 
within the Winged Disk (seee.^., Leemans, J/(?«., Ill, M., PI. XVI). 

" He of the Pair of Eyes " is always Osiris. But Osiris is a god 
" of many names," as the Pyramid Texts show no less than the 
Book of the De:id, where in the seventeenth chapter he is identified 
with Tmu, Ra, the Bennu, Amsu and Horus, not to mention others, 
and where in the Scholia the Two Feathers, the Two Uraei, the Two 
Eyes and the Two Kites* are identified with the Sister pair Isis and 
Nephthys. And wherever these symbols occur in pairs Isis and 
Nephthys are meant, one for the right or northern side and the other 
for the left or southern. The same idea is conveyed under such forms 

^^ Wm 1 ^^ ' ^'' h^M^ ' ^"^ many others. Dr. Birch long ago 

{Ziitschr., iStj, p. 33) mentioned A ^ n as representing Osiris 

between his two sisters. Osiris is often represented as a living TT, 
with eyes. 

The royal crowns and their decorations, such as [1|, ///, )i\, 

fjfj^f^ , and [m , abound in this symbolism. 

The ancient coffin of Sebakaa at Berlin {Ae/fesfe Texfe, pi. 29), in 

the phrase [1 !> r ^ ^^ rji » recognizes Isis as one of the Two 

Eves. Down to the latest periods the Sisters were known as 

<cr::> ^ fl ^=4r^ , Eye of the Southern or Left side (Isis), and <c=> r^ fl '^ f, 

Eye of the Northern or Right side (Nephthys). On countless coffins 
and sarcophagi these goddesses are represented on opposite sides, 
in kneeling attitude, holding the Q in their hands, like the equi- 
valent Vultures of the North and South, with their claws, and the 
Ursei on their bodies. 

* Or Vultures. See M. Gayet's Teviple de Luxor, PI. xliii, fig. 127, where 
ihe Bird at each end of the picture holds Q in its claw. And note the taber- 

nacles (a very frequent picture) where a winged goddess bearing the [) kneels on 
either side of the solar scarab. 


The meaning of the sign Q is well known. It is a 7-ing, and 
is applied to the circuit of the heavens made by the sun and other 
heavenly bodies. It is also applied to the yearly recurring flow of 
the Nile. It has numerically the signification of 10,000,000 or an 
indefinitely large number. As attached^ {, to the sign of years 4 , 3 

it means Eternity. 

It is therefore an appropriate emblem of Osiris, the Lord of 

Years, "^3 

\ ■ , annosus, A \ XI the King of Eternity. 
The sign of Water ^^C^, and the Vase ^7 , are a^so emblems of 


Osiris, one of whose names is Water of Rcneiiuil. A chapter of the 
Pyramid Texts, Teta, 176, Pepi I, 518, which begins by saying that 
Seb has given to the departed (identified with Osiris) the Two Eyes 
of tliat Great One* and has done that through Horus who recognizes 
his father, proceeds after this to say : " He renews thee in thy name 

of T^X^ /^,/vs \ v\ Water of Renewal." 

I cannot say if the Vase \j is a mere appendage to the 
Water, but if it is not it most probably was meant to contain the 

, the divine and life-giving Sap flowing from Osiris, which is 

mentioned in another Pyramid Text (Pepi I, 33), also speaking of 
the Water of Renewal, as a name of Osiris. 

The goddesses Isis and Nephthys as mythological figures 
represent not merely the Light at Dawn and Sunset, but the Light 
thrown out right and left by the Sun in his entire course, whether 

in the heavens or in the Netherworld. 



^-^ , "he lightens up the earth with his two eyes," an 

expression most frequent in the texts, is not confined to special 
moments, though it is said of these emphatically. 

In all that has been said thus far, the Two Eyes have been 
considered as acting conjointly and discharging one and the same 
function. When they are distinguished one from the other as acting 
in different ways the symbolism is altered. 

The ancient scholion on the 17th Chapter speaks of the Right 
Eye of Ra, and the more recent scholion of the papyri speaks of the 

* Or as it is said in other words (Teta, 172 ; Pepi I, 130 ; Pepi II, 107, and 
Merenra, 152), " Seb hath brought to thy side thy two sisters, Isis and Nephthys. 


Eye as being in pain and weeping for its sister II ^'^ . The 

^ — " — 
Egj'ptian name for the Eye is here ^ | ^^, ;^ ut'ait. The fre- 
quent expression ' "^^ means full moon, and is constantly 

n St 

identified with the filteenth day of the month ^^^^^ . The moon is 

in these texts called the Ze/if Eye y ^^ , and Osiris is said to unite 

with her (or with her sister) in order to renew her revolution f Q I . 

J ^ 
And of the Eye it is said that ' she renews her revolution on the 

fifteenth day 'FN ^^^^ , and the god (Osiris) makes her full of 

her glory or splendour (ITT M) or what she requires, ""^W^ ' = 

cr^> Jo \°°/ * '^^ explains die symbol ^^ III ^^ which is 

seen on certain tablets. 

But what is the meaning of the passage at the end of Part I of 
this chapter — "when the Eye is full in Annu, on the last day of 

Mechir" / <:rz> , an expression which is repeated in 

ir G I G I ^ ^ 

the title of Chapter 140? The moon, which is always represented 
as full on the fifteenth of the month, cannot be full on the thirtieth. 
It must be the other Eye, the Sun. Now we know what is meant 
by the Full Moon, the Plenilunium, but what is the Full Sun ? 

M. de Rouge, in his commentary on the 17th Chapter, gave the 
key to this, by pointing out that the 30th Mechir was the last day 
of the sixth month of the year ; that is the i8oth day after the first 
of Thoth, which is supposed to coincide with the Summer Solstice. 
It is therefore at the time of the Winter Solstice that the Eye is 
said to be full. The inaccuracy, of course, arises from the length 
of the Eg}'ptian year. But there can be no doubt that the time 
of the Winter Solstice is meant. 

In the year 1470 B.C. the Egj-ptian year began on July 20, and 
the 30th Mechir coincided with January 15 of the Julian calendar. 

If the Eye (considered as the Sun) is said to be full at the 
Winter Solstice, it was most probably spoken of in the same way 
not only at the Summer Solstice, but also at the two Equinoxes. 
And this is the most probable reason why in the pictures repre- 
senting the Four Rudders of Heaven (North, South, East and West) 


an Eye '^^ is attached to each rudder. (See Vignettes of 

Chapter 148.) 

The Two Eyes, considered as Sun and Moon, are attributed not 
only to Ra and Osiris, but to gods identified with these. Of the 
two passages which have been most frequently quoted, " Thy 

Right Eye is the Sun |] -^ Jj and thy left is the Moon (3," 

" His Right Eye is the Sun and his left is the Moon," the first is 
addressed to Ptah (in the Pap. Berlin, VII, 1. 42), and the second, 
which occurs on the Neapolitan Stele, is really addressed to Osiris 
as god of Suten-hunen, under the form of the Ram-headed deity 
Her-s'efit. Reference is made towards the end of the inscription to 
the " divine Eyes which are in Suten-hunen." 

Horus according to the Pyramid Texts has two eyes, a Light 
one and a Dark one. But the " Eye of Horus " is most frequently 
spoken of in the singular number. It is certainly meant for the Sun, 
and the name of it is given to cakes and ale, wine, corn, oil, honey, 
and all the good things which come to maturity through the bene- 
ficent god: who has in himself all the attributes of 'Ceres and 

I must bring this long note to an end with one or two observations. 

Many goddesses will be found bearing the title of Eye of Ra. 
There is not one of these who is not identified with Isis or Nephthys, 
who are in fact one, and personify the Light of the Sun. 

Shu and Tefnut, who are brother and sister, play the same parts 
as the two goddesses. 

There is a picture, which appears in the vignette of Chapter 17 
in most of the papyri of the second and later periods, of two wa/e 
deities bearing the Eyes over their heads (see PI. XXXV). If the 
beards upon their chins are not a mistake,* copied from one 
papyrus upon another, they must represent not Isis and Nephthys 

but the two Rehu '^^^^ | ^ ^ r^ ^^ ^"^ Thoth, Sun and Moon, 

instead of the '^ i j^ ^ ^ • 

It is important to note that if Sun and Moon are Eyes of Osiris 
or Ra or Ptah, the deity is not to be confounded with them : they 
are but manifestations of himself. 

* A very conceivable, because a very frequent, one. 

2 H 


3. Kindred, *!" [[ <::i ^ JJi . The sign of plurality does not 

here, any more than in Chapter i, necessarily imply more than one 
person. The crime in question is one to which men are easily 
tempted in certain stages of society. Abimelech, in the book of 
Judges (ix, 5), "slew his brethren, the sons of Jerubbaal." Jephthah 
had to " flee from the face of his brethren." Absalom had his 
brother Amnon assasinated, and all the king's sons fled in fear of 
sharing the same fate. Solomon put to death his elder brother 
Adonijah. Athaliah, the queen mother, "destroyed all the seed 
royal " of Judah. The annals of eastern* and even westernf nations 
are full of such occurrences. But, in positions less exalted than 
that of claimants to royalty, ambition or covetousness are motives 
to crimes like that of the wicked uncle of ' the Babes in the Wood.' \ 

The reading ^F" \\ c^ ^^, which has for determinative the sign "'^ 

of smallness, seems to indicate that the victims of the crime are 
minors, perhaps wards. 

Some of the papyri (even that of Nebseni) have a calf, 5^, 
as determinative of the word, and as the ' slaying of calves ' is not 

necessarily a crime, other scribes have added | '^^~s^ , 'sacred,' and 

thus made the sin one of sacrilege. 

The same word, like the Greek /noaxo^ and the Latin pullus^ 
might be applied to the young of all kinds of animals; but the 
Egyptian scribes have in such cases a propensity to use a deter- 
minative which forces a wrong sense upon the word. 

4. Instead of truth, \\ \ ^^ \ . There are two 

ways according to which this expression may be translated, but only 
one of them can be the right one. ^ r is a compound pre- 

* " His sons were kept in prison, till they grew 
Of years to fill a bowstring or a throne." 

t To quote only well known cases, we have ' the massacre of the princes,' 
involving the two unc'es and seven cousins of the Emperor Constantius, and 
those of our own King John and Richard III. 

:J: The le^isiaiion of Solon is said by Diogenes Laertius (who is however 
contradicted by no orious evidence) to have excluded from the position of 
guardian anyone who had the right of succession to the ward's estate. And this 
was also the law of Enj^land with reference to guardians in socage. In France 
the next in s icce-sion had the charge of the estate, but was excluded from the 
custody of the person of the ward. 


position, instead of, in loco, anstatf, au lieu de, Z'^j^a^ . And this is 

evidently the right construction. If V\\ be taken as the simple 

preposition governing r ^^ ci [3 , the meaning will be that the 

deceased did not " tell lies in the cetnetery." The Pyramid Texts 

(Unas, 394) have the expression — ^ |\ n '^ [] '''^g- {sic), 

" Right instead of Wrong." 

5. This is only an approximate version of a passage, the true 
text of which was lost at an early period. M. Maspero {Origines, 
p. 189) understands it as follows : " Je n'ai jamais impose du travail 
a I'homme libre quelconque, en plus de celui qu'il faisait pour lui- 
meme ! " The last words are the translation of ^ 

yV^AAAA ^j^— 

according to Td. (tomb of Ramses IV) all the other ancient 
texts having \A , ^for me.' But the chief difficulties occur at the 
beginning of the sentence. 

6. Shorten the palm's length, ® 1 r n Vv 3Sr . INfany 


I 1 

under the next precept. 

7. The fields' measure, 

8. The beam of the balance, c^'^^^^^^^Y^^^- 
The tongue [rather plunwiet'] of the balance, ^^ 

papyri read ^q , which is a superficial measure, more in place 
I I 





The balance is so frequently represented in false perspective by 
Egyptian artists, that Sir J. G. Wilkinson has given an account of it, 
which is quite unintelligible to those who have ever so moderate 
a knowledge of statics. Mr. Petrie's description is the true one- 
" The beam was suspended by a loop or ring from a bracket pro- 
jecting from the stand. . . . Then below the beam, a long tongue 
was attached, not above the beam as with us. To test the level 
of the beam, a plummet hung down the tongue, and it was this 
plummet which was observed to see if the tongue was vertical and 
the beam horizontal." — A Season in Egypt, p. 42. 

In PI. XXXVI, a few pictures will be found which give a more 

2 11 2 


correct notion of the Egyptian balance than some of the absurd 
representations which defy a scientific explanation. 

It is evident that if the tongue is fastened at a wrong angle, the beam 
will not really be horizontal when the tongue is shown by the plummet 
line to be vertical. This seems to be the fraud alluded to in the text. 

The word §=0=, § '^'^^> ^^^ name given to the plummet, ap- 
parently signifies a cup full of liquid. It is etymologically identical 

with ^ 

V"^ m^' ^ ^^^^^ (^^-^Ij i~&^j ebrius^ ebrietas), 
^^^^, TI^I, a crane, and [) ^ the crane-god, Thoth. 

c^ _ ^%^ 

The apparatus of which the plummet forms so important a 
part, whether for the balance or for building purposes, is called 

2:0= {Denkni., Ill, 26), S^^^ • 

Q, The manors of the gods, d III • I understand d as 
^ -^ "^ N III I I I Ns 

property acquired by royal grant. Aahmes at El Kab says that he 
has acquired (^^^:=:^ y^^) ^"'^^'^ ^^^^ through the royal 
bounty. The deceased in the later copies of the Book of the Dead 

(Ch. I, 24), acquires the allotment of land, \ =^ •< ^^ v\ « 1 , 

in the Garden of Aarrn, and Ani (PI. Ill) acquires " a permanent 
allotment ( "^^ r^^^ \ in the Garden of Hotepit hke the followers 
of Horus." 

10. Ponds. The right readmg is / ^V -i -r ' ^^ Birch 

already noted in his Diciionary, from the excellent papyrus Ao of 
the XVIIIth dynasty. 

Hieratic papyri also give the determinative t=t . 

The determinative . -^ < which some of the papyri give to the 
word, and which is a self-evident blunder, is probably copied either 
from I I , or from 1 — 1 . The sign '''5>^, and a man striking with 
an instrument, which also occur, are mere symbols of the operation 
by which either quarries, ox ponds, are cut. 

11. Thoii of the Nose, or rather Beak, aw^- [[1 £) -J| , in allusion 

to one of the chief characteristic features of the Ibis god {Trpoawirov 
es TO, fiakia-ra e-i'ipvirov ; Herodotus, II, 76, in his description of the 
bird). Thoth, the god of Chemunnu, is meant by this appellative. 


He is SO called, (1[ ifll , on the statue of the King Horus in the 

Museum of Turin (1. 8), and [|[ ^ on the very much more ancient 

altar, of the Vlih dynasty, belongmg to the same museum. The 
same appellative * is found in the list of gods upon each of the 
Memphite cubits described by Lepsius.f 

12. Eater of the Shadozv. The Demotic version interprets this 
of " his own shadow." I am rather inclined to interpret it by " the 
gnomons which were without shadows at noon," and the " well of 
Syene" (Strabo, 817) at the Summer Solstice; when the Sun was 

13. Thou of Lion form, -^^ fl I <>/( • '^^^ Demotic has "Shu 

and Tefnut." But as there are only forty-two gods in all, we must 
here think of a single god with a lion's head, as in such pictures 
as Wilkinson, III, PI. XLIX ; Denkm., Ill, 276, and many sarco- 
phagi (<f.^., Leemans, Mon., Ill, L, PI, III). 

Even some of the Theban papyri have two divinities by way of 
determinatives to the group. 

14. Sluggish, 


tk^. --(]^^, 

sluggishness. Coptic (f\[^t. See my note {Froc. Soc. Bib. Arch., 
XI, p. 76) on the Inscription of Kum el Ahmar. 

There are however other readings ; none of them apparently of 
any value. 

15. Thou of the Bright Teeth, | "^ (] J | ^ ^, • The 

Demotic equivalent is, " who openeth his teeth," and so exhibits 
their brightness. 

16. Aati, \\ c-=-^ Ll rJ[ ) ^ name about which the 

a _M^ 11 111 

copyists have bungled. It is one of the names of Ra in the Solar 
Litany, where it appears (1. 23) as ^^v c-^='^ v\ <0< ^ , or 

<^< . Whether applied to the Sun, to the Fish of the name, 
or to a Ship, the name means Cutter, ' that which cleaves ' its way. 

* The true sense of the name has been missed by Birch, who reads it Teti, 
and by Brugsch, who reads it " Chonti, der Anfangliche." At Beb-el-moluk it is 

written r^^^^ 

t D. Aegyptische Elle, Taf. i and 2. 


17. Tufu [yi^r-^^i <^ , with many variants, showing 

that the scribes did not understand the sense of the syllable C^^^, 

some of them adding the bird of evil ^^=^, others the 1 — — 1 deter- 
minative oi 7twtuitai7i. The name on the Sarcophagus of Seti (Bon. II, 
A. 30) has a snake for determinative, and some papyri call him 
Tutu. The god may be recognised in later texts. In the Calendar 
of Esneh there is a feast on the 14th day of Thotb, in honour of 

^ ^ lull ' Tutu, ' the son of Neith,' and the text gives the 

important determinative HHt) of a serpent, tvonn, or slug. I 
feel sure, therefore, that we should in the text read the name Tutu, 
and consider j ^.^ as a determinative.* The symbolism would then 
be identical with that in PI. XXIII, illustrative of Chapter 87. The 
Sun-god there rises up like a worm out of the Lotus of Dawn, whereas 
in another picture a slug (<-=^) is seen moving upon the flower. 

M ^^ , Ati., where the god makes his appearance, is the name 

of the ninth Nome of Lower Egypt. 

18. / trouble myself only with my o%V7i affairs. I understand 
this of the virtue spoken of by Cicero {de Officiis, I, 34), " nihil 
praeter suum negotium agere, nihil de alieno anquirere, minimeque 
esse in aliena republica curiosum." It is the same to which Plato 

refers in the TimaeuS, 72 A; ev kuI ircikai \e-^€7ai to Trpdr-etv kuI 
-ji/ibvai T« Te tavTOO Kal Iuvtov (Jw(ppovi /itovu) TrpoaijKCti', not in the 

sense of a selfish indifference to a neighbour's welfare or the public 
good, but in opposition to the ways of the busybodies, who tattle 
i.nd "speak things which they ought not" (i Tim., v, 13). 

The Egyptian -^^^ QA is a rare word. Brugsch's etymology 

of it is an impossible one, and his identification of it with OJUOCJUL 
is not less unfortunate. 

,9. A,„„ or A,„U. (}^\^, 000 o' Oko- ™' 
seems to be the favourite reading. It means the tou'n of Fahn. 
But, as the name was written ideographically, it appears in some 
copies as the town of other trees, such as N'ehait, or Ndrit. 

Amu was a place in the north of Egypt, which Biugsch thinks 

* Cf. the forms (1 -L J] , (1 - 


h- o o°o :n (Naville, 

Litanies, pp. 55, 83, and the corresponding texts) of one of the hJo'.ar names. 



he has identified with a town called Apis (the site of which is itself 

The most interesting thing known about Amu (Diimichen, Rec. 
de M., IV, PI. XV, 90 rt), is that in the rites performed on the 16 
Choiak, Horns is represented as raising up the body of Osiris out of 
the water in the form of a crocodile; and that Osiris was known 

under the name of u ()()©, The Crocodile, Lord of Amu. 

The 142nd chapter of the Book of the Dead, which gives a list 

of the names of Osiris, has (L 17) that of H , 'Osiris of 

Crocodile form,' or 'with Crocodile head.'* The variants of this 

group, however, show the reading 0, 5A U L f4 > ' king,' or ( U I "^ p| . 

' of kingly form.' There is but little doubt that (as M. Naville says, 

Zeitschr., 1882, p. 190) Jj j 1 on the Turin tablet published 

by Professor Piehl, means ' King of the gods,' and that Ptahhotep 
in the Prisse papyrus (IV, i) addresses not Osiris, but King Assa as 
'my Lord the King.*^ Goodwin had already asserted this meaning 
in his "Story of S'aneha" and in \.\\^- Zeitschr., 1874, p.. 38^ 

The orthography of the crocodile name here played upon is 

remarkably vague, V\ c^^a \\ =S3f=> , ( \\ , and ^K\ ^ VOi 

rapax, Louvre, C, 26). It is this last form which enables us to 

see the paranomasia in 2^=* s, — 3 y ( <ssf=. , rapax sicut Raptor 

{crocodilus) of the Prisse papyrus (VII, 6), and brings the word into 
connection with dta, or aii, ' he who is seized ' of the Sovereignty 
(see supra, Ch. 40, note 10). 

20. Chemiu, ® 


'one who overthrows.' His 


the Canobic 

appearance is made at Kauu, '^ /wwna 

entrance to the Nile, which the Libyan invaders had taken possession 
of in the time of Rameses III (Great Harris Pap., 77, 2). 

The transgression here disavowed is understood by some of the 
scribes as a violation of ritual precepts, such as those regarding 
sacred seasons. 

* On the other hand in the standard ^!^ of Dendera, the Crocodile is Sut, 

and the Feather upon his head is Osiris. 




21. JF/io raises f thy voice words of Righteousness. 

c=^^ I V Q() ^^ ^^^ attribute assigned to Isis in the Hymn to Osiris 

(line 14) on the Stele of Amenemhait in the Bibliotheque Nationale ; 
and it is there further defined through the addition of the words 

'with clearness of utterance' {cf. Ch. i, note 2). 

SUl 'Mighty in Words of 

Power.' She is also described in the Hymn as ' Most potent 01 

7~:> J I and unfailing of speech.'* 

Her name Urit hekait may have suggested the name Urit as the 
place of her manifestation. But we do not know if Urit is to be 
taken as the name of a town or if some papyri are correct in reading 

^^ [[ , which may mean tribunal. 

There were in ancient Eg3-pt six great courts of justice, 


One of the chief names of Isis is 



I I i<=r> 11111, 

A High Priest of Ptah of Memphis, named Ptahmes, in the early 

part of the eighteenth dynasty, who was President of these six Courts,! 

has left a very remarkable attestation relative to the 24th Precept, on 

a beautiful scribe's palette in basalt (Louvre, Inv., 3026). The 

inscription, after saying that the whole country was subject to the 

• ■ J- • r -o , . ~"^ ^ # I f? ^ I 

jurisdiction of Ptahmes, proceeds ._;l» /vww^ <:2;> y , w , 

1 1 1 



" He turned not a deaf ear to the 

truth, through the terrors of his Eye;" that is, "the terrors of his 
Eye" were not used for the per\-ersion of Justice. But what is 
meant by his *' Eye " ? M. Pierret (in his Inscr. inedites du Louvre, 
pt. I, p. 96) suggested the ' Eye of Horus.' I think it has reference 

*" Her son Horus inherited these gifts. He is invoked (Metternich Stele, 

I I 


Rechmara filled this office shortly before this, in the time of Thothmes HI, 
and the inscriptions of his tomb give interesting information of the duties d s- 
charged. His clerks are praised for the virtue of discretion (i8th Precejst). 
Fnch heard the reports read bj- others, but \\ithout troubling himself with what 
did not concern him. See next note. 


to the position of Ptahmes as ^^^^^ ^^^^^ 1 T T ^ • ^^ '''''^^ 

' the King's Eye,' 6 ftuaiXcw^- 6(/)Oa\^i6'.* and had in consequence, 
an unlimited power of defeating justice had he been so incHned. 
It is only by a blunderf that the papyrus of Ani makes 

1)1 ""^^ ^^^^ nineteenth Nome of Upper Egypt) the scene of 

the divine Babe's manifestation, which is unquestionably Heliopolis. 
The name of the Nome has numerous variants, but they always 

consist of two signs, a crooked staff i | , |, [, 1 1 either double or 

with a twisted cord ( Q > T , X , H ), and the final sound of the name 

(when expressed) is in 1, — h— . The key to the phonetic reading 
of the name of the Heliopolitan Nome is to be found in the 
inscription at Edfu (J. de Rouge, Edfou, pi. 46) ; |\ a.^^ f Q 

[11 ^ \ J\ I vy -^ n. Here the crook of the name is 

identified with the crook andy?fl//^^\ ^\ 1 ^='-7=' a;«.y, (1 \|\ 

ams, 1 7 \ I or ^^\ I e;;isit of Osiris, who is called in the 

Book of the Dead (Todt., 142, 9) 1 "SV I '^^^^ fll , tke 

^ ■ ^^^k^^^k ' ^ . ^LU / f^ f^ \ 111 © 

* This office is often referred to by Greek writers as existing in the Persian 
hierarchy. Pseudartabas, the ' King's Eye,' is one of the Dramatis Personse in 
the Acharnians of Aristophanes. Herodotus (i, 114) tells how Cyrus being 
chosen king by his playfellows, selected his principal c fficers, and one among the 
boys to be the ' King's Eye.' Aeschylus does not forget in his Persae (line 976) 
to make the Chorus bewail the loss of the King's faithful Eye. 

The most ancient personage who is known to me as the ' King's Eye ' in 
Eg)'pt is Antuf, whose tablet (of the 12th dynasty) is in the Louvre (C. 2^). His 
duties are detailed on this magnificent tablet, and they are very similar to those 
of Rechmaia. He is described not only as the King's Eyes which see, but 


^VW^ftA — 

3^ the "Tongue which speaks, of the lord of 

the Palace." 

t I [ in cursive writing might be mistaken for ] ] or for | ], and the 
scribe, to show his learning, might interpolate the J , but even this might be an 
error for | . 

2 r 


August Dismembered* one of the Fo7vers of Amiu. And this is how, 
in the important papyrus Pc, we find f Q 1 in Ch. 17 as the 
equivalent of - H 1 W J], a few words after, in the same papyrus. 
Both groups are to be read amsu ; which means furnished with the 
crook {or sceptre) and flail^ [ /\ or y^.f 

22. Hot of foot "^"^^-^l 

The Coptic Onf eJUL^^HT", poenitentiam agere, would be the 
natural representative of a ^\ T Qi) ' ^"^ ^^^ meanings of 

the terms cannot be the same. The latter is expressive of a passion, 
the indulgence in which may be laudable in the gods and yet blame- 
worthy in men. For the divine wrath is necessarily just ; whereas 
human anger, even when it seems to listen to reason, listens, as the 
philosopher says, but imperfectly. | 

The 29th god, Kenemta, l ^\ l^, has also for 

determinative the sign j\ of a cynocephalus. This is explained 

by his identity with the constellation which occupies the whole 
month of Thoth in the list of the Decans. But though the name 

means 'in Ape form,' the word V\ MA in the Pyramid 

Texts (Pepi i, 408, and Merira 579) is used in the sense of 'vested,' 
'clad,' perhaps simply 'covered.' 

Brugsch has identified the locality Kenemit with the Great Oasis 
at Khargeh. It may be asked if the Oasis bore this name at the 
time when this chapter was composed. The determinative 

■■ ^ ■< proves nothing beyond the actual sense of the word, but it 

suggests that the Dark may be a sufficient translation. From the 
etymology I should like to assimilate it to the iroiKikel^wv vr^ of the 

* The detenninatives in 

n ° no 

Sio/ifXttT^oc, and the insect (a scolopendron) in 

, express the sense of division, 

n ° 

exhibits the very 

notion which has given rise to the Latin insecta and the Greek ivTOfiov. 
t For more particular details, see P.S.B.A., viii, p. 245, and following. 
J 'Akovhv n Tov Koycv, irapaKoiiiv 5t : Ethic. Nick., viii. "]. 



Prometheus Vinctus, or to the ' furvo circumdata peplo ' of the 
Latin poet. 

23. Of inconstant mind, I 

24. Another intelh'gible reading of the precept is, " I rob not the 
dead of their wrappings " ; but the text is so corrupt that none of the 
readings are of any value. 

The god is called O (j(] '^ ^ or 1 ® ^^ (](] ^ , both of 

which words I understand in the sense of busy-minded^ plafining, 
devising, crafty, wise. 

The appellative Horned one, ^'^zzy -41-^ W ^ \^ > of the next 

precept, is the exact equivalent of the Hebrew D'^^lp hy'3. and is 
the attribute of Osiris (Todt., 144, 4), especially in the character 



; under which name he was worshipped at Sutenhunen. 


25. Noisy in speech '^^ 



26. Striker 


A name of Horus, on which see ch. 

103, note. 

27. There is no locality about which there is any agreement 
between the older papyri, and many of them omit the mention of a 

locality ; later authorities, like the Turin text, read fjl Annu. 

I I I 

There is no virtue 

28. No unjust preferences, ■^=^[i j 

more frequently extolled on the funereal monuments than the 
absence of favouritism. Great personages in their epitaphs are strong 
in their declarations that they made no distinction between great 
and small, rich or poor, wise or simple. The declaration of Ameni 

{Denkm., ii, 122), ^JU- I 
is a type of many others. 
29. Of raised head, ?=^ 



^-^^ @. This, like the last two, is a name of the Nile god, 

who is one of the manifestations of Osiris. 

30. IV/io liftest an arm, |\ ^ j, not ' aniener son bras.' |\ , like 

the Greek cjyeiiciv, means bear in the sense of holding up, supporting. 

2 12 


When it signifies bring the collateral notion of motion is imported 
from the context. The god Shu, who is called A v=^ , holds Jip, 
supports, the sky, but does not bring it. The god tuho holds up his ar7n, 
is of course the ithyphallic Amon * F , who in Ch. 1 7 is identified 

not only with Horus but with Osiris. 

31. This introduction to Part III of this chapter occurs only in 
the Papyrus of Nebkat {Pe). Another ancient manuscript {Fb) has 
the words "Said upon approaching triumphantly to the Hall of 
Righteousness." But the texts generally begin with the invocation, 
" Hail ye gods, I know you and I know your names." 

■X2. Reverse of mi?te, ^M?^, a turn of the wheel, which the 

context implies to be unfortunate. A very absurd reading is V 

/v>^ V Vra as if the defendant were master of the fates of his divine 
III I ^ 


33, The King who re side th within His own Da v. A very 
doubtful passage at present. The words do not occur in the oldest 
text of the chapter (that of Nebseni), and they are omitted here in 
the later recensions. Ad is, as far as I know, the only authority for 

— I u \\ . other papyri having merely 4^' > which might 

possibly correspond to the W^ immediately preceding. The 

Royal tombs have [~[] ^^\ ^ , and one of the papyri has 

* There is no such god as Min or Mitiu, except as an abbreviated (or 
perhaps primitive) (7r//i(7frrt/'^?V form of ^;«i?«. v\ J ^ and 1 i^ bear to 

[1 i^ exactly the same relationship that 1 c^ , /wwv. W' , ll wl ' 

have to [1 1 ^ , [1 ^^^ <^ and [I \d\- 

Neither Amen nor the shorter form can be the phonetic equivalent of "" H> . 
The image of Horus with the Flail at Edfu is described (J. de Rouge, pi. C. Ill) as 
VN. / ^^^l > Horns as Amstc-Atnen, and I have elsewhere quoted 

from Tempel insch., I, 32, the ^^ 1 'm Avisu- Men [or Amen] as well as 
^^ >Ov A/usu Horus. 


(I ^ instead of I ^ j4 . All this reminds one of an obscure 

passage in Chapter 115, where Ra is speaking with I 

nil ^w w| according to the Text of the Turin Todtenbiuh. 

Goodwin conjectured that King Amhauf belonged ' to the race of 
mythical kings who preceded Menes,' and that his history is 'a 
legend somewhat analogous to that of Deucalion and Pyrrha.' There 
is a much more probable solution of the matter. 

I w| ^^ meant for I .^i Sut, and it was with this god 

^==|l]'^^^^^--or-|[-^[-g'^^^ffT* 'm\{\?, course '^ 

that Ra was speaking when the disaster happened to the latter 
divinity, who for his talk had chosen a wrong moment, which really 
belonged to his adversary. Cf. supra note 3 on Chapter no. 

And here too I would instead of I read I , and the 

sense of the passage would be "let not reverse of mine come to pass 
through Sutu, when his time cometh." 

34. Cares, ==--^ ^ in the later texts. The older texts differ 

c. W 111 _ 

greatly from each other : ^ 'STP ^^^ *v\ Q is the most frequent 


35. The Ass and the Cat ift the house of Hept-ro. The two per- 
sonages who take part in this dialogue are known from other portions 
of the Book of the Dead. The Cat is Ra in the 1 7th chapter. And 
the Ass appears in the 40th chapter, as the victim of the devouring 
Serpent. The Sun-god overcome by darkness is Osnis ; and he is 
so called by name in the Demotic version of this chapter. 

Hept-ro,^ 'iS:^ J^, 'god of the gaping mouth.' The 

word fi g-g-:i is not found elsewhere, but the meaning of it 

seems to be indicated by the determinative. It is very probably 
akin to the more common ^ AA, 1.=-^^^, which does not 

The Luynes papyrus reads - 

n for thinking that in Cha 
written without its phonetic value. 


rn v\ , M'hich affords good 

reason for thinking that in Chapter 115, as elsewhere, t ;^-, was originally 


mean ' squat ' or ' sit,' but ' stretch out,' distetidi. Cf. Note 6, 
Chapter 63B, 

The ' house of the god of the gaping mouth,' seems to be the 
Earthy considered as the universal tomb (aW uvrou r^a7a fieXaiva 
TTuai xat'ot, II. 14, 417). And here Osiris and Ra (the Ass and the 
Cat) meet daily, ' Yesterday ' speaketh to ' To-day.' 

"ir2« TT nvh DV. 

A note of M. Guyesse in the Reaieil, X, p. 64, contains references 
to the chief passages in which this word occurs. I will add a very 
important one, the picture of a god (Lefebure, To77ibeau de Sefi, 
p. Ill, pi. 2,2)) ^^'^th sword in hand, whose name is this word. The 
ideographic signs which express it imply (i) ' a adting in two, parting, 
division,' (2) that the act is one of speech or intellect, such as 'judg- 
ment, decision, verdict.' The phonetic equivalence of the signs •^ 
and 'I'l' or j I j show that the value is that of Seb. 

• 37. Covereth. The right Egyptian word here, as in a similar 
passage in Chapter 1 7, is uncertain, but the meaning is plain enough. 
There are many pictures showing a divinity (the sun or moon-god) 
hidden within or behind a tree. 

38. That tlie Balafice may be set upon its stand within th£ bower 
of amara?ith. 

Cf. the passage (Rochemonteix, Edfoit, p. 191) where mention is 
made of the divine powers which animate the Princes who are in the 
train of Osiris and who lift the Balance upon the stand before them 

^^ II i^D^ i D I y\ ^ I I I 

A7)iaranth (see Note 3 of Chapter 26) is only one of the readings 
of this doubtful text. 

39. Disasters, 


[ V [or ^^^' ' ^^^ ^^^, misfortune. See 
my note on this word, T.S.B.A., II, p. 313. 

40. Grasshoppers, Ks>^ ^C\ v\ ^^^ . The similar word 

_^ C -m^ _ZI I I I 

C^^TDj which only occurs in Lev. xi, 22, does not appear to be 
Semitic. It is a sufficiently familiar word in Egyptian to serve as a 
term in comparison, 'as plentiful as grasshoppers.' 

41. The text here is quite uncertain. The Turin Todtenbiich has 
" the fourth hour of the Night and the eighth hour of the Day," 


which does not agree with any early reading. Cd. has "the fourth 
hour of the Night and of the Day." Several papyri have the " second 

hour of the Night and the third r=L[) — of the Day." It was in 

this passage, as written in B.M. 9904, that, in the year i860, I found 
the phonetic value of the Egyptian number 3 : a discovery first 
ascribed by Brugsch* to Goodwin, and afterwards by others to 
Brugsch himself. 

42. The hearts of the gods are appeased, 11221/] JR = ^awv^ j | j , 

Cf. rt^I, l\dcTK€a6ai, and n^HT, eXeij^twu, otKTi'pfiwv. This ex 
plains Pap. Prisse XVII, 6^fI^^n^^|^J^. 

43. Let him come. J\ v\ is a tolerably certain reading, but 

it is not possible to say what should be the word preceding this. 
The scribes have written 'there he cometh,' 'we grant that he come,' 
* I grant,' ' let him be brought in,' and the like. 

44. He who groweth under the Grass, X5 <===> j n]/ [\\ 1 • 

45. A thigh, ^^^-^ ^ (2 , also written || . 

46. See the greetifigs : (jywvij ^/ap 6pw, to (paTc^o/u.ei/ou, Oedip. 

Col. 138 

I w I 

47. The Leaf, J ^ 

48. Pointer [or Plummet'] of Truth, ^\>^ ^^^^ J] "^ S^ I . 

49. The Scale Pan, \ ^ -^=:^\^^, \ \ ^^^ ■ 

50. The Dragon Brood, m V\ ^ Mr . 

51. 27/1? Truncheon of Hathor, ^^ vo'-t^ does not appear to 

be a very familiar word to the scribes, who write it in the most 
diverse ways possible ; one of them even understanding it as the 

' opening of heaven ' ^^ ^ . All that we can say is that the 

word is shown by its determinative to be of wood, and by its 

etymology (cf ^^ \\ , 1 to serve for striking, blinding, or 

slaying. Scne of the texts name Hathor, and others Nephthys, 

* Zeiischr., No. 3. 


The sign I occurs in both names, and the scribes have read the 
rest of the name as best they could. 

52. He zvho knoweth the heart and exploreth the person, 

"^ I -_j1 j\ . This is so exactly the equivalent of " Searchinsr 

I !<=:> ( I ^ 111 . 

the heart and trying the reins" of Jeremiah (xvii, 10), that we 
might have expected to find something like it in the Coptic version 
of the Bible. But there we have nothing but a close adherence to 
the sense of the Septuagint, and even to such a word as CGKijud^etv. 

53. Who provideth for, ^^ <::()=^^ QA is the equivalent of the 

Greek irpovoeiv in the inscription of Tanis, and of ^lipifxva in the 
Demotic text of the verses of Moschion. The Coptic form is 
JULeTI, JULeexe, which stands for (f)poi>e7v in Phil, iv, 10, "Your 
care of me, wherein ye also were careful." 

Thoth is thus represented as the divine Providence, which takes 
care of the universe. The same view is found in a text at Edfu. 

54. The Eye of Horus ; see latter part of Note 2, of this 


Oh ye four Harbingers (i) who sit at the prow of the Bark of Ra, 
and convey the fixed ordinances (2) of the Inviolate One, ye who 
are judges of my di«;tress (3) and of my good fortune, and propitiate 
the gods with the flames from your mouths : ye who present to the 
gods their oblations and the sacrificial meals to the Glorified : ye 
who live through Maat and are sated with Maat : who have nothing 
wrong in you and execrate that which is disordered, (4) do ye put 
an end to my ills and remove that w-hich is disorderly in me through 
my being smitten to the earth. (5) 

Grant that I may penetrate into the Ammehit and enter into 
Restau ; and that I may pass through the mysterious portals of 

Be there given to me the Shensu cakes and the Persen cakes 



CiiArTER CXXVI Papyrus of Ani. 


Musee du Louvre, Papyrus III, 36. 

Chapter CXXVI. 
Papyrus. British Museum. No. 9913. 

Chapter CXXX. Papyrus, Leyden, VI. 






Papyrus, Musee du Louvre, No. 3079. 

Chapter CXXXII. 
Brit. Mus. Papyrus, No. 9964. 


Papyrus, Brocklehurst, II. 

Papyrus, British Museum, No. 9900. 

Chapter CXX.XIV. Papyrus of Ani, British Museum. 

Chapter CXXXIV. Papyrus, British Museum, No. 9900. 

Chapter CXXXVI. 
Papyrus, Brit. Mus., No. 9913. 

Chapter CXXXVI. 
Papyrus, Brit. Mus., No. 9900. 


[and all things] even as to the Glorified, who make their appearance 
on entering into Restau or on coming forth. (6) 

Enter thou, Osiris N: We put an end to thine ills, and we 
remove that which is disorderly in thee through thy being smitten 
to the earth. We put away from thee all the ills which thou hast. 
Enter thou into Restau and pass through the mysterious portals of 
Amenta. Enter thou in and come forth at thy pleasure, like the 
Glorified ones; and be thou invoked each day in the Mount of 
Glory. (7) 


In the older papyri the vignette of this chapter is unaccompanied 
by any text. The only exception as yet known is that of the papyrus 
Ab, of the XVIIIth dynasty. The text is also found in the tomb 
of Rameses VI, with the important addition of the answer made by 
the four Harbingers to the prayer of the deceased. This addition 
is retained in all the later recensions. Other discrepancies between 
the two texts lead to the conclusion that even the older one has 
suffered from interpolation. 

1. Harbingers or Saluters, ^ v r 1 ' * ^^^ Chapter 5, 

Note 5, for an explanation of the name of those Apes who salute* 
the Daybreak. "Utrefour only are spoken of, and this was probably 
the original number, corresponding to the four portals of the Mount 
of Glory. The number eight (the Chemunnu) is more easy to explain 
than six, which is the number stated in the text quoted from the 
tomb of Rameses VI. 

2. Fixed ordinances, S^ . ^ . ; OeuKnei in the different accep- 
tations of that word. 

3. Distress, ^^ I y, "^^^ • " Te semper anteit saeva neces- 

siias," Horace says to Fortuna. The determinative "^ and the 
Coplic JULp evidently point to the notion of constraint, but the few 
texts in which the word is found imply ivatit, need {angustice, 
av('riKi]),j rather than captivity. Amenemhat at Benihassan (tomb 2) 

* The Gothic Hana (the Cock), German Hahn and our Hen signify the 
Singer, and are words cognate to the Latin can-ere. The Latin Callus is 
probably related to onr call. 

t The Greek language would furnish an interesting parallel to the Egj-ptian if 
it could be shown that Sew, bind, and Sew, want, need, had the same root. But the 
latter was originally (5ffw. 

2 K 


boasts that in his days and under his government no one was seen 

"in distress ( ^ ^k\ [ y. "^^-^jj or starving." And Horus 

at Edfu (Naville, Mythe d'Borus, pi. XXII) is said to protect the 

needy or distressed I ^^^ ^ Q | against the powerful This is 

an honour already claimed by Antuf on his tablet (Louvre, C. 26 
line 17), who mentions the maarii as being an object of interest to 
him, like the orphan and the widow. 

4. Disordered, [ ^ 1 ^ 1 , is the absence of S^ , strict 

i U ^^ I _ _ a r-^ 

order, and always spoken of as in opposition to it. One is Koa^o? 
and the other is ov Kara Koafxou, and may be predicated of whatever 
is contrary to rule, faulty, defective, out of line, deformed, or dis- 
figured, not only in a moral but in a purely physical sense. 

^^^, ///, does not mean wickedness or sin, but simply physical 

evil, mischief, pain or sorrow. There are many texts to prove this, 
but perhaps the most interesting is the great text at Dendera 
(Mariette, Denderah, IV, pi. 73, or Diimichen, Rec, III, pi. 96), 
where Osiris is invoked at Apu (Panopolis) as the fiery Bull, hiding 
(or scarcely seen) on the day of the New INIoon . . , . , but at length 
rising into full strength,* and seeing the Golden Horus fixed upon 

the throne of the universe. v? 'V^ 1 ^ [^ -"^^^ (continues the 

text), "Joy cometh round afterf pain," or sorrow ; most certainly, not 
after sin. 

* Such is the real meaning of -^^^ '^^^ ^^\ | , not only in this place, but 
in the extremely ancient text found on many sarcophagi and already in the 
Pyramid Texts (see Pepi I, 33), A \\ ^ ^ ^^ -^d^ ^ | ^a^^ 

z'/^/w^ AWAAA I " Thy mother Nut bringeth it to pass that thou 


risest into full strength, without an adversary, in thy name o( i/i£ Strong one^ 

In this translation it is assumed that the second '^'^^ is the negative 1— 'L-^i 
as it was always understood in later times (see for an instance Zeitschr., 1869, 
p. 51, and the beautiful text of Bakenrenf, Denkm., Ill, 263). 

The true meaning of is not simply 'this god' but 'the Strong one, 

1—1 * /vwvw 

6 'Yax^'^v. 1 I is the ' Strong and Beautiful ;' | A is ^■^t^' 7X) '^ Hai TOKpuTwp. 
t That is, 'succeedeth.' 


The meaning of <zz>, which governs the noun, has been 

1, ° 

explained (Chapter 40, Note 6) as stoppmg, britiging io an end ; not 
destroying, and still \t%% forgiving. 

5. Through tny being [or because I am] smitten to the earth, 

(I v\ in this position, without a suffix or nominal subject, is not 

an auxiliary verb, but a particle of correlation, used when a cause, 
motive, or circumstance is asserted or implied in connection with a 
preceding statement. 

Like all such particles, of which the function was originally only 
deictic, it is susceptible of very many shades of meaning, and it 
would be impossible in this place to do justice to a word so frequently 
occurring, especially in the hieratic papyri of a secular character. 
The following examples are only intended to illustrate \ts grammatical 
use in our text. 

The particle occurs three times before as many propositions at 
the beginning of Chapter 123; 'I have balanced the divine Pair,' 

'I have put a stop, etc.,^ 'I have ended their complaints;' [ ^ 

connects each of these statements with the preceding one, ' I am 
Thoth.' It is as if the speaker said, '// is in co?tseqieence of my being 
Thoth, that I have balanced,' etc. 

In Chapter 36, ' I am the bearer of the divine words ' is followed 

by (J Y^ ' X t V ^ ^ ' ' ^"^ ^'^ ^^ comes that I make the report.' 

In Chapter 15, line 7, 'I am one of those who honoured thee 

upon earth ' is followed by ( v\ — -^ " let me therefore 

attain to the Land of eternity." 

Aahmes, the son of Abana, says in his inscription (line 5) that 

he was young and unwedded, ( v\ 1 O^ 'V^ v^ '■'■and so I 

continued to wear" a certain dress. 

Amenemheb was, he tell us {Zeitchr., 1S73, P- 3)) high in the 
favour of the King, '■^ and so it comes that I followed my Lord 

Una was sent by his sovereign on a certain mission, and the 
negro chieftains of certain districts furnished the wood for his 

2 K 2 


purpose, " and so it came to pass that he spent I ^ a year in 

this wise." 

After verba dicendi (I v\ corresponds to our as how, cotnttie quoi\ 

or the guod or quia of late Latinity. It often needs no more 
translation than the Greek on in such a relation. 

In the inscription of Pianchi (line 2) one came to tell his 
Majesty "that {comme quoi) a prince [or magnate] had started up 

(1 Y^ -^^ 1^ " and seized upon a part of the kingdom. 

C V^ ^^^ most certainly does not mean ^est, est/ any more 

than it means ' Dominus meus mortuus est.' 

Nebuaiu {Zeitschr., 1876, p. 5) in the time of Thothmes III cS^ 
A Tv O f^'^'^/'j^ pg ^ f "" — 

(] v\ <r:z=> v^ ^ ^^^ " says, as how ' I have presided over many 


The Naophoros of the Vatican in like manner ^^^ (I V\ 

vf2^ " says that ' I made a petition ' " to Cambyses. 

Long before this Chnumhotep of Eenihassan begins his biography 

(line 14) I ^=S^ [1 V:> j5 □ v\ M^ " his mouth, it says as how 

'his Majesty appointed me ' to the dignity oi Erpd hd." 

The absence of Verbal character becomes especially apparent in 

such combinations as(vi^ ,(^'y),["\^J • 

6. The older texts finish here. What follows in the tran'-lation 
is taken from the later recensions. It is the reply made by the four 
Harbingers to the prayer addressed to them. 

7. AToioit of Glory . This is the real meamng of the word, 

^ n 

and there is no reason why we should continue to use the mis- 
leading term horizon. 



The Book (i) for irivoking the gods of the Bouftds, (2) which the person 
rcciteth when he approacheth them, that he may efiter and see the 
Strong one (3) in the Gnat Abode of the Tuat. 

Hail, ye gods of the Bounds, who are in Amenta. 

Hail, ye Doorkeepers of the Tuat, who guard this Strong one, 
and who bring the reports before Osiris ; ye who protect them who 
worship you, and who annihilate the adversaries of Ra : who give 
light and put away your darkness : ye who see and extol your Great 
one, who live even as he liveth, and invoke him who is in his Solar 

Guide me, and let the gates of Heaven, Earth, and the Tuat be 
opened to me. 

I am the Soul of Osiris and rest in him. 

Let me pass through the Gateways, and let them raise acclamation 
when they see me. 

Let nie enter as I will, and come forth at my pleasure, and make 
my way without there being found any defect or any evil attaching 
to me. 


The text which has been followed in the translation of this 
chapter is that of the Royal Tombs of Rameses IV and Rameses VI, 
called by M. Naville Chapter 1 2 7 a. The lost Busca papyrus, of which 
Lepsius had a tracing, furnishes a different text, (127 b), and the 
text of the Turin Todteftbuch has been enlarged by means of 
numerous interpolations. M. Naville has called attention to the 
close relationship between this chapter and the second part of the 
" Solar Litany." 

I. Book ^~ ^ , properly a Roll; a title given to several of 
the chapters (125, 127, 129, 130, 140, 141, 142 and 148 in the 
Turin TodtenbucJi), instead of the usual , . Too much im- 
portance should not be attached to the difference of terms This 
chapter is called , by the Busca papyrus; and Chapter 125, 
which is called '^~p^ in the earliest texts containing it whenever a 
title is given, is called '7^ ^ ever since the time of Rameses IV. 


2. Bounds^ 'c^^'^n' '" ^^ ^^^ form, though <^ *^^^^ Ivi 
is not unfrequent, here and in other places. The English word is 
not a translation of the Egyptian one, which has to be explained 
before any equivalent for it can be proposed. And the explanation 
of it has to be sought in the ' Solar Litany,' first completely pub- 
lished by M. Naville. 

There we find the Sun-god Ra invoked as a Power potiring itself 

forth or overfIowi?tg "^l^ . . It <^ji ' * ^"75 fo^"^^ ^i^d ihe fortns 

I \v I 

in 7=; <:::r> I. Each of these divine forms ( v5 "l 1 I has its 

own {}\ as a dwelling-place, to which however it is not 


The seventy-five Forms in question (each of which is a god) are, 
as the text itself shows, simply so many names of the Solar god 

or solar phenomena. Each of them is addressed as r^^T Y' 

' Ra, supreme of power,' after which some attribute of the deity 
is mentioned, and the name of the deity is connected with this 

In Greece, Apollo was called eicrj/SoXo?, Karai^daio^, a7roTpo7ra?09, 

veour'jviov, and by ever so many other names expressive of the 
attributes with which he was credited. These names correspond to 

what Egyptian mythology called the vi ( 1 of a god, and each 

of the names has but a limited application. The god is not always 
thought of as 'Far-darting'; under the conception of 'Neo- 
menios,' he dwells in what Egyptian mythology called another 
„_^-^[^, which is the local habitation, or, as mathematicians would 
say, the locus of the concept. 

M. de Rouge, without giving any reason, but probably guided 
by what Champollion had written, translates the word zone. 
M. Naville, who has carefully studied the word, prefers sphere. And 

* M. Naville leaves this word untranslated, though he rightly conjectures 
it to be the origin of XCOCtl effundere, effusio, infundere, t»imergere. 

lA ^^ ^ ■ at chapter 64, 23, is undoubtedly the overf owing, or otitpouring. 

There are the reduplicated Coptic forms (T^CtjCTcy and (TeCLJf^^Cy ; 

and (Tecye, a name of the goose, has its origin in a ^> 1 w 1 (jO X ^i*:, 
and has the same sense etymologically as the Latin mergus. 


no better word could be thought of, if we used it as we do in 
speaking of ' moving in a certain sphere,' ' each in his own sphere,* 
or, 'the sphere of action ;' without applying a strict geometrical sense 
to the word. For the Egyptian ^^_^^ S was a hollow cylinder like 
a round tower, a chimney, or -a deep well rather than a sphere. 

With the explanation I have just given, I prefer Boimds as a 
more expressive translation. The word appears in the dual form 
on account of the presence of the god. 

The name was given to the fabulous Source of the 

Nile, supposed to be in the neighbourhood of Elephantine. The 
inscription of Seti I at Redesieh {Denkm., Ill, 140B) compares 
the abundance of water at the King's cistern to that of the 

/I ^\\n nfk o 


u ^ ? H^^ "the cavern of the Double Well of 

aXQ<r:=>00 I J Jf 111 

Elephantine." ..c^^^^^^ 

In the later orthography the word is written 1^^^ or Z**^ 

It has been supposed that the Coptic KOpI cataracts might be 
connected with the old Egyptian name. But the history of the 
Coptic word is not sufficiently known to justify any inferences. 

3. The Stro?2g one, 'l^^^^, the name of Osiris. See footnote 
to Chapter 126, Note 4. 


Invocation of Osiris, 

Hail to thee, Osiris Unneferu, son of Nut and eldest son of 
Seb : the Great One who proceedeth from Nut ; the king in 
Taa-urit ; (i) the Prince in Amenta; the Lord of Abydos ; the 
Lord of Forces ; the most Mighty ; the Lord of the Atef crown 
in Suten-hunen, the Lord of Power in Taa-urit, (2) the Lord of 
the Mansion : most Powerful in Tattu : Lord of Administration, (3) 
and of many festivals in Tattu. 

Horus exalteth liis father Osiris in every place ; associating Isis 
the Great with her sister Nephthys. 

Thoih s^jeaketh to [Horus] with the potent utterances (4) which 


have in himself their origin and proceed from his mouth, and which 
strengthen the heart of Horus beyond all gods. 

Rise up Horus, son of Isis, and restore thy father 
Osiris ! 

Ha, Osiris ! I am come to thee ; I am Horus and I restore 
thee unto life upon this day, with the funereal offerings and all good 
things for Osiris. 

Rise up, then, Osiris : I have stricken down for thee thine 
enemies, I have delivered thee from them. 

I am Horus on this fair day, at the beautiful coming forth (5) 
of thy Powers : who lifteth thee up with himself on this fair day as 
thine associate god. (6) 

Ha, Osiris ! thou hast come and with thee thy Ka, which uniteth 
with thee in thy name of Ka-hotep. (7) 

He glorifieth thee in thy name of the Glorified : he invoketh thee 
in thy name of Hekau : he openeth for thee the paths in thy name 
of Ap-uat. (8) 

Ha, Osiris ! I am come to thee that I may set thine adversaries 
beneath thee in every place, and that thou mayest be triumphant in 
presence of all the gods who are around thee. 

Ha, Osiris ! thou hast received thy sceptre, thy pedestal and the 
flight of stairs beneath thee. (9) 

Regulate thou the festivals of the gods, and do thou regulate the 
oblations to those who reside in their mansions. 

Grant thou thy greatness to the gods whom thou hast made, 
great god, and make thine appearance with them as their Ensign. (10) 

Take thou precedence (11) over all the gods and listen to the 
Voice of Maat on this day. 

Said over t/te oblations made to the Strong One on the Festival 
of Uaka, (12) 


The ancient papyri do not contain this chapter. The translation 
follows the text of the Turin Todtenbuck, occasionally corrected by 
other papyri of the later period. There is nothing specially in- 
teresting in the chapter : the first portion of it is an invocation to 
Osiris under certain names, as in many other hymns* to the god 

* Cf. the Hymn to Osiris in the Bibl. Nationale, the Hymn of Tunrei (Marietta, 
Mou. div., pi. 57), and an inscription copied hy Mariette from the temp'e of Ptah 
at Memphis [Alon. div., pi. 28 e). There are plenty others of the same kind. 


from the time of the Xllth dynasty down to the latest times : the 
latter portion consists of evocations addressed by Horus to his 
father. Their prototype is to be found in formulas frequent in the 
Pyramid Texts. These were much admired and imitated in the 
Saitic and the later periods. 

1. King in Tau-urit I ^ 2_J ^^ <^ • Osiris is also 
called [ 1 1]( jI ^ ^^ ^ l"^ ^t Philae. And in the second line of 

this chapter he is called ^^37 () Jfj in Tau-urit which, if not identical 

with Abydos, must have been a part of that town or in its immediate 

2. ^^' 8 ^ ^= Iy2 ^^ g is equivalent to ^ - - ^ , the 
title of Osiris in Pepi /, line 8. And the Power is defined as 

"thy Power which is upon the 


X. Administration r-^-^ ; literally things. See note 3 on 

Chapter 18. 

4. Utterances %^®'~^- See note 2 on Chapter i, and compare 

Merenrd, 103, and FeJ>i /I, 13. 

5. Coming forth Q^^ . Cf. cy^-I, iwcneWcn', <h'oro\,), and the 
meanings e^oBei'a and Lo/m) which, on the tablet of Canopus, corres- 
pond to the Egyptian ^n- The first hour after sunrise was called 

I I ® : so that " the beautiful Coming forth of thy Powers " may 
"vl I I 
be a mere technical periphrasis for daybreak. 

Besides the ^ %> "^^^ Vi> of Ra in Chapter 1 7, it is well to 
remember such proper names as ^ ^ • , p>nrtq ^ 3, T 

III' L_J I ^^_^ 

:^ Q ^^ ) with several others. 
6. Thine associate god, or one of those about thee, \ \ 

O ff^ I I I 

See Note 2 on Chapter 18, M. Chabas in his commentary upon 
the fine hymn translated by him in the Rev. Arch., 1857, considers 

2 L 


it " line circonstance bizarre " that Osiris is several times included 
among his ' Djadjou.^ The bizarrerie is easily explained by parallel 
expressions known to every Greek scholar, ol uf.i(f)l YletaiffrpuTov in 
Herodotus means Pisistratus with his troops, and in Thucydides, 
ol Trepi Qpa(Tv/3ov\oi' means Thrasyhulus with his soldiers. In the 
Iliad (3, 146) ol «/(0t Wpiafiov is explained by the Scholiast as 
meaning Priam Inmself : tovt" iaTtv., o Ylpiafio-}. 

7. This passage as it stands is the alteration of one of the 
Pyramid Texts (Teta, 284; Pepi I, 54): " Horus hath brought to 
pass that his Ka [? image] which is in thee should unite with thee in 
thy name of Ka-hotep." 

8. This whole passage is also taken from tlie Pyramid Texts. 
Its chief value in this place is in evidence of a truth not yet 
generally acknowledged by Egyptologists, that Ap-uat (or as written 
in the Pyramid Texts, Up-uat) is really Osiris. The proofs are 
numerous and overwhelming. 

I produced evidence of this identity in the P.S.B.A. of June i, 
1886, from an obelisk of the Xllth dynasty now at Alnwick Castle, 
and in 1891 Brugsch published in his Thesmirus (p. 1420) a tablet, 
now in the Louvre, of the same period as the obelisk, which also 
treats Ap-uat as one of the names of Osiris. But the earliest as well 
as the most instructive evidence is that of the Pyramid Texts. The 
later form of it is thus given on the coffin of Nes-Shu-Tefnut at 
Vienna (see Bergman, Pecueil, VI, p. 165): "Horus openeth for 
thee thy Two Eyes that thou mayest see with them in thy name of 

But the Pyramids of Teta (1. 281) and Pepi (1. 131) say, "Horus 
openeth for thee thine Eye that thou mayest see with it in its name 
Ap-uat." Each of the Eyes of Osiris is Ap-uat, one of them is the 
Southern and the other is the Northern Jackal. These two facing 
each other fcrm part of the symbolism explained in Note 2 upon 
Chapter 125. 

The figure of the Jackal is wholly insufficient as an argument 
that Ap-uat is identical with Anubis. Much better evidence is found 
in the fact that the name of Anubis is sometimes written over the 
figure.* But the true explanation of this is, what might have seemed 
incredible to some of our older scholars, that Anubis is itself only 
one of the names of Osiris. 

* See Mariette, Mon. div , pi. 61, where each of the jackals is surmounted 
with the Eye and bears the name Anpu. 


The Pyramids of Pepi I (line 474 and following) and Pepi II 
(1. 1262 and following) give imaginary etymologies of certain names 
of Osiris which are repeated in the inscriptions of the tomb of 
Horhotep, published by M. Maspero {Aliss. Arch., I, 260). One of 

these names is ^^r-::^ ^(tf ' which is said to be derived from v t , 

J)=3, -^1 AnJ)u, which 

is derived from v\ ! The true meaning of (I V ^^ ^^''■ 

jackal, but 7tihelp ; the fierce young of an animal ; not only of jackals 

or lions but of men, kings or gods, (J SI • Thus Orestes speaks 

(Eur., Orest., i) of gkv^ivov uvonlov TTttT/joV, and the Chorus of another 
play talks of the reception of yhv *Ax''A-Xe(oi/ aicvfivov [Atidr., 1170). 
And Shakespeare speaks of "the young whelp of Talbot's raging 

9. Pedestal, L ^v > . y. ■ ; the statid upon which the images or 
emblems of the god were carried in procession. The \ | is very 
frequently supported by it ; ^'-j ^ . 

Flight of stairs, ^ . See Note 2 on Chapter 22. 

10. Ensign, i.e., ins/_i::nis, one who bears the distinguishing mark 

or sign of investiture Q \\ ^ .* See Note 4 on Chapter 78. 

Osiris is here presented as the Sahu of the gods whom he has 
called into existence. The Hymn of the Bibliotheque Nationale 

(line 7) calls him ^^ '^^ j' || " 

The importance of this sign is manifest in the Pyramid Text (A/erenrd, 634), 


"^Vmaketh his appearance as King, he hath possession of his I X O and of 
his throne. ' [Since the above was in print M. Naville has published an inscrip- 
tion of Queen Hatshepsit, in which the remarkable expression 1 ? J\^ 'V 
occurs three times.] 

The word written ' | "~Q^' ' D | "TT, but also ' y | MT 

or I Yr^ Q S (^"'-' ^^^° without any vowel, though ^v is understood), has 

determinatives in Pe/ti I, 635, and Merenrd, 509, which imply the sense oi girdle, 
zone. Hence the sense of neighbourhood, " the men or places round about one." 

2 L 2 

1 J -^J5^ . I take the word in the same 


Chnumhotep at Benihassan says of the king, ^^ v^ 

/wwsA^OA^ fi J " he distinguished me above all his nobles^' 

that is the order of men bearing the sign of investiture. 

1 1. Take precedence, 

sense as where it occurs (without the determinative of sound) in 
Denkm., Ill, 29a; in parallelism with '^^ . 

1 2. Uaka, ^\ S ^^\ ^ ; in the older texts X ] S f 1 (as 

in Pepi I, 98) ; one of the oldest festivals of the Egyptian calendar, 
kept on the 17th and 18th of the month Thoth. 

The Pyramid Text says "Behold, he cometh to thee as Orion 

(1 Q ^ )' bs^o^^ Osiris cometh as Orion the Lord of Wiite 

I ^^Z^ U , vinosus, full of wine), who cometh on the fair festival 

of Uakar 

Uaka, "v\S'v\3^3: or -C]^ ^i\ T=^ is also one of the 
names given to the Nile. 

is a repetition of Chapter C. 


A Book ivherehy the Soul is ?>iade to lire for ei-er, on the day of 
entering into the Bark of Rd, and to pass the She?iizi of the Tuat. 
Made on the Birthday of Osiris, (i) 

Opened be the gates of Heaven ; opened be the gates of Earth ; 
opened be the gates of the East ; opened be the gatf s of the West ; 
opened be the gates of the Southern and of the Northern sanctuaries. 

Opened be the gates and thrown wide the portals as Ra riseth 

* Does 1331 represent what we call the Belt of Orion with its three bright stars.' 


up from the Mount of Glory ; opened to him be the doors of the 
Sektit boat, thrown open to him be the portals of the Maatit, as he 
scenteth Shu and setteth in motion Tefnut, and those follow who 
are in the train of the Osiris N, who foUoweth Ra and takeih 
possession of his arms of steel. (2) 

I am coffined in an ark like Horus, to whom his cradle (3) is 
brought : and secret is the place, hard by his own shrine, which the 
god openeth to whom he willeth. 

And so it cometh that I lift up Right to the Lord of Right, and 
that I make fast the cord which windeth about the shrine. 

The Osiris iVavoideth the raging storm : the Osiris JV is not to 
be kept away from Ra, not to be repulsed is he. 

Let not the Osiris N advance into the Valley of Darkness : let 
not the Osiris N enter into the dungeon of the captives : let him 
not leap into the grip of Fate, let him not fall among those who 
imprison souls or come forth among those who would drag him 
behind the slaughtering block of the Armed god. (4) 

Salutations to you, ye sejant gods. (5) 

The divine Sword (6) is concealed in the hands of Seb, at 
daybreak, for he delighteth in drawing to himself both old and 
young at his own season. 

And now behold Thoth in the secret of his mysteries. He 
maketh purifications and endless reckonings ; piercing the steel 
firmament and dissipating the storms around him. 

And so it cometh that the Osiris N hath reached every station 
of his. 

He hath fashioned his staff, and received the oblations of Ra, 
the swift of speed and beautiful in his rising and almighty through 
what he hath done. 

He putteih an end to his pain and suffering, and the Osiris N 
putteth an end to his own pain ; yea, he gladdeneih the counten- 
ance of Thoth by the worship of Ra and Osiris. 

The Osiris N entereth the Mount of Glory of Ra, who hath 
made his Bark and saileth prosperously, lightening up the face or 
Thoth, that he may listen to Ra and beat down the obstacles in his 
way, and put an end to his adversaries. 

Let not the Osiris N be shipwrecked on the great voyage hy 
him whose face is in his own lap : (7) for the name of Ra is upon 
the Osiris, and his token of honour is on his mouth, which speaketh 
to him w^ho listeneth to the words of the Osiris N, 


Glory to thee, O Ra, Lord of the Mount of Glory. Hail to 
thee, who purifiest the generations yet unborn and to whom this 
great quarter of heaven oflfereth homage. 

The steering keepeth clear from misadventure. 

Lo, here is Osiris who proclaimeth Right, because of the marvel 
in the West, for he hath put an end to the rage of Apepi, for he is 
himself the god in Lion form among the associate gods and pro- 
tecteth Ra against Apepi daily, that he may not approach him, 
and he keepeth watch upon him. Osiris seizeth the scrolls and 
receiveth the offerings. 

And Thoth supplieth the Osiris N with that which he shall 
perform for him. It is granted that the Osiris shall carry Maat at 
the head of the great Bark, and hold up Maat among the associate 
gods, and that Osiris gain endless triumphs. 

The Sheniu marshal the Osiris N, and they procure for the 
Osiris a voyage amid acclamations. 

The Satellites of Ra make their round, in the train of the 
exaltation of Ma5t, who followeth her Lord. And glory is given to 
the Inviolate one. 

The Osiris receiveth the Amsu-staff (8) wherewith he goeth 
round Heaven. 

The unborn generations of men give him glory, as to one who 
standeth without ever resting. Ra exalteth him by this, that he 
alloweth the Osiris to disperse the cloud and behold his glories. He 
maketh firm his rudders that the Bark may go round in Heaven and 
that he may make his appearance in Antu. Thoth is in the centre 
of his eye, sejant in the great Bark of Chepera. The Osiris 
becometh one whose words come to pass. He it is who passeth 
over Heaven unto the West, and the Chabasu gods of Light 
rise up to him with acclamation. They receive the cable of Ra 
from his rowers, and Ra goeth on his round and seeth the Osiris 
who issueth his decrees ; (9) the Osiris N, the Victorious ; in peace ! 
in peace ! 

Not to be repelled is he ; not to be caught by the fire of thy fate. 
Let not the tempest of thy mouth come forth against him. 

Let not the Osiris iV advance upon the paths of misfortune : let 
him avoid disasters, let them not attain him. 

The Osiris N enters into the Bark of Ra, he succeedeth to thy 
throne ; he receiveth thine insignia. 

The Osiris N inaugurateth the paths of Ra and prayeth that he 


may drive off the Lock which cometh out of the flame against thy 
Bark out of the great Stream. 

But the Osiris N knoweth it, and it attaineth not thy Bark. For 
the Osiris N is within it ; the Osiris N who maketh the divine 

Said over a Bark of Rd. coloured in pure green, (10) And thou 
sh alt place a picture of the deceased at the prow thereof. And make a 
Sektit boat on the right side of it and an Aiit boat on the left side 
of it. (11) 


1. This title is given to the Chapter in the later recensions, and 
nearly resembles that given in the Berlin papyrus of Nechtu-amen 
(of the XlXth dynasty). That given in another papyrus of the older 
period is quite different, — " Chapter -whereby the Chu is fortified.'^ 
Instead of the Sheniu of the Tieat, Ba (the papyrus of Nechtuamen) 

has the Sheniu of Fire [p| rVf ' " 1 ' ^ reading sug- 

gested by the -^ [, [ \\the circuit of fire, which occurs 

yw\AAA I 1 \ly /^ (~\ »y 

in the title of another chapter. The Sheniu of this chapter are 
living personages who attend upon the Osiris and greet him with 
their acclamations. The word is often translated 'princes,' 'oflficers, 
but it signifies those ivho are in the circle of a king or god, hence 
' ministrants,' 'courtiers,' as in the rubric of Chapter CXXV. 

The words made on tlie Birth-day of Osiris are only found in the 
later texts, but the old papyrus Lc, which has another title, has the 

words f 1 n ^ ^X ^ ■ ^^^ important word ^ % ^ which is 
here carelessly omitted is supplied by the rubric. For the Birth-day 
of Osiris, was the first of the five supplementary days, added to the 
year of 360 days. On this day the chapter was to be recited and 
the usual oblations offered (see Note 11), So we must understand 

a^ , * which is to be made or done,' 

2. Anns of steel, [\ ^\ I . 

3. Cradle or Nest, ~"^ S ; the 'Nest of Reeds' ^ #' so 
often represented in pictures of the later periods, 

4. The Armed god, A J Septu, called A ° ^ A R 



{Unas 282) and I A c— =-^ ^ \ sepfu dbu, 'armed with horns/ that 

is, rays of light. In pictures he is represented as a hawk armed with 
bow and arrows, and there is one picture in which he is in the form 
of Bes, destroyer of the Menti. 

5. Sejant gods ^^ [ *? Wl ' • ^ ^™ compelled for want of a 

better word to use the heraldic term which most nearly expresses the 
posture of gods sitting on the ground with their knees raised up 
acfainst their breasts. The posture is a very common one in 
Egyptian pictures. The second Sallier Papyrus represents an 

• • Ik"^ ^ (? (? "S n 

unfortunate artisan as sittmg, ^^:/ J \\ ^ _i l 

with his two knees at the pit of his stomach." 
r o ^ is the limb between the knee and the pelvis. 



6. This divine Szvord 

Unseen fate brings down the 

old and the young alike to the Grave ever ready to receive them. 
Seb, the (fyvai^oo^ aJa, is here, as elsewhere, spoken of in reference 
to his icaToxrj of the dead in the Tuat, as in Unas 210. 

7. Whose face is in his own lap, 

o W^ 



Cf. Note 5. 

8. The Atnsti staff. The name of it is phonetically written 

^K\ ^\ 1 Y ii^ the later texts. It is the emblem both of Osiris 

and of Horus, and is constantly represented along with bows, arrows, 
and other weapons, in the oldest coffins, as belonging to the 
celestial armoury of the deceased person. 

9. Who issiietk his decrees. See INIaspero, Bibl. Egyptol. II., 

p. 3 (note) and 39. 

<^ o . 

10. Green. The Egyptian ^-^^^^^ is probably nearer in meaning 

to the Greek ■xkwpo'i, 'pale green, yellowish-green.' 

11. The Rubric ends here in Pb. Zr. adds, They shall offer 
bread, beer, and all good things on the Birth-day of Osiris. A7id if 
these rites are performed for him, his soul luill rise iij> and live for 
ever ; he will not ever die a s(C07id time in the divine Nether world" 

The later texts add the information that the text was discovered 
in the great hall of the palace in the time of king Septa, and that it 


was found in a pit or chamber in the rock, '^ . It wa*; 

made by Horus for his father Osiris Unneferu. Septa is the fifth 
royal name on the great tablet of Abydos. 

chaptp:r cxxxi. 

Chapter whereby one proceedeth into Heaven by the side cf Rd. (i) 

Oh Ra (2) who art shining this night : if there be any one among 
thy followers, let him present himself living as a follower of Thoth, 
who causeth Horus to come forth this night. 

The heart of the Osiris is glad, because he is one at the head of 

His adversaries are brought to a stop by the warriors (3) of the 
Osiris N, who is a follower of Ra, and hath taken his arms of steel. 

He Cometh to thee, his father Ra, he followeth Shu and calleth 
for the Crown. He putteth on Hu (4) and is arrayed with the 
Lock which is on the path of Ra and is his glory. 

And he aniveth at the Aged one, at the confines of the Mount 
of Glory, and the crown awaiteth him. 

The Osiris iVraiseth it up. 

Thy Soul is with thee, and strong is thy Soul through the terror 
and the might which belong to thee, Oh Osiris N, who utterest the 
decrees which Ra hath spoken in Heaven. 

Hail to thee, great god in the East of Heaven, who enterest into 
the Bark of Ra in the form of the Divine Hawk and executest the 
decrees which have been uttered ; thou who strikest with thy sceptre 
from thy Bark. 

The Osiris iV^entereth into thy Bark and saileth peacefully to the 
Fair West ; and Tniu saith to him : Art thou coming in? 

Mehenit is millions upon millions in length from Amur to 
Ta-ur (5) an endless river wherein the gods move. 

(6) whose path is in the fire ; and they travel in 

the fire who come behind him. 


I. None of the oldest papyri yet known contain this chapter. 
This of itself is not an argument against its antiquity, and there is 

2 M 


really no reason for supposing it to be less ancient than the chapter 
which precedes it. The latter portion of the text is, however, very 
corrupt and we have unfortunately no means as yet of correcting it. 

2. O Ha. The name of the god is sometimes omitted in MSS. 
The context, however, requires its presence. It may nevertheless 
be asked : how can the Sun-god be said to be shining in the night ? 

The question might as pertinently be asked : how can Horus (in 
the very same line) be said to come forth in the night ? The answer 
to both these questions is ihat the Sun, whether as Ra or as Horus 
or Osiris, shines in the night through the agency of Thoth, the Moon. 
For further information see Notes to next chapter. 

3. Warriors ^ jjl I . I take this group as = *-• 1 or ^ iM 1 . 

— *— 11 I or II I !^ I 

But a papyrus gives the variant -^ (, [ "^ i • 

4. He putteth on Hu. This is certainly obscure ; but it is not 
the less in conformity with the doctrine of the Pyramid texts. The 
deceased {Pepi I. 432, Merira 618) is borne to a region where he is 
fed from night till daybreak, and then seizes upon the god Hu, 

=="=s^ Q Q V^ X \\ jq> -. And according to other texts {Unas, 446, 

Teta, 250) the deceased seizes (^5t^) upon Hu, and after Sau has 
been fastened to his feet enters the bark and seizes upon i^jf^) the 
Mount of Glory. 

5. Mehenit ^'^^ \ I A. , or in the masculine form ^ (/- , 

is the name of the mythological serpent which personifies the sub- 
terranean path from West to East of the Sun's nightly course. In 
the Book of Hades {e.g. on the Sarcophagus of Seti, passim) it is 
represented as extending over the back, top and front of the shrine 
in which the Sun-god is borne in his Bark. The many folds of the 
serpent are symbolical of the turnings and windings of the river or 
canal ( ^ 1 ) over which the god is conveyed. This river is here 
described as infinite in length. This is one of the instances from 

which it is clear 


like the corresponding Coptic OTGI, 

has the meaning oi length. See P.S.B.A., XVII, 190. 

The length ' from West to East ' is described as ' from Atnur to 

7fl?/r' ^v -Vr- ^\ ^^^ ® <zr=> -^-^ ^^* © . Amur is known 

from many texts to signify the West (see supra, Chapter 64, note 13). 


The East is known as Ta-ur or Ta-urit, The royal Ritual at Ahydos 
(Mariette, I. 37) says ^=^^c^^f-fl-^cv£^^^:'^ ^ f 

I U 


"^=5- i\y\^ . And as one of the values of the sign )y ^ is ta as in 

p-j ■ >^ . ^ (Louvre, B. 14), I feel sure that we should read Ta-iir (or 

in the feminine Ta-urit) rather than Nif-ur or Nif-urif, even in such 
passages as those quoted sup?-a in Chapter 128, notes i and 2, which 
have no necessary references to earthly geography. 

6. There is a corrupt passage here, which I have at present 
no means of correcting by manuscript authority. M. Pierret thus 
renders it: " Le dieu qui partage les paroles y fait son chemin do 
millions d'annees, seigneur sans egal, dont le chemin est dans le feu." 


Chapter whereby a person is enabled to go round, to visit his dwelling 

in the Netherworld. 

I am the Lion-god who issueth from the Bow, (i) and therefore 
have I shot forth. (2) 

I am the Eye of Horus ; and the Eye of Horus is opened at the 
instant that I reach the strand, coming with happy issue. 

I advance and, lo ! there is no defect found in me, and the 
Balance is relieved of my case. (3) 


I. The Bow, c— =-^ , often written wnth the determinative J\, of 

stretching, which is the conception implied in this name of the 
instrument. This mythological Bow, as 1 explained, Proc. Soc. 
Bill. Arch , VI, 131, is the moon's crescent, which during its course 
through the sky is always turned towards the sun ; so that a line at 
right angles to the chord of the arc passes through the sun's centre. 
From this " very delicate observation," as Arago calls it, the 
Alexandrian astronomer Geminus infers that the moon derives 
its light from the sun. The observation evidently had been made 
in Egypt some thousands of years before Geminus, and explains 


why in several chapters the sun is spoken of as shining in or from 
the moon. 

See also Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., XVII, 37, on another form of 
the myth. 

2. I follow the Turin text in omitting a word about which the 
earlier texts are not agreed, but which seems to have originated in an 

alternate reading for |^ . 

3. See end of Chapter i and note. These words are omitted in 
Turin text. 


Book whereby the Deceased acquireth Might ( i ) in the Netherworld in 
presmce of the great Cycle of the gods. [^Said 011 the first day of 
the MontK\. (2) 

Ra maketh his appearance at the Mount of Glory, with the 
Cycle of gods about him : the Strong one issueth from his hidden 

The Twinklers (3) fall away from the Mount of Glory at the 
East of Heaven, at the voice of Nut as she buildeth up the paths of 
Ra, before the Ancient one who goeth round. 

Be thou lift up, O Ra who art in thine shrine ; breathe thou the 
breezes, inhale the north wind .... (4) on the day when 
thou discernest the Land of Maat, 

Thou dividest them that follow ; the Bark advanceth and the 
Ancient ones step onwards at thy voice. 

Reckon thou thy bones, and set thy limbs, and turn thy face 
towards the beautiful Amenta. 

For thou art the golden Form, (5) with a couch of the heavenly 
orbs, with the Twinklers amongst whom thou goest round, and ait 
renewed daily. 

Acclamation cometh from the Mount of Glory, and greeting 
from the lines of measurement. (6) 

The gods who are in heaven, they see the Osiris N, they present 
to him their adorations as to Ra. 

He is the Great one, who seeketh the Crown and reckoneth up 
that which is needful. 


He is the One, who cometh forth this day from the primeval womb 
of them who were before Ra, and his coming forth taketh place upon 
earth and in the Netherworld. His coming forth is like Ra daily. 

Without haste, but unresting, is the Osiris N on this Land of 

Twice blessed is he that seeth with his eyes and heareth with 
his ears. 

Right, right is the Osiris N: and his future, his future, (7) is in 

His oars are lifted as in the service of Nu. 

The Osiris N hath not told what he hath seen ; he hath not 
repeated what he hath heard in the house of the god who hideth 
his face. 

There are hailing and cries of welcome to the Osiris N, the 
divine body of Ra, on traversing the Nu, and whilst the ka of the 
god is being propitiated, according to his pleasure. 

The Osiris JV is the Hawk, rich in variety of Forms. 

The Deceased acquireth might with Ra, and is enabled to 
possess power among the gods, for the gods are made to regard him 
as one of themselves, and when the Dead ones see him they fall upon 
their faces. He is seen in the Netherworld even as the beams of Ra. 

Said over a Boat of fotir cubits in length, painted green. And let 
a starry sky be tnade, clean and purified with natron and incense. 
And see thou make an image of Rd upon a tablet of light greeti colour 
at the prozv of the Boat. And see thou make an image of the Deceased 
7vhom thou lovest, that he may be made strong in this boat, atid that 
his voyage be made in the Bark of Rd, and that Rd himself may look 
upon him. Do not do this for any one except for thine ozvti self, thy 
father and thy son. And let them be exceedingly cautious for them- 
selves. The Deceased acquireth might with Rd, afid made to possess 
power among the gods, who regard him as one of themselves, and when 
men or the Dead see him they fall upon their faces. He is seen i?i the 
Nethenvorld as the image of Rd. (8) 


The earliest known text of this chapter is that of the Tomb of 
Amenemhait at Thebes {Ta), of the time of Thothmes HI. It is 
almost as inaccurate as that of Nebseni {Aa), or the Brockelhurst 
Ax. Nor is the text of Ani of any use towards clearing up any of 
the difficulties. 

2 N 


I. Acquireth Might. (1 <rp> does not signify 7i'ise, nor has it 

anything to do with instruction or perfection, as supposed by other 
translators. As an adjective it is used to quaUfy not only animate 
but inanimate things, such as an egg, beer, and incense. The well- 

\\ A ^ \\ A ® 

known expressions <cir> I. <:r:> and (. «c=^ exactly correspond to 

the Hebrew li>^r2 1i^ and -l^^?3 li^?2- The notion implied, as in 
the Hebrew "11^^, is that oi strength. 

(1 <:zr>, in the Prisse Papyrus, is not a wise man, but a 


poiverful one, a man of ra7ik or infinence, hwa^cvo'i, cwmo'^. 

This is the meaning of the word in such passages as [ ^^^n^ 

^ y ^^ (Rouge, Inscr. hier., 8o) (I '^\j' \j ^^ (/nscr. of 

< d . J: > ^ 1 <^-__^!> /VSA.AAA A 

Una repeatedly) (1'^ ^'^^O, p<=r=>^[|^ 

{Pap. Prisse 17, i). These expressions are the exact equivalents of 
the Greek Svfd/icuo^ Tmpd rw ftaaiXJjt, Herodot. 7, 5. 

The might acquired by the deceased is stated in the final rubric 
and in all the titles of the chapter in the later recensions to be 

^ "O" ^.^^ o ^ , with reference to Ra. 

2. Said on the first day of the Month. These words first appear 
on the Papyrus of Ani 

3. The Twinklers. The oldest texts in this place have 


', though the equivalent and corresponding word a little 

M : 

further on is ^^. vN^^^^^, which is the usual reading 

here in the later recensions. The same meaning may be made out 
of both groups. The stars are manifestly alluded to, as being made 

to disappear when the Sun makes his appearance. "^--^ , oi' in 

reduplicated form ^) | O , is the pupil of the eye ; I ^^--^ is 

to ogle, far Focchiata. ^^ V ^^ ^'^ ^^^ other hand 

signifies the little tremblers, " tremulo fulgore micantes." The glance 
of the eye is 

1^ ^ VX ^-^5-.* The stars are here considered 
as so many eyes, characterised b) their tremulous motion. 

* The Egyptian word signifying tremble is written either wiih c:S> or with o. 


4. The true text is here quite lost. Some sense might be 

restored, if we miglit read A ) 1 "2 () instead of \a\ \> y.- '^ he 

latter word is absolute nonsense in this place, whatever determinative 
it may have, but the former is the weil known name of a tree held 
sacred at various places in Egypt. The whole passage then might 
mean " Enjoy the north wind, and may the Kabasu trees of thine 
abode refresh thee." 

5. The golden Form. The whole of this passage will become 
clear after reading the final rubric and examining the Vignettes of 
the chapter. 

6. Line of measurement, ^ V X " ^''^'"' explanation of this 

will be found in the pictures and text of the Book of Hades. In 
Bonomi's Sarcph., Plates VII and VIb, twelve personages are repre- 
sented in the act of acclamation, and twelve others carry the line 

/I\ <zz=> V\ 1^ ^ V 5 ^ • ^^^ ^^^ intended for the line is stated 

in the text. " I'he bearers of the line are those who settle the fields 
of the Chu, 0"^^^^""'^^^. I ^ ..wwv'^^ 1." They are called 

upon to take their line and to fix the ~~^ ( (1 ^^. 9 , ceoiO^^I, 

upovpri, the arable land of each allotment. Ra expresses his .satis- 
faction at the measurement, and tells the gods and the Chu that 
their domains are theirs, and that he provides their food. 

8. The rubric is taken from Ax. 

Chapter whereby the Deceased acquireth might. 

Hail to thee who art in the midst of thine Ark, Oh rising Sun 
who risest, and declining (i) one who declinest : at whose will millions 
spring forth, as he turneth his face to the unborn generations of 
men : Chepera in the middle of his Bark, who overthroweth Apepi. 

Here are the children of Seb who overthrow the adversaries of 
Osiris and destroy them from the Bark of Ra. 

2 N 2 


Horus cutteth off their heads in heaven when in the forms of 
winged fowl, their hinder parts on earth when in the forms of quad- 
rupeds or [in the water] as fishes. 

All fiends, male or female, the Osiris N destroyeth them, 
whether descending from heaven or coming forth upon the earth, or 
issuing out of the water or travelling along with the Stars. 

Thoth slaughtereth them, the Son of the Rock, proceeding from 
the place of the Two Rocks. (2) 

The Osiris IV is dumb and deaf (3) for the Strong one is Ra, the 
puissant of stroke, the Almighty one, who washeth in their blood 
and walloweth in their gore. 

The Osiris N destroyeth them from the Bark of his father Ra. 

The Osiris N is Horus : his mother Isis bringeth him forth, and 
Nephthys nurseth him, as they did to Horus, who repelleth the dark 
ones of Sutu : who, when they see the Crown fixed upon his brow, 
fall upon their faces. 

Osiris Unneferu is triumphant over his adversaries in heaven and 
on earth, and in the cycle of each god and goddess. 

Said over a Hawk in a Boat, 7uith the White Crown npon its 
head, atid the figure of Tnni, Shu, Tefnut, Seb, Nut, Osiris, Isis, 
Sutu, (4) Ahphthys, painted yellowish green on a fresh papyrus placed 
in this Boat, together ivith the figure of the Deceased, anointed with 
the Heknu oil. Let there be offered to them i/icense burning and roast 
fowl. It is the adoration of Ra, and his voyage, for it is granted to 
him to make his appearance each day luith Ra, ivhiihersoever lie 
fourneyeth ; and it is the Slaughter of the adversaries of Ra ; 
positively and ttndeviatingly for times infinite. 


1. Declining — h — m. This word frequently occurs in contrast 

with V 1 fri ■ ^ understand the latter in all such cases to 

signify the shining of the sun on his rising, and the former to signify 
the shining of the sun in his afternoon course. 

2. The son of the Rock, proceeding from the place of the T700 
Rocks. The only explanation I can think of is derived from the 

identification (in chapter 6 2) of Thoth with the Nile, 1^^ X D Jj. 


P>om this point of view the god is both the son of the Rock and 
issues from the place of the Double Rock, [ 1 ■ 1 , or of the 

I *- -" o o 

two Rocks, called in ihe time of Herodotus Krojihi and Mophi. 
3. Dumb and deaf, QAl a ■ It i^ strange that this 

meaning of the passage has so long been misunderstood. The 

sense of the first word has long been recognised, and 'deaf is the 

meaning rightly assigned to [ ^ in Birch's Dictionary. One 

instance like the following (from Unas, 608) is sufficient to settle 

the question— .^JU ^ ^ >=n: ^ ^..^ I T| ^^ ^ J ^=:^ , 

" He is not so deaf that he should not hear thy voice." 

That the subject of these attributes is the Osiris is seen by 
reference to At, where instead of 'the Osiris 'the deceased speaks 

in the first person, ^ \& ^ \^ ^ "^ ''^"^ dumb, I am 


4. Sutii. This divine name occurs in the text of Amenhait in 
the reign of Thothmes HI. And I have noted another instance 

where the name is written ^ I J]. Dr. Birch called the papyrus 

Miss Brockelhurst's. It cannot however be the Ax of M. Naville, 
which does not contain the chapter. 

The disappearance of the god's name from all other documents 
is a fatal argument against their claims to high antiquity. 


Another chapter recited when the Moon renews itself on the first 

day of the month. 

Osiris is enveloped in storm and rain : he is enveloped : but 
the fair Horus lendeth succour daily, the Lord of high attributes 
. . . (1) he driveth off the storm from the face of the Osiris N. 

Behold him coming : he is Ra on his journey : he is the four 
gods who are over the upper region. 

The Osiris VVarriveth at his own time : and by means of his 
lines is brought to the light of day. 


If this chapter be kti07c<n he hecotnefh a Chu of Might in the 
Nethenc'orld ; he dieth not a second time, in the Netherworld ; but he 
eateth by the side of Osiris. 

If it be kno7i>n upon earth he 7i<ill become like Thoth, so as to be 
worshipped by the living : he tvill not fall a victim to a king's ivrath (2) 
or to the fierce heat of Basil, but will be made to advance to a most 
blissful old age. 

This chapter is not found in the papyri of the older period. 

1. The words vX^^^- ^^= ^.v^ ^C\ Offerings of (or to) the 

Moment have the appearance of an interpolated rubrical direction. 
See next note. 

2. A kinifs tcrath \\ ^ I . ^^\ "^ in the cases of 

gods and men is an impulse which cannot be stopped, but carries 
everything before it. 


Chapter 7i'hereby one is conveyed in the Bark of Rd. 

Lo the Light (i) which riseth up in Cher-aba. (2) 

He is born, he of the strong cord, (3) his cable (4) is at an end, 
and his rudder (5) hath been taken in hand. 

I poise the divine machinery (6) by which I raise up the Bark to 
the cord above head, by means of which I come forth into Heaven, 
and am conveyed to Nut. 

I am conveyed by it along with Ra. I am conveyed by it like 
the Kaf. (7) 

I stop the path at the Uarit of Nut, at the staircase where Seb 
and Nut bewail their hearts. 



Chapter whereby one is conveyed in the Great Bark 0/ Rd to pass 
through the orbit of flame. 

bright flame which art behind Ra, and dividest his Crown ! 
The Bark of Ra feareth the storm. 

Ye* are bright and ye are exalted. 

1 come daily with Sek-hra (8) from his exalted station, so that I 
miy witness the process of the Maat (9) and the lion-forms (10) 
which belong to them .... so that I may see them there. 

We are rejoicing: their great ones are in jubilation, and their 
smaller ones in bliss. 

I make my way at the prow of the Bark of Ra, which lifteth me 
up like his disk. 

I shine like the Glorious ones, whom he hath enriched with his 
wealth, holding fast like a Lord of Maat. 

Here is the Cycle of the gods, and the Kite of Osiris. 

Grant ye that his father, the Lord of them, may judge in his 

And so I poise for him the Balance, which is iSIaat, and I raise 
it to Tefnut that he may live. 

Come, come, for the father is uttering the judgment of Maat. 

Oh thou who callest out at thine evening hours, grant that I may 
come and bring to him the two jaws of Restau, and that I may bring 
to him the books which are in the Annu and add up for him his 

And so I have repulsed Apepi and healed the wounds he made. 

Let me make my way through the midst of you. 

I am the Great one among the gods, coming in the two Barks 
of the Lord of Sau, the Figure of the great saluter, who hath made 
the Flame. 

Let the fathers and their Apes make way for me, that I may 
enter the Mount of Glory, and pass through where the Great 
ones are. 

I see who is there in his Bark, and I pass through the orbit of 
Flame which is behind the Lord of the Side-lock, over the serpents. 

* Sic. 


Let me pass : I am the powerful one, the Lord of the powerful. 

I am the Sahu, the Lord of Maat, the creator of every Dawn, (i i) 

Place me among the followers of Ra : place me as one who 
goeth round in the Garden of Peace of Ra, 

I am a god greater than thou art. 

Let me be numbered in presence of the Divine Cycle when the 
offerings are presented to me. 


The two chapters which are numbered by M. Naville as 136A 
and 136B are represented in the later recensions by a single 
chapter, which has been made out of them. There is very much 
obscurity in the ancient texts, though the MSS. containing them 
are numerous, and the more recent versions are quite as difficult 
to understand. We must be satisfied for the present by a strict 
literal and grammatical translation, wherever this amount of success 
is attainable. The royal sarcophagus 32 of the British Museum 
gives the latest form of 136A. 

1. Light T ' v^^" ^ common noun signifying lamp, but 

the determinative here shows that a heavenly body is meant. The 
sun is here spoken of exactly in the same poetical way as when 
Antigone (879) speaks of 16(0. \a/n7rdco^ le/ioi' o/u^ui, or Virgil of the 
Phoeboea lampas. 

2. The later recension speaks of " the Lamp in Annu and the 
Hammemit in Cheraba. This reading is already found in a few 
of the Theban texts. The royal sarcophagus 32 of the British 

Museum gives the important variant /I\ Y ® ^ ^ Q-^ 

whence it follows that Q^ is phonetically — Y- The latter sign has 

only two known values , v - -^ '^h'^^-: -'I'ld ^ '^^"■^- That 

the latter is the true equivalent of Lf^-^ is certain, in consequence 
of the complementary vowels ^^, , which commonly accompany 
that sign, in the word signifying battle, or in the name of 


a place. It is impossible that o Y d should be the right 

reading, and no one has a right to convert ^ ''""to a simple Q . 

The well known word R ^, "strike," takes the prothetic(l, 

and is found under the form [ 9 Q y^ , in the name of one of the 
hours of the night.* No fresh information is derived from the 
discovery by M. Daressy of the same word under the form (1 8 o, 

that is (. ft i=5, as it should be corrected if cited. To strike and 

to fight are different words, though they may often be used synono- 
mously, and admit of being substituted one for the other.f 

3. He of the strong cord, |T- This is grammatically the subject 

of the verb is born, and I consider it as a compound expression in 
which the adjective precedes the substantive, as in longimanus. 

I understand T as = 1^^^ (^^^ Zeitsch., j868, p. 70, and 1870, 

70 press the identity of Q-/^ and [j ^ Q^ in the name of this hou 

r IS 

to forget that its variants would equally prove thai V iS^ =:= [r\ '=^ 

t See F.S.B.A. IX, p. 313, and two previous articles of mine there referred to. 
The corrections I have to make are the following : — I wrongly assumed that i\\e/ish 

which in hieratic papyri crosses the foot of the sign j in the variants of fW\ 
was the same fish as we find in the group I '^^ T ^^^ <zz^ , 

The fishes are different. On referring to M. Naville's Festival Hall of Osorkon II, 
pi. 18, pictures will be found of the ^ <0< and the Q^ <g<. The 

first of these is clearly the fish in .^^^ j > heui-reii, and the corresponding sign 

in the variant is to be read ^ , hem, in harmony with the other evidence 
produced by W. Max Miiller {Recueil, vol. IX). The picture of it does net 
enable one to determine its species. The pictures at Bubastis of the {\^\ ^^5=4 
seem to indicate the Synodontis, but a picture found by Petrie (Aledum, pi. 12) 
shows an immense fish which has been identified with the Latus or Perca 
Nilotica. This being of the Acanthopterygian family is of course a very 
formidable Tffl:r;-/(7r, like our own small perch, which, as Mr. Ward says, "does 
not yield its life without endangering the person of its captor, for the formidable 
rows of spinous rays belonging to the first dorsal fin have wounded the hands of 
many an incautious angler." 

2 O 


p. 154, 155). In the later recessions (e.g., Todt. 136, and B.M. 32) 
it is omitted in this place, but not in the passage which follows. 

4. His cable, 1 v^i . See Bonomi, Sarc. 8 D, and cf. a 

passage in the Pyramid Texts {Pepi I, 413, Merenrd 590) which 
refers to this or a similar voyage. M. Maspero thus translates it : — 
" Fais amener a Pepi ta barque sur laquelle naviguent tes purs et 
quand tu auras regu ta libation d'eau fraiche sur cette Cuisse des 

Indestructibles (the Uarit v^ <:r::> ^^gj of the Circumpolar 

Stars), fais naviguer Pepi dans cette barque avec ce cable d'etoffe 
verte et blanche par lequel I'CEil d'Hor est remorque," &c. The 
Uarit, or Leg (on which see Ch. 74, Note i) of Nut is mentioned at 
the end of this chapter. 

6. Machinery ^ < — ^ . The word has disappeared from 

the later texts and been replaced by various conjectural emendations 
of the scribes. 

7. The Kaf, j\ ^^ ^-^ SiP^' °"^ ^^ ^^^ divinities in form of 
apes. Etymologically the word signifies " the hot one." 

8. Sek-hra, \\ ^ <^ ^^ ^^^ more common reading, but 

§ "^ ^ also occurs and so does '^ r^ n 5 *i oJ[- I cannot 

remember where I found '^YvnO^ {P.S.B.A. VI, 191) which 

would identify this divinity with Thoth. 

9. The Madt, the series of phenomena occurring in strict 
conformity with Law, that is with the laws of Nature. 

10. Lion ]orms, I^S, phonetically <cz> , in most of the 

I^ ^^ III 

papyri. Some of the words which follow are evidently in very 
corrupt condition. 

1 1 . Every Dawn, | I ^ |/ri ^^^^- 








"^ ^ 









o ^ 

« • r 





< w 

I— I u 

>- 3 

>< 3 

u S 











1— 1 


































Chapter CXL. Mus. du Louvre. No. Ill, 52. 


Chapter CXXXVIII. Papyrus, Busca. 


Chapter whereby a Light is kifidled ( i ) for a person. 

Oh Light ! let the Light be kindled for thy Ka, O Osiris 
Chentamenta. Let the Light be kindled for the Night which 
followeth the Day : the Eye of Horus which riseth at thy temple (2) : 
which riseth up (3) over thee and which gathereth upon thy brow ; 
which granteth thee its protection and overthroweth thine enemies. 

Undefiledly (bis) and successfully (bis) : 

The light is kindled for Osiris Unnefer : with fresh vases and 
raiment like the Dawn. 


Chapter whereby a Light is kindled for a persofi. 

The Eye of Horus cometh, the Light one : the Eye of Horus 
Cometh, the Glorious one. 

Come thou, propitiously, shining like Ra from the Mount of 
Glory, and putting an end to the opposition (4) of Sutu. 

The prescription (5) of her (6) who hath raised him up, and 
seized upon the Light for him, and who putteth an end to the 
troubles against thee, like the Mount of Glory. 


The two most ancient authorities for this chapter, as it is found 
in the Turin Todtenbuch and the late recension, are one of the four 
tablets of the Museum of Marseilles, published by M. Naville {Les 
qiiatre steles orient'ees dii Miis'ee de Marseille), and the Berlin papyrus 
of Nechtuamon. The chapter which M. Naville has published as 
137A, in the first volume of his own Todtenbuch, and which is taken 
from the papyrus of Nebseni, is manifestly, I think, not the original 

2 2 


text, but another edition very considerably revised and enlarged. 
And, in imitation of the rubric of ch. 64, it concludes with a veracious 
statement, that it was discovered by Prince Hortatef in a secret 
chest in the temple of Unnut, and was brought away by the royal 

These texts are found among the texts preserved in the tomb 
of Petamenemapt (see Zeiischr., 1883, Taf i), but with various 
additions, and have been appropriated by the Ritual of Amnion, 
published by Dr. O. von Lemm. 

The solemn ceremony of Kindling the Light for the dead is 
repeatedly mentioned in the Siut inscriptions of Hapit'efae. 

I. Kindle 

I £55 conveys the same notion as I r-, ^^, \\ 

in the title of 137B. The Amnion Ritual has I ^ ' n ^v'A 

strike a Light. Dr. von Lemm thinks that by a play of words it is 
implied not only that a light but Sut is struck. 

2. At thy temple ^^v 1 Ba and Marseilles : ^^^^ y 

1 _. v\ in Abydos, Aa and Fetafnenemapt. 

3. Riseth up D, Ba, 0^ Marseilles; /ni\ ^ K 


3 (£ 

Aa, lp\ fl Petamenemapt. 

4. Oppositiofi Y Y Y ' ^^'^'^^''^ T ^^ ~ [\£\ ^^ ^" ^^^^ Sallier 

Calendar. The sense is made clear in the parallel passages 
. — . . — M-^ /v^/vv\ w ^ I n 

I \\ I !; fl . V ' ^^ ^^^ ^^ error of recent transcribers, 

is a wrong reading for Y > which is very distinctly written in the 
Nebseni papryus. 

5. Prescription "^^"^^^ y^l' 

6. Her. The Vignette in the Nebseni papyrus exhibits the 
goddess Apit, in hippopotamus form, lightmg the light. Over her 

are the words t 5A nV x » " ^'^pit> mistress of divine 

I Hi* <=> ili o A I I I 




Chapter whereby one is enabled to enter into Abydos. 

Oh all ye gods who are in Abydos, [each one and his] (i) 
divine circle likewise in its entirety, who are coming with 
acclamation to meet me : let me see my father Osiris : let me 
be held as one who cometh forth as of his house (2). 

I am Horus, the Lord of Kamit, and the heir of Tesherit,(3) 
which I have also seized. I, the invincible one, whose eye is potent 

against his adversaries : who avengeth his father, and is fierce at 
the drowning of his mother ; (4) who smiteth his adversaries and 
putteth an end to violence on their part. . . . (5). 

oh thou of the potent Lock, king of hosts, who art seized 
of the Two Worlds ; whose father's house is seized (6) [by him] 
in virtue of the writs (7); my balance is perfectly even, my voice 
is law, and I prevail over all mine adversaries. (8) 


I. \Each one and his?[ These words are necessary for the 
purpose of bringing out the meaning of the text. Every god, it 
has already been said, has his circle of associates. The feminine 

I shows the concordance with 

sufifix — M — after 

W '^ rJf I ) which, like other collective nouns, is of the feminne 
(iii (ii) I— f— 1 lli I 


2. The exact text here is doubtful, and the sense of fllil ^c-^ 

depends upon it. ^^^^ \\\^ or -lU r[m is the well known title of a 

priestly official, whose presence was required in the ritual of the dead. 
He is sometimes in attendance upon royal personages. Here 
according to its etymological sense the word might simply mean a 

3. Artw/V ^mi ^ ^ , the "Black Land" is Egypt; Tesherit 


^^1 ^', the '"'Red Land," is whatever Hes beyond the limits of 


4. T/ie drowning of his mother <^<=\ Q [![ ^ ^aaaaa ^ 'V\ ^1| ^^__ . 

Droivningmayhe. too strong a word, but immersion at least is meant. 
We are at present without any other reference to this incident in the 
career of the goddess Isis. 

5. Here occurs a word, 

1 /I\ ^ or n ^ d|) ' of doubtful 

meaning. As the next word to it begins a sentence, it must be 
considered as connected with the words preceding it. I am not 
satisfied that " silently " or " causing silence " would be a grammatical 
solution of the question. 

6. Seized (throughout this chapter) in the juridical sense o( seisin 
or feudal possession. 

7. Writs ■ jp] , a reading of three early papyri, which 

has disappeared in the later ones. The Turin Todtenlnich has 

Q ^ >\ 

^^-^ , " with his two hands." 

8. Here the chapter ends in Pi, and even sooner in the later texts. 
The three older papyri differ as to the words which immediately 
follow, and are certainly corrupt and untelligible. 

Identical with CHAPTER CXXHI. 

This completes Sir P. Le Page Renotifs translation of the Book of 
the Dead, so far as he had prepared it for publication at the time of 
his death. 


Bv Edouard Naville, D.C.L., &^c., •^c. 

Introductory Note. 

During the last days of his life, the lamented Sir Peter Le Page 
Renouf, foreseeing that he would not be able to reach the goal he had 
been striving to attain, the completion of his translation of the Book 
of the Dead, expressed the wish that the writer of these lines should 
continue and complete his work. I did not feel at liberty to go 
against the desire of the eminent master, who had done me the 
honour to choose me as his successor, and to leave unfinished a 
work which he had kept in view all his life long, and which he con- 
sidered to be the choicest fruit of his Egyptological researches. 

But I had hardly set myself to the task, when I realised the 
difficulties which were in my way. It is never easy, even for a 
translator, to put himself into the place of another, to enter fully 
into his views, to reconstitute the conception he had formed of the 
book he had to interpret. To these difficulties must be added, that I 
had hardly any help with regard to that part of the book which 
Renouf has not published himself. Renouf, like many eminent 
scholars, had his learning chiefly in his head ; his notes are very 
scanty, mere scraps without any methodical order. There is not a 
line of written translation left, beyond what he printed himself. 
Thus, for the translation of the following chapters, I was entirely 
dependent on the part already published, and I had constantly to 
refer to those chapters, in order to know the sense which Renouf 
would have given to words and sentences I came across in the 
course of my work. 

I endeavoured as much as I could, to translate as Renouf would 
have done. Whenever it was possible, I used his words or his 
readings, though I did not always agree with them. I followed 
his choice of texts. He generally took the oldest one he had, 


which he frequently found in my edition. On the whole I tried 
to continue the work on the lines which Renouf himself adopted. 
Thus it cannot be said absolutely that this translation is my work ; 
Egyptological scholars will soon recognize what is mine, and the 
interpretations for which I am not responsible. I beg the reader 
to look at my work in this light, and to remember that at present 
any translation of the Book of the Dead is tentative and provisional, 
and liable, with the progress in our knowledge of Egyptian, to 
undergo considerable changes. Nevertheless, I hope that this joint 
work will not compare too unfavourably with the part done by my 
illustrious predecessor. 



The book read on the last day of Alechir, when the Eye is full on the 

last day of Mechir. 

There rises a form which shines on the horizon. Atmu rises 
pouring out his dew, and the bright one who shines in the sky. 
The abode of the obelisk is in joy because of them, because they 
are complete. There are shouts of joy in the sanctuary and loud 
cheering fills the Tuat. They fall down before Atmu Harmachis. 
For His Majesty gave orders to the cycle of his followers. His 
Majesty ordered to give praise to the Eye, and behold, my flesh he 
gave it strength, and all my limbs are renewed, as soon as the order 
came out of the mouth of Ra. 

His glorious Eye rests on its place on His Majesty in this hour 
of the night. When the fourth hour is accomplished, the world is 
joyous in the last day of Mechir, for the Majesty of the Eye is in the 
presence of the cycle of the gods, and His Majesty rises as from the 
beginning, with the Eye on his head as Ra Atmu. 

The(i) eyes of Shu, Seb, Osiris, Suti, Horus, Menthu, Ptah, 
Raneheh, Thoth, Chati, Nai, Eternity, Necht, Mert, the land, he 
who is born by himself. After the computation of the eye has been 
made in the presence of this god, and when it is full and completed, 
all these gods are joyous on that day, they who were silent ; (2) and 


behold there is a festival made to every god ; and they say : hail to 
thee, praise from Ra, the boatmen tow his boat, Apepi is struck 
down. Hail to thee, praise from Ra who causes the form of 
Chepera to exist ; hail to thee, praise from Ra, there is joy in him, 
his enemies are conquered ; hail to thee. })raise from Ra, who has 
repelled the chiefs of the sons of the rebellion. Acclamation to 
thee and praise to Osiris N. 

Said on an eye of pure lapis-lazuli or mak stone, ornamented 
with gold ; an offering is made before it of all things good and holy, 
when Ra puts it on (on his head) on the last day of Mechir ; another 
one is made of jasper, which a man will put on any of his limbs he 
likes. When this chapter is read by one who is in the boat of Ra, 
he is towed like the gods, he is like one of them, and he prescribes 
what is done to him in the Netherworld. 

When this chapter has been read to its end, this is the copy of 
the order of offerings made when the Eye is full : four burning 
altars for Ra, four for the Eye, and four for these gods ; what there 
is on each of them is : five good pointed white loaves ; five pointed 
fruit cakes, five baskets of pastry, one measure of incense, one of 
fruit and one of roast meat. 

The ancient papyri do not contain this chapter. The translation 
is made from the Turin Tcdtenbuch, supplemented and corrected 
from hieratic papyri in Paris. Its real meaning is difficult to under- 
stand. It seems that under symbolical expressions it refers to an 
astronomical phenomenon, the renewal of the sun after the winter 
solstice. According to the principle which I have adopted, to main- 
tain my predecessor's interpretations, I translated ^"^ v 


"the Eye is full" {cf. Notes on ch. 125, p. 214). But as it seems 
evident that here the two eyes of the sun are the two periods of his 
apparent course, the decrease and the growth, I should translate 
" the period is accomplished," this period being that of the decrease 
after which the sun enters its ascending course, or according to 
Egyptian ideas begins again to grow. It is natural that the com- 
pleting of the period should be hailed with joy by Ra, since it is the 
final victory over his enemies, which sets him free and allows him to 
rise again as at the beginning. The sign of his triumph is that he 

puts the \\ I ^^^"^P^ °" ^^^ head, as we see in the vignette. 

2 P 


T. Why this hst of gods comes here, it is difficult to understand. 
It seems quite out of place. Their number varies according to the 
papyri. In some of them, they are put after the text in vertical 
columns. I presume they are the divinities often alluded to as these 
gods. They are the witnesses of the scene of Ra rising with the Eye 
on his head. 

2. I have adopted the reading of the Paris papyrus. III, 58, 

n n ^ . 

^ W I I I I <^ 

The vignettes consist, in the Turin papyrus, of the deceased 

worshipping a black Anubis lying down on a naos, and having on 
his back the sign y. This god is the y ^ first mentioned. 

Behind him are the v\ \ V\ -^^ , a human form with the Eye 

on its head, and Harmachis. Several papyri have only the Eye and 

Chapters CXLI to CXLIII. 

The hook{\) said by a man or his father or his sofi in the festival of 
the Amenta, and wherewith he acquires might{2) with Rd, and 
with the gods when he is ivith them. Said on the day of the netu 
moon, when offerings are made of bread, beer, oxen, geese, and 
burnt incense to 

Osiris Chentamenta, 



The boat of Ra, 


The Cycle of the great gods. 

The Cycle of the small gods, 

Horus the lord of the double diadem, 







The house of the ka of the inviolate god, (3) 



Chapters CXLI and CXLII. Berlin Mus., 2. 

Chapter CXLVI. 
Leyden, No. II. 

Chapter CXL. Lepsius, Todtenbuch. 



Chapter CXLVI. 
Berlin Mus., No. 2. 

Ch.^pter CXLVI. 
Louvre, III, i. 


Chapter CXLVI. Leyden, No. VI. 



CiiAi'TERS CXLI AND CXLII. Leydcn Museum, No. VII. 


The storm of the sky which raises the god, 

The hidden one in her dwelling, 

Chebt the mummified form of the god. 

The greatly beloved, with red hair, 

The abundant in life, the veiled one. 

Her whose name is powerful in her works, 

The bull of the cows. 

The divine force, the good one, the good rudder of the Northern 

Him who goes round and piloteth the double earth, the good 

rudder of the Western sky, 
The shining one, who dwelleth in the house of the devouring 

monster, the good rudder of the Eastern sky. 
The inner one in the house of the red ones, the good rudder of 

the Southern sky, 


The Southern part of heaven, 
The Northern part of heaven, 
The Sektit boat. 
The Atit boat, 

The gods of the South, 
The gods of the North, 
The gods of the West, 
The gods of the East, 
The sejant gods, (4) 
The resting gods. 
The great house. 
The house of flame, 
The gods of the abodes. 
The gods of the horizon. 
The gods of the field, 
The gods of the houses, (5) 
The gods of the thrones, 
The ways of the South, 
The ways of the North, 
The ways of the West, 

2 P 2 



The ways of the East, 

The halls of the Tuat, 

The holds of the Tuat, 

The mysterious doors, 

The doorkeepers of the halls of the Tuat, 

Those with hidden faces, the guards of the roads, 

The guardians of those who are lamenting, 

The guardians of those whose faces are joyous, (6) 

The burning ones who put the flame on the altar, 

The door openers who extinguish the flames in the Amenta, 


Unneferu, (7) 

Osiris 1 

the living, 

Osiris 1 

the lord of life, 

Osiris 1 

the inviolate god, 

Osiris 1 

n Kau, 





Osiris ] 

n Tanenit, 

Osiris ] 

n the South, 


n the North, 

Osiris ( 

creator of millions of men. 

Osiris 1 

;he spirit in the crouching figure (?), 


Ptah lord of life, 


n Restau, 


fnside the mountain. 

Osiris 1 

n the water of Heliopolis, 


in Hesert, 


m Siut, 


in Net'eft, 


n the South, 


in Pu, 


in Neteru, 


in Lower Sais, 


in Bak, 


n Sun (Syene), 


in Rohenen, 


in Aper, 


m Keftennu, 


Sokaris in Petshe, 


m his city, 


Osiris in Pesekro, 

Osiris in his abodes in the land of the North, 

Osiris in heaven, 

Osiris in his abodes in Restau, 

Osiris in Nest, 

Osiris in Atefur, 

Osiris Sokaris, 

Osiris the lord of eternity, 

Osiris the begetter, 

Osiris the lord of Heliopolis, 

Osiris in the monstrance, 

Osiris the lord of eternity, 

Osiris the prince, 

Osiris of the gate of judgment, 

Osiris in Restau, 

Osiris on his sand, 

Osiris in the hall of the cows, 

Osiris in Tanenit, 

Osiris in Netit, 

Osiris in Sati, 

Osiris in Beteshu, 

Osiris in Upper Sais, 

Osiris in Tepu, 

Osiris in Shennu, 

Osiris in Henket, 

Osiris in the land of Sokaris, 

Osiris in Shau, 

Osiris in Faur, 

Osiris in Maati, 

Osiris in Hena, 

Osiris the great god the everlasting. 


The old texts which v/e follow here, join in one chapter, 141, 
what in the Turin Todtenbuchx^ divided into two, 141, 142 ; 143 being 
merely the vignettes which accompany them. This chapter is the 
first of a series in which the deceased has to show his knowledge. 
His being well-informed as to the names of the gods and of their 
sanctuaries, and also of the doors through which he passes, the halls 


which he enters, confers upon him certain privileges. Here the 
deceased has to recite the names of the gods while offerings are 
made to them ; the second part of the chapter refers only to Osiris 
in all his forms, and in his numerous sanctuaries, which have not all 
been identified. The old versions differ only slightly in length, 
from one or two of the gods being omitted. The translation follows 
mainly the Cairo papyrus, Cc^ with a few variants taken from other 
papyri, one of the best of which is the papyrus is Nu of the British 
Museum (ed. Budge). 

1. The title of the later texts is much longer : the book where- 
with the Chjiu acquire might, knowing the names of the gods of the 
Southern sky, and of the Northern sky, of the gods of the Boufids, of 
the gods who are the guides in the Tuat. If it is said by a 7nan, to 
his father or to his mother, in the festival of the Amenta, he acquires 
might with Rd, and with the gods when he is ivith them. Spoken on 
the day of the new moon by Osiris N when offerings are made to him 
of . . . etc., and offerings are made to Osiris under all his names by 
Osiris N. 

2. See note i to ch. 133. I cannot quite agree with Renouf as 

to the meaning of the word l[ 'I. It seems to me that its 

sense is not so much that of " making someone mighty," as of " distin- 
guishing him, making him eminent" in the opinion of his god or 
his master, so that he may become his lord's favourite. I consider 

the meaning of [ 


'^ wvAAA as similar to that of ^T^ 

■O" "0" I 

3. The following names are those of the seven celestial cows 
which are represented with the bull in chapter 148, together with 
the rudders of the four cardinal points. 

4. See ch. 130, note 5. 

5. ''^ pertiu, the adjective form of the noun ^ 

" a house," the gods of the houses, contrasted with those of the fields. 
This word shows that in the complete spelling of the word 
the <r:r> has not fallen off, as it probably was the case in the 
pronunciation, and in composite names such as: ^ , Dns; 

I N|ll IE 





Chapter CXLVIII. Louvre, III, 89. 

Chapter CXLVIII. Leyden Mus., No. IL 

Chapter CXLIV. Brit. Mus., 9913. 

Chapter CXLIII. 
Lepsius, Todtenbuch. 

Chapter CXLIV. 
Brit. Mus. Pap. Brocklehurst IL 






































6. I read here according to Ld. -^ "^^^ 7" O f"^ flQ '^ ' 

* T . Instead of „ D V\ Lc. writes 1 , and Nu 

I — I — 1 pvAy^ G\ I w I 

, which does not give any sense. &jf might here 

be translated companiotis. 

7. In the Turin Todtenbuch, ch. 142 begins here with this title : 
Chapler ivhereby the deceased acquireth mighty whereby is given him to 
go and to tuiden his steps, coming forth by day in ail the forms he likes, 
knoiuing the nafties of Osiris in all the places he likes to be. 

Chapter CXLIV. 
The Chapter of the Arrival (i). 

The first gate. He whose face is overturned, who has many 
attributes, is the name of the occupant of the first gate. The 
adjuster, is the name of the warden thereof, and he with the loud 
voice the name of the herald. 

The second gate. He who raises his face, is the name of the 
occupant of the second gate ; he with the revolving face (2) is the 
name of the warden thereof ; the consuming one is the name of the 

The third gate. He who eats his own filth, is the name of the 
occupant. The watchful, is the name of the warden thereof, the 
curser is the name of the herald. 

The fourth gate. He who opposes garrulity, is the name of the 
occupant of the fourth gate ; the attentive one is the name of the 
warden thereof, the great one who drives back the crocodile is the 
name of the herald. 

The fifth gate. He who lives on worms, is the name of its 
occupant, the consuming flame, is the name of the warden thereof, 
the horn which strikes the furious, is the name of the herald. 

The sixth gate. He who makes the loaves, with a thundering 
voice, is the name of its occupant ; he who shows his face, is the 
name of the warden thereof, the stoneknife which belongs to the 
sky, is the name of the herald. 

The seventh gate. He who takes possession (3) of their knives, 
is the name of the occupant of the seventh gate ; the high voice is 


the name of the warden thereof, he who drives back the enemies 
is the name of the herald. 

O ye, these gates, who are the gates to Osiris, ye who guard their 
gates, ye who herald the things of the world to Osiris every day. 
Osiris N. knows you — he knows your names ; for he is born in 
Restau, where all the glory of the horizon was given him. AK 
receives the investiture in Pu, like the purification of Osiris. N. 
receives the saying in Restau, w'hen he leads the gods on the 
horizon with the ministrant, the protectors of Osiris. I am one of 
them in their leading. N'. is the glorious one, the lord of the 
glorious, a glorious one who performs the rites. JV. celebrates the 
festival of the first day of the month ; he is the herald in the 
fifteenth day of the month. O thou who revolvest. N. carries 
the sacred flame to the hand of Thoth in the night when he sails 
through the sky as victor. iV. passes on in peace, he navigates in 
the boat of Ra. The attributes (5) of N. are the attributes of the 
boat of Ra. N. has a name greater than yours, mightier than you 
who are on the roads of Maat. A^. hates what is corrupt. The 
attributes of N. are the attributes of Horus, the firstborn of Ra, 
who accomplishes his will. iV. is not fettered, he is not driven 
away from the gates of Osiris. JV. is perfect, the lion god, the pure 
one who loUows Osiris Khent Amenta every day. His domains are 
in Sechet hotepu among those who know the sacred rites, among 
those who perform the sacred rites to Osiris. N. is on the side of 
Thoth, among those who bring offerings. Anubis ordered to the 
bearers of offerings, that there should be offerings to N. of his own, 
and that they should not be taken from him by those who are in 
captivity. N. has come like Horus, when he adorns the horizon of 
heaven. A', directs the march of Ra towards the gates of the 
horizon ; therefore the gods rejoice in the presence of JV. The 
divine scent (6) is upon Osiris, the god with the lock (7) will not 
reach him ; the keepers of the gates will not be hostile to him. 
N. is the one whose face is hidden inside the palace, in the 
sanctuary of the god, the lord of Tuat. A\ has reached it after 
Hathor. AL gathers his hosts ; he brings Maat to Ra, he drives 
away the Mighty One, Apepi. N. pierces the steel firmament (8), 
and repels the raging storm ; he gives life to the seamen of Ra. N. 
carries offerings to the place where it (the boat) is. N. causes that 
the boat gives him a successful voyage. A\ marches, and when he 


reaches it, the face of N. is Hke the Oreat One, and his back like the 
lofty one. N. is the lord of the mighty. N. is well pleased on the 
horizon. JV. is valiant ; he strikes you down ; you wakers ; he 
makes his way to your lord, Osiris. 

This is on the copy which is in the books (9). It is written in 
yellow ink, on the sacred circle of gods in the boat of Ra (10), 
where offerings are made of victuals, geese, incense, in their 
presence, in order to revive the deceased, to make him powerful 
among the gods, and that he may not be repulsed nor driven 
back from the pylons of the Tuat. If thou readest it to the statue 
of this deceased in their presence, it causes him to have access 
to every hall of those which are in the books. 

This is said at the entrance of every gate, of those which are 
in the books, and to each of them an offering is made of the 
haunch, the head, the heart, and the hoof of a red bull, and four 
vases of blood which does not come from the heart, and scent 
vases, and sixteen pointed white loaves, and eight round loaves, 
and eight chenfu loaves, and eight hebennu loaves, eight casks of 
beer, eight vases of dry corn, four tanks of earthenware filled with 
the milk of a white cow, fresh herbs, fresh olive oil, green eye 
paint, antimony, odoriferous oils, and burning incense. Said while 
putting on a clay seal twice. 

After this copy has been read, if the fourth hour is going round in 
the day, beware of what is threatening in the sky ; but if thou hast 
read this book without any human being seeing it, it will widen the 
steps of the deceased in heaven or earth, and in the Tuat ; because 
this book exalts the deceased more than any ceremony performed to 
him, henceforth, from this day undeviatingly for times infinite. 


This chapter is the first of a series of four (144 — 147), in Avhich the 
old versions differ considerably from the Turin text. 144 and 147 

refer to the ( (I CTz^ , 145 and 146 to the I j Si. 

The word 1/ ir"^] has been translated in various ways. 

Brugsch calls them "watch-towers, pylons," Pierret "stations." 
Maspero considers them as the old "ergastules," a kind of vaulted 
hall. Jequier speaks of them as " magazines," but generally 

2 Q 



translates the word by *' pylons." Renouf, in his introducton to the 
Papyrus of Ani, calls the [(, ir^i "gates," and the I 

«d^> II 111 -:iJ O 

"pylons." In another place he says the I j 

gate, but a hold or keep. 

If we refer to the old texts where this chapter is mixed together 

with chapter 146, we see that the 

is not a mere 


is a door, a gate, 
which has to be passed in order to reach the I S. Behind 



\\ a 

1i CTZD 

is represented as a shrine close to 

which is its god. 

And also in the book called - 


book of what is in the Tuat, we see that Ra has to go through the 

iX and make a long navigation before he reaches the 

gods of the Tuat. 

144 and 147 are two different versions of the same chapter, and 
no old papyrus has them both. It is the same with chapters 145 and 
146. Evidently before the Saitic period, for these chapters, as for 
the 15th, there was no received text, and the writers had the choice 
between various versions which the compilers of the Turin text 

collected together. There are seven [(I nr^y, and the deceased 

who approaches them has to know three names ; first, the [ V^t' i 

[j(, whom Renouf calls the porter^ evidently from his being 

styled in chapter 147(1 v\ \\\ % [\ - But if we consider that in 

some of the old papyri the name of the man is that of the gate itself, 
• has to be translated he who belongs to, the occupant, 


the inhabitant, a sense which does not disagree with the word 

(I V^r' J- since, according to Oriental customs, the master of 

a house is generally met with at the door, at the entrance. 

The doorkeeper, the watcher (Budge), or the 7varder (Renouf), 

\\ he who guards 

is the second person, ^^ 

the gate. The third person I y (, ^ [, ^|\ 1 , as the text says 



reports to Osiris every day the tilings of the world, and I suppose 
also, who is coming towards the gate. Renouf calls this person the 
teller. I shall use the word herald, which I adopted previously. 

In the six old texts which I collated, we find only the reciting of 
the three names. The Papyrus of Nu in the British Museum alone 
contains the allocution to the gates of the Turin text. It is there- 
fore from the Papyrus of Nu that this chapter has been translated. 
(Budge, The Book of the Dead) 

1. The title is taken from Papyrus Ax. The Turin text calls 
this chapter " the chapter of ktiowittg the occupafits of the seven gates." 

2. A flame, judging from the determinative 



Ill III 


as we read in chapter 147. 
I lit. "receives the saying." 

I suppose it means receives the right or the privilege to say the 
words which follow : " I am one of them." 

?5 J I a word which lias various meanings. Renouf 

J i 

translates : "protection, safeguard, powers, attributes." I believe in 
many cases it corresponds to what we call "the nature," and that 
it is used as a periphrase instead of an abstract adjective, which 
does not exist in Egyptian. The real sense of such an expression 


; I 




seems to be 

' such as he is, such am I, and such is Ra.' 

6. I read with the Turin text / ] rfl • '^^^ papyrus Pb, 
which reproduces this sentence in an addition to 136A writes 

7. 1 Yh w| • 'The god of the lock, or the curling god,' 

another name for 


Apepi, an evil power which must be 

driven away. Chapter 130, line 39, I should translate: 'Osiris 
follows the path of Ra in the morning, and drives away the curling 

8. ' The steel firmament 


, generally mentioned in 

connection with storms and bad weather, so that possibly we have 

2 3 


to consider here the colour of the metal, and translate ' the dark sky 
the black sky.' 

9. The books of Thoth, the divine writer. 

10. Probably the name of the book or of the page which 
contains also the catalogue of the offerings. 

The vignettes of chapter 144 represent the gates, the warder, 
and the herald ; the occupant is not seen, as he is in the vignettes of 
chapter 147. There seems to be no definite order or rule in these 
figures, just as in the names, which are not always attributed to the 
same member {cf. Introd. to the Todte?ibuch, p. 172). 


The knowing of the pylons of the house of Osiris^ in the Garden of 


The first pylon (i)(is named) : the lady of trembling whose walls 
are high, the lady of destruction, who directs the words which drive 
away the storm, she who forces back the violent (2) coming towards 
her. The name of the doorkeeper is : the brave. 

The second pylon (is named) : the lady of heaven, mistress of the 
world, the consuming one, the lady of mankind, who counts the 
human beings. The name of the doorkeeper is : Meshept. 

The third pylon : the lady ot altars, rich in offerings, with whom 
all the gods are gathered, on the day when they sail to Abydos. 
The name of the doorkeeper is : the anointer. 

The fourth pylon : she who holds the knives, the mistress of the 
world, who destroys the enemies of the god whose heart is motion- 
less, who gives advice, who is free from impurity. The name of 
the doorkeeper is ; the bull. 

The fifth pylon : the flame, the lady of the words of power (3), 
who gives joy to him who addresses his supplications to her, to 
whom no one who is on earth (4) will come near. The name of 
the doorkeeper is : he who coerces the rebels. 

The sixth pylon : the lady of light, who roars loud ; whose length 
and breadth are not known, and the like of whom never was found 
from the beginning. There are serpents on her, the number of 
which is not known ; they were born before the god whose heart is 
motionless. The name of the doorkeeper is, the consort. 

The seventh pylon : the shroiid which enwrappeth the dead ; the 





s 3 



1=: o 

ig I. \\ wi til 'u PI r' r^ 






























DDoa c 



■iwr — 































monster who seeks to hide the body. 'I'he name of the doorkeeper 
is : Akesti. 

The eighth pylon : the burning flame whose fire is never 
quenched ; she who is provided with burning heat, who sends forth 
her hand, and slaughters without mercy. Nobody goes near her 
for fear of being hurt. The name of the doorkeeper is : he who 
protects his body. 

The ninth pylon : the foremost, the Mighty One, the joyous who 
gives birth to her lord ; whose circumference is 350 measures (5) ; 
she who shines like southern emerald, who raises Besu, and 
encourages the dead, she who provides her lord with offerings every 

The tenth pylon : she with a loud voice ; who shouts curses to 
those who make supplications to her; the very brave, the dreadful, 
who does not destroy what is within her. The name of the door- 
keeper is : he who embraces the great god. 

The eleventh pylon : she who renews her knives, who consumes 
her enemies, the mistress of all pylons, to whom acclamations are 
given in the daytime and in the twilight. She will prepare the 
enwrapping of the dead. 

The twelfth pylon : she who addresses her world and destroys 
those who come through the morning heat, the lady of brightness, 
who listens to the words of her lord every day. She will prepare 
the enwrappmg of the dead. 

The thirteenth pylon : Isis extends her two hands upon her ; she 
lightens the Nile in its hidden abode. She will prepare the 
enwrapping of the dead. 

l"he fourteenth pylon : the lady of fear, who dances on the 
impure, to whom the Haker festival is celebrated on the day of the 
hearing of yells. She will prepare the enwrapping of the dead. 

The fifteenth pylon : the evil one, with red hair and eyes, who 
comes out at night, who binds her enemy all round, who puts her 
hands over the god whose heait is motionless, in his hour (of 
danger), who goes and comes. She will prepare the enwrapping of 
the dead. 

The sixteenth pylon : the terrible, the lady of the morning dew, 
who throws out (6) her burning heat, and sprinkles her sparks of fire 
over her enemies when she appears. She who creates (reveals ?) 
the mysteries of the earth. She will prepare the enwrapping of the 


The seventeenth pylon : she who revels in blood ; Aahit, the lady 
of the unuai plants. She will prepare the enwrapping of the dead. 

The eighteenth pylon ; she who likes fire, who washes her knives, 
who loves cutting heads, the welcome one, the lady of the palace, 
who slays her enemies in the evening. She will prepare the 
enwrapping of the dead. 

The nineteenth pylon : she who directs the morning light in her 
time, and observes the midday heat, the lady of the books written 
by Thoth himself. She will prepare the enwrapping of the dead. 

The twentieth pylon : she who is within the cavern of her lord, 
who covers her name, and hides what she creates, who takes 
possession of hearts, which she swallows. She will prepare the 
enwrapping of the dead. 

The twenty-first pylon : she who cuts the stone by her word, and 
sacrifices him on whom fall her flames. She follows the hidden 


Chapters 145 and 146 are two versions of the same text. They 
are the chapter of the arrival of the deceased to the I y^F 

of the house of Osiris. It is difificult to know what these I jP^ F 

really are. Renouf translates the word by pylon. At the same time 
he says they are not mere gates, but keeps or holds. I shall use his 
word pylon ; but the word which seems to me to convey most 

exactly the meaning is a cell, since each of the I 1 ip i 

has an inhabitant. There are various versions of these chapters. 
The oldest. No. 146, is found in several papyri, and has been 
translated from Lc. (Ley den), the only one which has the 
chapter complete. It consists of 21 paragraphs, each of which 
begins with a sentence giving the names of the pylon. It is 

followed by that of the (. n\ "fj r '< ° > which I translate, with 

Renouf, the porter or doorkeeper though I should prefer, he who is 
within the door, since the vignettes show that the so-called porter or 
doorkeeper is the god who occupies the cell. There are 21 pylons, 
out of which the papyri give us a certain number. Brugsch finds 
in their names those of some of the hours of night or day ; but the 


fact of their being 21, absolutely precludes the idea of these pylons 
being the hours. 

The papyrus of Nu in the British Museum gives a slightly different 
version of this chapter 146. Each pylon is introduced by these 
words, " said by Nu when he arrives at the first pylon : I have 
arrived, I know thee, I know the name of the god who guardeth 
thee ; the lady of trembling, &c., is thy name, the name of the 
doorkeeper is the brave.'"' The other version which constitutes 
chapter 145 shows that the god who guardeth the pylon and the 
doorkeeper are the same person. 

Chapter 145 is the same text which has been spun out a little 
more We have no older copy of it than the fragments in the tomb 
of Meneptah Siphtah and queen Tauser, which give us only eleven 
pylons, with a very incorrect teft. As for the Turin text, it is so 
hopelessly corrupt, especially in the most important part, the names, 
that I did not attempt to translate it. Then chapter 145 is the text 
of Nu for 146 still more developed. In the version of the royal tomb, 
each paragraph is called : " The salutation of Osiris, the king, to the 
pylon : I know thee, I know thy name, I know the name of the god 
who guardeth thee." Then follow the name of the pylon, and that 
of the god, and after having said them, the deceased describes the 
purifications he goes through, the oils with which he has been 
anointed, and the text ends with these words : pass on, thou art pure. 

It is curious that both in 145 and 146 there is a change at the 
pylon No. 11. In our text, Lc^ the name of the doorkeeper 
disappears, and each time, after the name of the pylon, we find these 

In 145 the name of the doorkeeper is still mentioned, but this 
sentence takes the place of the description of the purifications and 
ointments which occurred in the previous paragraphs. I should trans- 
late these words : she ivill direct or prepare the enwrapping or clothing 
0/ the dead. I think that the dead is supposed to wear a different 
garment at each pylon, which is provided to him by the pylon itself. 
A still more detailed version of 145 is found in the Paris papy- 
rus Fg, of which we have only a very short fragment. At each 
pylon there is a dialogue between the deceased and doorkeeper, 
who asks whether the deceased has been purified, in what water, 
with what oil he has been anointed, which garment he wears, which 
stick he holds in his hand. 


Chapters 145 and 146 are among the most incorrect texts of the 
Book of the Dead, and until we have new copies of the old versions, 
there will always be a large measure of conjecture in any attempt to 
translate them. 

(i) I II HV. Being feminine, the name is that of a woman or 
a goddess. 

Hathor, the consort of Thoth at Hermojiolis (Mariette, Denderah, 
II, pi. 27, 15). 

(3) \ \ ^v\ W" 5?) '• Renouf translates, "words of power." 
I should prefer " magic power." « 

(4) I read with the Turin text -^^ ^ ' . 

(5) . According to Lepsius, the G-^^owiof, 40 cubits. 
^ I 

(6) I read with the text of chapter 145 in the royal tomb 

fl □ 



The vignettes vary considerably, according to the papyri. In 
Lc all the pylons are alike, with a god sitting inside ; evidently 
the artist was free to draw them according to his fancy. The 
vignettes of the papyrus of Ani, and, still more, /V, are remarkable 
for their fine colours. 


The first gate. The name of the doorkeeper is : he whose face 
is overturned, who has many attributes. The name of its warder is • 
the adjuster. The name of the herald is : he with a loud voice. 

Said by A" when he approaches the first gate. 

I am the mighty one, who createth his own light, (i) 

I come to thee, Osiris, and I worship thee. 

Pure are thine effluxes, which flow from thee, and which make 
thy name in Restau (2) when it hath passed there, 

Hail to thee, Osiris. 

Arise, thou art mighty, Osiris, in Abydos. 







. «^ 













































































Thou goest round the sky, thou sailest with Ra, thou surveyest 
mankind, thou art alone going round with Ra, for thou art called 

I am the divine mummy. What I say takes place. 

I shall not be driven back from it (the gate) ; its walls of burning 
coals show the way in Restau. I have soothed the pain of Osiris, 
when he supports him who balances his pedestal, when he arrives 
from the great valley. I have made my way to the light of Osiris.(3) 

The second gate. The name of the doorkeeper is : he who 
shows his face. The name of its warder is : he with a revolving 
face. The name of the herald is : the consumer. 

Said by N when he approaches the second gate. He sitteth 
and acts in accordance with the desire of his heart, weighing the 
words as the second of Thoth. The attributes of N are those of 
Thoth. When faint the Maat gods, the hidden ones who live on 
truth, whose years are those of Osiris, (still) I am mighty in offerings 
at the appointed time. I have made my way out of the fire. I 
march, I have made my way. Grant that I may pass on freely, that 
I may see Ra among those who give offerings. 

The third gate. The name of the doorkeeper is : he who cateth 
his own filth. The name of its warder is : the watchful. The name 
of the herald is : the great one. 

Said by JV when he approaches the third gate. 

I am he whose stream is secret, who judgeth the Rehui. I have 
come to remove all evil from Osiris. 

I am the girdled (4) at his appointed time, coming forth with the 
double crown. 

I secured firmly my suit in Abydos, and I opened my path in 
Restau. I have soothed the pain of Osiris who balances his pedestal. 
I have made my way when he shines at Restau. 

The fourth gate. The name of the doorkeeper is : he who 
opposes garrulity. The name of its warder is : the attentive one. 
The name of the herald is : he who drives back the crocodile. 

Said by N when he approaches the fourth gate. 

I am the bull, (5) the son of the Kite of Osiris. Behold, his 
father the Fiery One sat in judgment. I poised the balance for him. 
Life has been brought to me. I live for ever. I have made my 
way. I am the son of Osiris, I live for ever. 

2 R 


The fifth gate. The name of the doorkeeper is : he who hves 
on worms. The name of the warder is : the consuming flame. The 
name of the herald is : the bow which strikes the furious (?). 

Said by i\^when he approaches the fifth gate. 

I have brought the two jaws of Restau. (6) I have brought to 
thee the books (?) which are in the Annu, and I add up for him his 
hosts. I have repulsed Apepi and healed the wounds he made. I 
made my way through the midst of you. I am the great one among 
the gods. I purified Osiris. I restored him as victor. I joined 
his bones, and put together his limbs. 

The sixth gate. The name of the doorkeeper is : he who makes 
the loaves, with a thundering voice. The name of its warder is : he 
who shows his face. The name of the herald is : the stolen knife 
which belongs to the sky. 

Said by N when he approaches the sixth gate. 

I come every day, I go. I who was created by Anubis, I am the 
lord of the diadem. I ignore the magic words (however). I avenge 
Maat, I avenge his eye. I gave his eye to Osiris himself. I have 
made my way. N goes along with you. 

The seventh gate. The name of the doorkeeper is : he who 
takes possession of their knives. The name of its warder is : he 
with a high voice. The name of the herald : he who drives back 
the enemies. 

Said by N when he approaches the seventh gate. 

I have come to thee, Osiris, (7) pure are thine efHuxes. Thou 
goest round and thou seest the sky with Ra. Thou seest mankind, 
thou the only one. Thou addressest Ra in the Sektit boat of the 
sky, when he goes round the horizon. I say what I wish, my 
mummy is mighty. What I say takes place like what he says. I 
shall not be driven back from thee. I have made my way. 

Said near the seven gates. (8) When the deceased arrives at the 
pylons, he is not driven back, nor repulsed from Osiris. It is given 
him to be among the glorious ones, the most excellent of them, so 
that he may have dominion over the first followers of Osiris. 

Every deceased to whom this chapter is read is like the lord of 
eternity, he is of one substance with Osiris, and in no place has he 
to encounter a great fight. 



Chapter 147 is very like 144, in fact, it is the same more deve- 
loped. It refers also co the seven gates ; and whenever the deceased 
approaches one of the gates, he has to say the name of the door- 
keeper, which, as we saw before, is that of the gate itself; and also 
the name of the warder and that of the herald. Besides the deceased 
has to address the gate, probably in order to open it so that he may 
pass through. The words he utters are found in chapters 117, 119 
and 136B. The two first have nearly the same title, //^^ amz^^r/ a/ 
Restau, near Abydos. If, as is most probable, the various parts ot 
the Book of the Dead did not originate in the same place, we may 
safely assert that these chapters, as well as those of the gates and 
the pylons, come from Abydos. 

On the whole the Papyrus of Ani is more complete for chapter 
147 than the Leyden text Lc which is published in my edition. 
Therefore this chapter has been translated from Ani, using Lc 
whenever Ani is too corrupt. 

1. Chapter 119, vide p. 206, "Chapter whereby one entereth 
and goeth forth from Restau." 

2. I should translate : which give to Restau its name. This is an 
instance of those wonderful etymologies often met with in religious 

texts. From the word 1 V\ to fioiv, is derived the name 

I I Q£^* 

3. The Osiris of the first gate whom the deceased addresses 

seems to be the moon. The word ^^^ is often used in speaking 
of the pale and silvery light of the moon (Naville, Litanie du soieil, 

P- 54). 

The last sentences are found in chapter 117, line 3. 

4. Chapter 1 17. 

5. Chapter 136B, line 14. 

6. Chapter 136B, line 18. I repeat Renouf's translation, 
though I differ from him in various points. For instance, I should 
translate : / have closed the doors iti Restau (cf. Inscr. of Piankhi, 
line 104). 

7. An abridged version of chapter 119. 

8. The rubric is taken from the Paris papyrus Fc. 

There also the vignettes vary considerably according to the fancy 

2 K 2 


of the artist. In Lc the gates and the gods are all alike. In Pc 
the god is always represented in human form -with a ram's head. In 
the Papyrus of Ani, where there are three figures for each gate, these 
figures are all different. 


Giving sustena7ice {\) to the deceased in the Netherworld^ and 
delivering hi7n from all evil things. (2) 

Hail to thee who shinest as living soul, and who appearest on 
the horizon, N. who is in the boat knows thee ; he knows thy name, 
he knows the names of the seven cows and of their bull ; they give 
bread and drink to the glorified soul. You who give sustenance to 
the inhabitants of the West, give bread and drink to the soul of N.^ 
grant that he may be your follower, and be between your thighs. (3). 

(Then follow the names of the seven cows.) 

The house of the ka, of the inviolate god, 

The storm of the sky, which raises the gods, 

The hidden one in her dwelling, 

Chebt the mummified form of the god. 

The greatly beloved, with red hair. 

The abundant in life, the veiled one. 

She who is powerful in her works, or on her pedestal, 

The bull of the Nether^vorld. 

(Then the deceased calls on the four rudders of the sky, the four 
cardinal points.) 

Hail ! divine form, the good one, the good rudder of the 
Northern sky. 

Hail ! thou who goest round and pilotest the double earth, the 
good rudder of the Western sky. 

Hail ! the shining one, who dwellest in the house of the 
devouring monsters, the good rudder of the Eastern sky. 

Hail ! the inner one who dwelleth in the house of the red ones, 
the good rudder of the Southern sky. 

Give bread and drink, oxen, geese, all things good and pure to 
N. Give him sustenance, give him joy, may he rest on the earth, 
and may he be victorious on the horizon of Annu, in the Tuat, in 
the sky, and on the earth, eternally. 

Ye fathers and mothers, gods of the sky, and of the Netherworld, 


deliver iV; from all things pernicious and evil, from all liarm and evil, 
from the cruel huntsman and his swords, and from all evil things; 
and order what is to be done to him by the men, the glorious ones, 
and the dead, in this day, in this night, in this month, and in this 

Said (4) by a man, when Ra is put before these gods, painted in 
green, and standing on a wooden board, and when they give him 
the offerings, and the sustenance which is before them, bread and 
drink, geese, and frankincense, and when they present mortuary 
gifts to the deceased before Ra. 

(The book called) giving sustenance to a deceased in the 
Netherworld, delivers a man from all evil things. Thou shalt not 
read to any other man than thyself the book of Unnefer. He to 
whom this has been read, Ra is his steersman and his protecting 
power, he will not be attacked by his enemies in the Netherworld, 
in the sky, on the earth, and in every place he goes, for (the book) 
giving sustenance to the deceased has its effect regularly. 


This chapter in the Turin text begins with a long title which is 
found by itself in the papyrus of N'u. Dr. Budge considers it as a 
special chapter, to which he has given No. 190. But the proof that 
it is not a chapter, is that the whole of it is written in red, which 
means that it is a title ; besides this title is that of one of the hymns 
which constitute chapter 15, the hymn to the setting sun (15 b, 3). 
The chapter itself begins with the last word in line 7 of the Turin 
text. We have a nearly complete version of it in the tomb of 
Senmut, the architect of queen Hatshepsu. The text from which I 
translate is compiled from several Theban papyri. 

1. Renouf translates the word in various ways : " sustenance, 
nutriment, dainties, delicacies." 

2. Note the connection between these two ideas which occurs 
throughout the chapter : the giving nourishment to the deceased 
delivers him from all evil. 

3. To be suckled by the divine cows, like Hatshepsu at Der el 
Bahari, by Hathor. 

4. Several papyri have here the rubric of 30B, with the name of 
Mycerinus. The rubric which is here translated is taken from the 


papyrus of N^i/. Lepsius calls 148c the vignettes belonging to this 
chapter. In a columned hall stands Osiris, and behind him the 
cows, the rudders, and the four gods of the cardinal points. Osiris 
is sometimes left out. In the papyrus of Ani the god has his hair 
painted green, and he stands on a green basement. 


The first domain. O this domain of the Amenta, where they 
live upon bread of the plant tej> sent. Take off your head dress in 
my presence, for I am the great one among you, he who joins his 
bones and establishes firmly his limbs. Ahi, the lord of hearts, 
came to me, he joined my bones, and as he fixed the diadem of 
Tmu, he fastened on me the head of Nehebkau, and estabhshed my 
balance. I am lord among the gods, I am Amsi the builder. 

The second domain, (i) I am the great proprietor in the garden 
of Aarru. O this garden of Aarru, the walls of which are of steel ; 
the height of its wheat is seven cubits, the ears are two cubits, and 
the stalks five cubits. The glorified ones, each of whom is seven 
cubits in height, reap them in presence of Harmachis. 

I know the inner gate of the garden of Aarru, out of which 
cometh Ra, in the East of the sky ; the South of it is by the lake of 
Cha ru, and the North of it by the stream of Reu ; thence Ra saileth 
with favouring gales. 

I am the Teller in the divine ship ; I am the unresting navi- 
gator in the Bark of Ra. 

I know those two sycamores of emerald, between which Ra 
cometh forth, as he advanceth over what Tmu hath lifted up (the 
firmament) to the Eastern gates of the sky, through which he 

I know this garden of Aarru of Ra, the height of its wheat is 
seven cubits, the ears are two cubits, the stalks five cubits ; the 
barley is seven cubits. It is the glorified ones, each of whom is nine 
cubits in height, who reap them in presence of the powers of the 

The third domain. (2) O this domain of the glorious ones 
through which nobody can sail, which contains glorious ones, and 
the flame of which is a consuming fire. O this domain of the 





L^=yiil o 


'i f — ^^n6 





Chapter CXLIX. British Museum. Papyrus 9900. 



Chapters CXLV and CXLVI. British Museum. Papyrus 9900. 












irip~n — "= 

•iyA—tl ('111 -vl a 



Chapter CL. British Museum, 9900. 


glorious ones, your faces are looking down ; make straight your 
ways, and purify your abodes as it was ordered to you by Osiris the 
eternal one. 

I am the lord of the red crown which is on the head of the 
shining one, (3) he who gives life to mankind from the heat of his 
mouth, and who delivers Ra from Apepi. 

The fourth domain, O this great and lofty mountain of the 
Netherworld, on the highest point of which ends the sky. It is 
three hundred measures in length, and ten in width. There is a 
snake on it, he with sharp knives is his name, he is seventy cubits 
in his windings, lie lives by slaughtering the glorious ones and the 
damned in the Netherworld. 

I stand on thy wall, (4) directing my navigation. I see the way 
towards thee. I gather myself together. I am the man who puts a 
veil on thy head, and I am uninjured, I am the great magician ; 
thy eyes have been given me, and I am glorified through them. 
Who is he who goeth on his belly? Thy strength is on thy 
mountain ; behold, I march towards it, and thy strength is in my 
hand. I am he who lifts the strength. I have come and I have 
taken away the serpents (5) of Ra, when he rests with me at eventide. 

I go round the sky, thou art in thy valley, as was ordered to 
thee before. 

The fifth domain, O this domain of the glorious ones, which is 
open to no one. The glorious ones who are in it have thighs of 
seven cubits, and they live on the shades of the motionless. 

Open to me the ways, that I may appear before you, that I may 
reach the good Amenta, as was ordered me by Osiris, the glorious 
one, the lord of all the glorified. 

I live of your glory, I observe the first day of the month, and 
the half-month on the fifteenth day. 

I have gone round with the eye of Horus in my power, following 

Any god, or damned, who opens his devouring mouth against 
me on this day, is struck down on the block. 

The sixth domain. O thou Amemhet who art sacred more than 
the hidden gods and the glorious ones, and who art dreadful to the 
gods. The god in it is called Sechez-at, (6) 


Hail to thee, Amemhet. I have come to see the gods within thee. 

Show your faces, and take away your head-dresses in my 
presence, I have come to make your bread. 

Sechez-at will not be stronger than I ; the slaughterers will not 
come behind me, the impure ones will not come behind me. 

I live upon your offerings. 

The seventh domain. O this Ases, too remote to be seen ; the 
heat of which is that of blazing fire. There is a serpent in it whose 
name is Rerek. His backbone is seven cubits, he lives on glorious 
ones, destroying their glory. 

Get thee behind me, Rerek, who is in Ases, who bites with his 
mouth ; and who paralyses with his eyes. 

Thy teeth are torn away, thy venom is powerless. 

Thou shalt not come towards me, thy venom will not penetrate 
into me. Thy poison is fallen and thrown down, and thy lips are in 
a hole. 

The white serpent has struck his ka, and his ka has struck the 
white serpent. (7) 

I shall be protected. His head was cut off by the lynx. (8) 

The eighth domain. O this Hahotep, the very great, the stream 
of which nobody takes the water for fear of its roaring. 

The god whose name is the lofty one, keeps watch over it, in 
order that nobody may come near it. 

I (9) am the vulture which is on the stream without end. I 
brought the things of the world to Tmu, at the time when the 
sailors (of Ra) are abundantly provided. 

I have given my strength to the lords of the shrines, and the awe 
I inspire to the lord of all things. 

I shall not be taken to the block. The pleasure they take in me 
will not be destroyed. I am the guide on the northern horizon. 

The ninth domain. (10) O this Akset which art hidden to the 
gods, the name of which the glorious ones are afraid to know. No 
one goes out who goes into it, except this venerable god, who 
inspires fear to the gods and terror to the glorious ones. Its open- 
ing is of fire, its wind destroys the nostrils. He made it such(i i) 
for his followers in order that they may not breathe its wind, except 
this venerable god who comes out of his egg. 


lie made it such, being in it, in order that nobody may come 
near it, except Ra who is supreme in his attributes. 

Hail to thee, venerable god, who comes out of his egg. I have 
come to thee to be in thy following. I go out of, and I come into 
Akset. Open to me the doors, that I may inhale its wind, and that 
I may take the offerings within it. 

The tenth domain. (12) O this city of the Kahu gods who take 
hold of the glorious ones, and who gain mastery over the shades (13) 

Who they see with their eyes ; who have no connection 

with the earth. 

O ye who are in your domain, throw yourselves on your bellies, 
that I may pass near you. My glorious nature will not be taken 
from me. No one will give mastery over my shade, for I am the 
divine hawk who has been rubbed with anti and anointed with 
incense ; libations have been offered to me ; Isis is before me : 
Nephthys is behind me. 

The way has been pointed to me by Nau, the bull of Nut and 
Nehebkau. I have come to you, ye gods ; deliver me and glorify 
me of an eternal glory. 

The eleventh domain. O this city in the Netherworld, this 
cavity which masters the glorious ones. 

No one goes out, of those who went into it, from the dread of 
the appearance of him who is in it. 

He who sees the god who is in it, face to face, he who sees him 
dies there from his blows, except the gods who are there, and who 
are hidden to the glorious ones. 

this Atu, in the Netherworld. Grant that I may reach them ; 
I am the great magician, with his knife ; I am issued of Set, (I stand 
on) my feet for ever. 

1 rise, and I am mighty through this eye of Horus ; my heart is 
raised, after it has fallen low. 

I am glorious in heaven, and I am mighty on earth. 

I fly like Horus, I cackle like the divine goose. 

It was given me to alight near the stream of the lake ; I stand 
near it, I sit near it, I eat of the food in Sechit Hotepit, I go down 
to the islands of the wandering stars. 

The doors of the Maati are open to me ; and the gates of the 
lupper waters are unbolted to me. 

2 S 


I raise my ladder up to the sky to see the gods. 
I am one of them, I speak hke the divine goose, and I listen to 
the gods. 

I talk aloud, I repeat the words of Sothis. 

The twelfth domain. O this domain of Unt, within Restau, the 
heat of which is that of fire. No god goes down into it, and the 
glorious ones do not gather into it, for the four snakes would destroy 
their names. (14) 

this domain of Unt ! I am the great among the glorious ones 
within. I am among the wandering stars. I am not destroyed ; 
my name is not destroyed. 

Come, thou divine scent, say the gods who are in the domain of Unt. 

1 am with you, I live with you, ye gods who are within the 
domain of Unt. 

You love me more than your gods. I am with you for ever, in 
the presence of the followers of the great god. 

The thirteenth domain. O this domain of the water, which 
none of the glorious ones can possess, for its water is of fire, its 
stream is burning, and its heat is of blazing flame, so that they may 
not drink its water in order to quench the thirst which is within 
them, for their mighty fear, and their great terror. 

The gods and the glorious ones look at its water from afar, they 
do not quench their thirst, and their heart is not set at rest, because 
they may not go near it. 

When the river is full and green like the flowing sap which 
comes out of Osiris, I take its water, I draw from its flood like the 
great god who is in the domain of the water, and who keeps watch 
over it for fear that the gods may drink from its water, and who 
inspires dread to the glorious ones. 

Hail to thee, thou great god, who art in the domain of the water. 
I have come to thee. Grant me to take of thy water, to take of thy 
stream, as thou doest to this great god. 

When the Nile will come, when he will give birth to the plants, 
and cause the herbs to grow ; as it is given to the gods, when he 
appears in peace, grant that the Nile may come to me, and that J 
may take his plants ; for I am thy own son for ever. 

The fourteenth domain. O this domain of Cher-aba (15), which 
drives the Nile towards Tattu, and which causes the Nile to go and 


spend its corn in his course from Kokekmu (16); thou which pre- 
sentest offerings to the dead, and mortuary gifts to the glorious ones. 

There is a serpent belonging to it, who comes from the two wells 
at Elephantine, at the gate of the water. He goes with the water, 
and stops at the stream of Cher-aba, near the powers of the high 
Hood ; he sees his hour of the silent evening. 

Ye gods who live in the water of Cher-aba, ye powers of the 
high flood, open to me your ponds, open to me your lakes, that I 
may take of your water, and that I may rest in your stream, that I 
may eat of your corn, that I may be satisfied with your food. 

I have risen, my heart is high, for I am the great god in 

Make me offerings. I have been filled with the vital sap coming 
out of Osiris. I shall not be despoiled of it. The end. 


This is one of the interesting chapters of the Book of the Dead. 
It is more frequently met with than the other ones, and it generally 
constitutes the end of the Theban papyri. It is the chapter of the 
various domains which the deceased has to reach, and in which he 
enjoys special privileges. 

The vignettes generally give the plan of the domain, and very 
often the colour with which it is painted; they are either green 

\ ^ or light yellow ,,^^,^^^1 ^ • I" most of the papyri there are 

only four yellow — 3, 9, 10, and 14. 

Renouf translates (, ^R\ "domain" (p. 208). Dr. Budge 

keeps the word aat, and considers them as the divisions of the 
Elysian fields. Pierret translates demeiire, Brugsch siege, defrmire, 
habitatmi. I shall adopt Renoufs word, though residence or 

habitation seems to me preferable. An / >\ is an enclosed 

space which has inhabitants descnoed or mentioned in the text. 
The deceased calls first on the domain, and often in the same breath 
goes over to the inhabitants without any transition. 

1. The second domain is the horizon. The text of the vignette 
says : the god who is in it is Harmachis. The text to this domain 
being a repetition of chapter 109, I adopt Renoufs translation 
(p. 181.) 

2. The third domain is called "that of the glorious ones." 


3. The moon. ^^ reads : ()-[]-- Vl f ^ "11" M ll^ ^ ^ 
" on the face of the sun, and on the face of the moon." 

4. The deceased speaks of himself as a magician who can cover 
the head of the serpent without being hurt. The eyes of the 
serpent, which have the power of paralyzing, of making impotent 
(see seventh domain), are given him ; the result is, that when he 
goes to the mountain on which the serpent shows his strength, this 
strength collapses, as the deceased says : thy strength is in my hand ; 
I am he who lifts, who takes away the strength. 

5. Renouf generally translates ^^. V <^/| ' '^^'"'^^Is. ' See 
p. 126, and Proc, 1893, p. 385 ; but here we must adopt the other 
sense, serpent or worms. Copt. <i.Kopi. 

6. Or Secher-remn, he who knocks down the worm, or he who 
knocks down the fishes. 

7. Ka and serpent have killed each other. 

8. The lynx (see note, p. 82, on chapter 34). It seems to 
be the cat who is represented in the vignettes of chapter 17, 
cutting off the head of the serpent. 

9. This is a chapter found on the sarcophagus of Amam in the 

~ r^ — . 

British Museum : it has the title >rfi %v v^ rs \> |~^ , 

"taking the form of a vulture" (see p. 139) : I should rather say 
a goose. 

10. The ninth domain, Akset or Aksi, has the form of a vase, 
which a crocodile called Maatetf touches with his snout. 

11. The words are obscure. I believe them to mean: Akset 
was made such as it is, in order that, &c. 

12. The tenth domain is called that which is at the mouth of 
the stream. 

13. I cannot translate the following words. 

14. The destruction of the name means absolute destruction of 
the person. 

15. I have kept the reading Cher-aba, which Renouf advocates, 
in opposition to Cher-aha, adopted by most egyptologists. 

16. I believe this name, which is spelt differently in each 
papyrus, to be the origin of the K/3w0< and Mw0<, these two rocks 
mentioned by Herodotus (II, 28), out of which issues the Niles. 

There are hardly any variants in the vignettes which accompany 
the text of the chapter of the domains. 



Chapter 151. Papyrus, British Museum, looio. 

Chatter 152. Papyrus, Busca. 






Chapter 151 a ter. 
Papyrus, B.M., 9900. 

Chapter 153. 
Papyrus, Louvre, III, 93. 


Chapter CL. 

This is not a separate chapter: it stands to 149 as 16 to 15. It 
consists of the vignettes accompanying Chapter 149, and it is the 
end of many papyri. Curiously, there are fifteen domains instead of 
fourteen, one of them, the fifth, seems to have been divided into two. 

At the corner of the picture are four serpents, which I consider 
as the four cardinal points. 

Taking the domains in the same order as in the preceding text, 
we find them named in the following way in the papyrus Aa : — 

1. The good Amenta, the gods within which live on s/iens and /// 

2. The garden of Aarru; the god in it is Ra. 

3. The domain of the glorious ones. 

4. The high and lofty mountain. 

5. The basin, the fire of which is a blazing flame ; the front of 
the fire, the god in it is the bearer of altars. 

6. Amemhet, the god in it is he who knocks down the fishes. 

7. Asset. 

8. Hasert, the god m it is the bearer of heaven. 

9. Akset, the god in it is Maatetf. 

10. The face of the Kahu gods. 

11. Aat, the god in it is Sothis. 

12. The domain of Unt, the god in it is the destroyer of souls. 

13. The surface of the water, the god in it is the mighty power. 

14. The domain of Cher-aba, the god in it is the Nile. 


(a) Words of Anubis. 

Thy right eye is in the Sektit boat, thy left eye is in the Atit 
boat. Thy eyebrows are with (i) Anubis, thy fingers are with 
Thoth, thy locks are with Ptah Sokaris ; they prepare for thee a 
good way, they smite for thee the associates of Sut. 

(d) Said by Isis. I have come as thy protector, JV, with the 
breath coming forth from Tmu. I shall strengthen for thee thy 

2 T 


throat. T give thee to be like a god. I will put all thy enemies 
under thy feet. 

(c) Said by Nephthys. I go round my brother Osiris A^. I 
have come as thy protector. I am myself behind thee for ever, hear- 
ing when thou art addressed by Ra, and when thou art justified by 
the gods. Arise, thou art justified through all that has been done for 
thee. Ptah has smitten thy enemies ; thou art Horus the son of 
Hathor. It has been ordered what should be done for thee. Thy 
head will not be taken away from thee for ever. 

(d) Words of the figure of the Northern wall. 

Ke who Cometh to enchain, I shall not. let him enchain thee. 
He who Cometh to throw bonds, I shall not let him throw bonds on 
ihee. I am here to throw bonds on thee. I am here to enchain 
thee; but I am thy protector. (2) 

(e) Words of the Tat of the U'estern wall. 

Come in haste, and turn away the steps of Kep-her. Bring light 
into his hidden abode. I am behind Tat, I am verily behind Tat, 
on the day when the slaughter is repelled. I am the protector 
ofiV^. (3) 

(/) Words of the flame of the Southern wall. 

I have spread sand around the hidden abode, repelling the 
aggressor that I might throw light on the mountain. 1 have 
illuminated the mountain. I have turned the direction of the 
sword. I am the protector of N. (4) 

{£) Said by Anubis in his divine hall, the lord of Ta-Tsert. 
I keep watch over thy head. Awake, thou on the mountain. Thy 
wrath is averted. I have averted thy furious wrath. I am thy 
protector. (5) 

(Ji) The two figures of the soul, with raised hands 
The Uving soul, the powerful Chu of N. worships the sun when 

he ariseth on the Eastern horizon of the sky. 

The living soul of N. adoreth Ra, when he setteth in the land of 

the living, on the Western horizon of the sky. 


(/) Words of the two statuettes. (6) 

O statuette there ! Should I be called and appointed to do any 
of the labours that are done in the Netherworld, by a person 
according to his abilities, to plant fields, to water the soil, to convey 
the sand from East to West ; here am I, whithersoever thou 
callest me. 

Words of the genii of the four cardinal points. 

{k) I am Kebehsenuf. I have come to be thy protector. 
I have joined thy bones. I have strengthened thy limbs. I have 
brought thee thy heart and put it in its place, into thy body. 
I will cause thy house to prosper after thee. 

(/) I am Hapi thy protector. I have revived thy head and thy 
limbs. I have smitten thy enemies under thee. I give thee thy 
head for ever. 

{m) I am Tuamautef. I am thy son Horus, I have come, and 
I rescue my father from the evil doer, whom I put under thy feet. 

(«) I am Emsta. I have come, I am thy protector. I cause thy 
house to prosper permanently, according to the command of Ptah, 
according to the command of Ra himself. 


With Chapter 151 begins a series of texts written either on the 
walls of the funeral chamber or on the mummy cloth, or on various 
amulets. This series goes as far as 160, with the exception of 152 
and 153, which have been inserted there without any apparent 

Chapter 151 is not so much a text as a picture. It represents 
the funeral chamber. The four walls, which should be vertical, are 
drawn lying flat on the ground. In the middle of the chamber, 
under a canopy, is the mummy, on which Anubis lays his hands ; 
under the bed is a bird with a human head, the symbol of the soul 
of the deceased. We must suppose that the god Anubis is a priest, 
or a member of the family, who has put on a jackal's head, and who 
pronounces the words said to be those of the god. At the foot of 
the bed are the two goddesses Isis and Nephthys. 

Each of the four walls had a small niche of the exact size of 
an amulet, which was lodged in it. We know it from the four 
oriented steles of Marseilles (Naville, Les quatre steles orieiitees du 
Musee de Marseille), where we find the text belonging to each wall, 

2 T 2 


and also the niche cut in the stone for each amulet. On the North 
was a human figure, on the South a flame, on the East a jackal, 
on the West a Tat. 

In the chamber were four so-called canopic vases, with the gods 
of the four cardinal points, each of whom has his words to say. 
Besides these were statuettes called shabti or ushabti, the helpers of 
the deceased in his work in the Elysian fields. In the papyrus 
London, looio {A/.), from which this chapter is translated, one of 
them has the usual appearance, the other the head of Anubis. 

The soul of the deceased is supposed to be in the chamber, and 
to worship the rising and the setting sun. 

Very few papyri have this chapter as complete as Af., which is 
taken here as standard for text and vignettes, but there are fragments 
of it here and there. The Turin version is much shorter than the 
old one. The papyrus of JSFii (ed. Budge) contains the texts of the 
four walls with rubrics very similar to those of the steles in Marseilles. 
They form a special chapter joined to 137 a, with the title : What is 
do7ie secretly in the Ttiat, the mysteries of the Timt, the introduction 
into the mysteries of the Nether^vorld. 

In order to facilitate the understanding of the chapter, I have 
lettered the words spoken by the various figures. 

1. Renouf would have translated (see Chapter 42), thy eyebrows 
are those of Anubis ; but the following chapter shows that we have 
to translate 7vith Anubis, which should mean here, under the 
protection of Anubis. 

2. The rubrics say the figure is made of palm wood, and is seven 
fingers high. 

3. The rubric of this Tat is the following : said on a Tat of 
crystal^ the branches of which are of gold. It is folded up ift fitie 

There is another chapter of the Tat put on the neck of the 
deceased (Chapter 155), the words of which are totally different. 

4. According to the rubric, the flame is a torch made of reeds 

5. The Anubis was made of clay. 

6. Words engraved on the funerary statuettes called TjI^T 

Nk\ \ '^ t or ^czsm J f \ > 'iii abridged form of Chapter 6, for 
which I take Renouf's translation. 



Said by Anubis Amut, in his divine hall, when he puts his 
hands over the body of yV., and provides him with all that belongs 
to him. 

Hail to thee, beautiful face, lord of sight, sacred eye lifted up 
by Ptah Sokaris, raised by Anubis, and to which Shu has given its 

Beautiful face, which art among the gods, thy right eye is in the 
Sektit boat, thy left eye is in the Atit boat ; thy eyebrows are a 
pleasant sight among the gods. Thy front is in the protection of 
Anubis, thy back is pleasant to the venerable hawk. Thy fingers (i) 
are well preserved in writing before the lord of Hermopolis, Thoth, 
the giver of written words. Thy locks are beautified before Ptah 

N. is welcome among the gods ; he sees the great god, he is led 
on the good roads, he is presented with funerary offerings, his 
enemies are beaten down under him in the house of the Prince of 
Heliopolis (2). 


The words spoken by Anubis in Chapter 1 5 1 have been taken 
out and made into a special chapter, which in papyrus London, 
9900 {All) occurs in two different forms. I called them CLIa Ms 
and CLLa ier, the second one being only an abridgement of the first. 
Vignettes and titles are not the same for these two chapters. That 
translated, CLIa bis, is the longest of the two. The title of the 
other one is • the Chapter of the Mysterious Head, and the vignette 
thereof consists of a mummy's head. 

In comparing this chapter with the words of Anubis we had 
before, we find the explanation of expressions like this : thy eyebrows 
are with Anubis. 

(i) ]]]. This word has always been translated yf^^^rx, a sense 

which is evidently wrong in this place, where parts of the head only 
are mentioned, and when one would expect the hair or the beard. 

I suppose that this obscure sentence means that since everything 
m him is divine the design or colour of his fingers (?) was taken from 
the books of Thoth. 

(2) See note 8 on Chapter i. 



The Chapter of building a house (i) on earth. 

rejoice, Seb, N. has been set in motion with his vital power 
he has given to men and gods their creative strength. 

There is cheering, when it is seen that Seshait (2) has come 
towards Seb ; when Anubis has commanded to N. : build a house on 
earth, the foundations of which be Hke On, and the circuit Hke 
Cher-aba ; let the god of the sanctuary be in the sanctuary. I also 
decree that it should contain the sacrificial victim, brought by slaves, 
and held up by ministrants. 

Said by Osiris to the gods in his following : come hastily, and see 
the house which has been built for the glorified, the well equipt, who 
Cometh every day. Look at him, hold him in awe, and give him 
l^raise, which is well pleasing to him. 

(3) You see what I have done myself, I the great god who 
Cometh every day. Look ye, Osiris brings me cattle, the south wind 
brings me grain, the north wind brings me barley as far as the end 
of the earth. 

1 have been exalted by the mouth of Osiris (4), applause sur- 
rounds him (5) on his left and on his right. 

Look ye, men, gods, and Chus, they applaud him, they applaud 
him, and I am well pleased. 

The text here translated is that of the Papyrus of A^u. with a few- 
variants taken from contemporary texts. 

1. The J here mentioned is the abode of the j j, where 

it is worshipped and receives offerings. In the vignette of Pap. 
Busca (Ik), the plan of this abode is like the funerary constructions 
discovered at Nagadah and Abydos. 

2. The goddess ^is often connected with building (Chapter 52). 

3. Here the deceased begins to speak himself. 

_^. "^^ ^^^ beating in measure as the musicians 

do, the regular applause so often heard in the- East. 

5. The person changes, as is often the case in such texts. The 
deceased speaks of himself in the third person. 



Chapter 153A. Louvre, III, 93. 

Chapter 153A. Louvre, 3084. 


Chapfer 161. 
Louvre, III, 93, 

Chapter 153A. B.M., 9900. 



T^e Chapter of comifig out of the net. (i) 

he who turns backwards, mighty of heart, who spreads his net 
before him, who entereth the earth ! O you the fishermen sons of 
their fathers (2), who go round in the midst of the stream, you will 
not catch me in your net, in which you catch the disabled, and you 
will not carry me away in your canvas, in which you take away the 
evil ones in the earth ; the frame (jf which reaches the sky, and 
the weights of which are on the earth. 

For I will come out of its meshes and shine like Hunnu (Sokaris). 
I will come out of its bars (3) and shine like Sebak. I shall fly 
against you like a fisher whose fingers (4) are hidden. 

1 know the fork (5) which belongs to it. It is the great finger 
of Hunnu (Sokaris). I know the stake (6) ; it is the leg of Nemu (7). 
I know its pointed head, it is the hand of Isis. I know the name 
of its blade ; it is the knife of Isis with which she cut the meat for 

I know the name of the frame and of the weights. They are the 
feet and the legs of the Sphinx (8). 

I know the name of the ropes with which fishing is done ; they 
are the bonds of Tmu. 

I know the names of the fishermen who are fishing. They are 
the worms (9), the ancestors of the blood drinkers (10), who pour 
their flow on my hands, when the great god the lord listens to the 
words in Heliopolis, in the night of the 15th of the month (11), 
in the temple of the moon. 

I know the marked space (12) in which they are enclosed. It is 
the soil of iron on which the gods stand. 

I know the name of the divine supervisor who takes hold of the 
fishes, and marks them on the tail. He is the supervisor of the 
divine property. 

I know the name of the table on which he lays them (the fishes) ; 
it is the table of Horu.s. 

He sits alone in the night; nobody sees him ; the future ones (13) 
see him, and the present ones give him their acclamations. 

I shine like Horus ; I govern the land, and I go down to the land 


in the two great boats. Horus introduces me into the house of the 
Prince (14). 

I have come as a fisher; the fork has been given into my hand ; 
my blade is in my hand, my knife is in my hand. I come forth ; 
I go round about, and I entangle in my net. 

I know the name of the fork which closes the mouths vomiting 
(fire ?). It is the great finger of Osiris. 

The fingers (prongs) which hold fast, they are the fingers of the 
ancestors of Ra, the claw of the ancestor of Hathor. 

I know the strings which are on this fork, they are the bonds 
of the lord of mankind. 

I know the name of the stake ; the thigh of Nemu. Its point is 
the hand of Isis, its coil, the cord of the first-born god, its cordage 
the rope of Ra. 

I know the name of the fishermen who are fishing ; they are the 
worms, the ancestors of Ra, the creatures (15), the ancestors of Seb. 

When what thou eatest is brought to thee, what I eat is brought 
to me. Thou eatest what is eaten by Seb and Osiris. 

(16) thou who turnest backwards, mighty of heart, who fishes 
and entangles him who enters the earth ; O you fishers, sons of 
their fathers, and ye fowlers who are in Nefer-sent ; you will 
not catch me in your nets, and you will not entangle me in your 
meshes, wherein you catch the disabled, and where you catch those 
who are in the earth ; for I know it (the net), its frame above, and 
its weights below. Behold, I come, my stake is in my hand ; the 
point is in my hand, the blade is in my hand. 

1 come, I arrive to my ....(?) I have come myself; I have 
come to bind it, to put it in its place. My knife is sharpened. I 
put it in its place. 

The stake which is in my hand is the thigh of Nemu ; the fork 
which is in my hand is the fingers of Sokaris ; this point which is in 
my hand is the claws of Isis ; the blade which is in my hand is the 
knife of Nemu. 

Behold I have come, I sit in the boat of Ra, I sail on the lake 
of Cha () 7) and on the lake of the Northern sky. 

I hear the words of the gods. I do what they are doing, I give 
praises to their persons, I live as they live. 

N. appears on the ladder which was made for him by his 
father Ra, when Horus and Sut lake hold of him. 



In the Theban version the Chapter of the Net is divided into two, 
153A and 153B, which have different titles and different vignettes. 
153A is called the '' Chapter of coming oui,^' or, as might be translated, 
^^ of escaping from the net.'" The vignettes represent a clap-net, used 
for waterfowl. The second Chapter is called '''' the Chapter of escapifig 

from those zvho catch \\ <&< 1 ," which, from the etymology, 

c ^ _zr I 

might be translated foul or fetid fish. There the vignette represents 
a drag-net containing fishes, and drawn by apes. 

It is probable, one may suppose, that originally one Chapter 

referred to the fowlers, the 1 [ saV - , who use the clap-net, 

© ^11 Mi IN ^ 

and the other to the fishermen, the 'w '\\ r\ ^"^ TTT, who 

M _M. .>5r^ <e^ III 

use the drag-net. But in the form in which these Chapters appear 
in the three best texts where they have been preserved, London, 
9900 {Aa), Paris, III, 93 {-Ph-), and the papyrus of Nu, fowlers and 
fishermen are mixed together. 

The text of 153A is very corrupt, and seems to differ greatly 
from the original. The variants between the chief documents are 
considerable, and show that the understanding of it was nearly lost. 
It probably had two different versions, which have been cast into 
one, since after the first two-thirds it begins over again and nearly 
repeats itself 

The Turin text contains only 153A, and that even much shorter, 
but it is followed by a rubric, which is absent from the Theban 

The translation is made from the three above-named documents. 

The vignette of 153A, in the papyrus III, 93, of the Louvre {Pb), 
shows a clap-net drawn by four men. Behind it comes the deceased, 
holding in his hand two instruments mentioned in the text : the 

D — c and the \\ , called v\ \2_vo^t^ or ^\ — h— \X_ • eacb 

of them consists of different parts having a distinct name. 

In the papyrus of JVii the deceased is seen drawing the rope of 
the net. 

In the vignette of London, 9900 {Aa), he is supposed to do the 

2 U 


1. Among the dangers to which the deceased is exposed is that 
of being caught in a net by hidden genii, who will treat him as is 
done to water-fowl or fishes. But he escapes from this peril, 
because he knows the names of the fowlers and fishermen who 
intend to attack him, and also of the net itself, and of the various 
parts of which it consists. All these names are mystical ; they are 
connected with some divinity, and this gives them a magical power, 
owing to which the deceased can make his escape. 

2. I suppose this means fishermen, sons of fishermen. 

3. Litt. the hands : the bars, the sides of the frame of the net. 

4. The fingers are often mentioned when we should say the 
hand. The act or the wound is attributed to the fingers. "Whose 
fingers are hidden," means he who hides the hand with which he will 

5. :> — c. The instrument in the hand of the deceased. Though 
the determinative is ^^^-^, it does not necessarily mean that it is 
made of wood ; it may be the determinative of weapons in general. 
It has prongs, which are compared to nails or claws, so that it 
probably is a weapon like the bident for spearing fishes, the tines 
of which are held together by a string (Wilkinson, Mariners and 
Customs, 2nd edition, Vol. II, p. J07). Otherwise it is not unlike 
a netting needle (Wilkinson, loc. cit., p. 175). If it is a weapon, one 
does not very well understand why it is said to belong to the ret. 

6. The ^^\ ^ \2^sj7-7^ is evidently the stake or peg to 

which the end of the clap-net is fastentd. But it must be noticed 
that in the vignette of London, 9900, this peg is a dagger. There- 

for one may speak of its pointed head (Brugsch, Diet. 

SuppL, p. 85), and of its [ . a^'';^- , blade. 

7. Nemu is perhaps a local name of Horus (Brugsch, Did. 
geog.,V- 70- 

8. jTt • " The god in Lion form " (Renouf) is the name of 

the Sphinx {Sphinx, Vol. V, p. 193). ■ 

9. See Chapter 149, note 5. 

10. We know from an inscription at L')endereh that the 

> (][ \^ Wl ' ^^^ drinkers, feast on blood, •¥" 
^=^^ ^ (Brugsch, Diet. Suppl., p. 18) 



11. The late recension of Chipter 153 ends here, and does not 
contain 1531;. It is followed by this rubric : 

Said on a figure of the deceased ivhich is placed in a boat. Thou 
shalt put the Ssktit boat on his right, and the Atit boat on his 
left. Offerings tvill be made to him of cakes, beer, and all good 
things, on the day of the birth of Osiris. He to wh vn these things 
have been done ivill be a living soul for ever, and will not die a 
second time. 

12. I Y J . I consider this word as derived from 

Y J \\ ' T J lil' ^^'^'"^^"^ means to mark an object with a cut or 
with fire, for a religious purpose, or simply as an indication of 
property. A little further it is spoken of fishes 4 L=>^n::>^ 

I ^ " marked on the tail 

13. We have here the opposition between "R 1 " those who are," 

and ^"^ I "those who are not," that is, those who are not yet, the 

future ones. The negative, which often expresses the idea of 
anteriority, is one of the usual ways of rendering the future; that 
which has not yet taken place, which is to come. An official of the 

Xllth dynasty says: ''the king T~^ 'v> V§^ 1\ <:c^LJ^ 

A/W\/\A ft 

<:ir> ^; f\ made me his commissioner of works, having 

charge of present and future work" {Zeitschr., 1882, p 8, note). It 
is said of Isis that " she issues her directions for what is and what will 


be " 1 """^^ ''^^^ ^ ^ ^^ (Stele Metternich, Brugsch, Diet. 

Suppl., p. 355). 

14. See Chapter i, note 8. 

^5- ^tor t>^^s_y ^W "^^ ^^^^ ^^^ sometimes men- 
tioned before the gods, I believe the word might be translated, the 
first beings, the first creatures : "die Urwesen." 

16. Hero begins the second version of the chapter which has 
been added to the other one. 

I -7. wvAA/N T . This lake is often mentioned in the texts 

' I H illl 

of the pyramids. It is one of the celestial lakes not very distant" 
from the Elysian fields. 

2 U 2 


The Chapter of escaping from the catchers offish. 

ye snarers (?), O ye fowlers, O ye fishers, sons of their fathers, 
know ye (i) what I do know, the name of this very great net : the 
embracer is its name. 

Know ye what I do know, the name of its cordage : the bonds 
of Isis. 

Know ye what I do know, the name of its stake : the thigh of 

Know ye what I do know, the name of the fork : the finger of 

Know ye what I do know, the name of its point : the nail of Ptah. 

Know ye what I do know, the name of its blade: the knife of Isis. 

Know ye what I do know, the name of its weight : the iron 
which is in the sky. 

Know ye what I do know, the name of its flowers (2) : the 
feathers of the hawk. 

Know ye what I do know, the name of the fisherman : the 

Know ye what I do know, the name of the ground (3), where 
are its limits : the house of the moon. 

Know ye what I do know, the name of him who fishes there : 
the great prince who sits on the east of the sky (4). 

1 am Ra, (5) who proceedeth from Nu, and my soul is divine. 
I am he who producelh food, but I execrate what is wrong. 

I am Osiris, the possessor of Maat, and I subsist by means of it 
every day. 

I am the eternal one, like the bull. (6) I am feared by the cycle 
of the gods in my name of the eternal one. 

I am self-originating, together with Nu, in my name of Chepera, 
from whom I am born daily. 

I am the lord of Daylight, and I shine like Ra; he gives me life 
in these his risings in the East. 

I come to heaven, I take hold of my place in the East. 

The children of the great god nourish him to whom they have 
given birth, with sacred offerings. 

I eat like Shu. I ease myself like Shu. The king of Egypt 



Chapter 153B. Louvre, III, 93. 

Chapter 154. Lepsius, " Todt. 

Chapters 151, 155, 156. Louvre, III, 89. 



(Osiris) is present. Khonsu and Thoth (7) their laws are within 
me. They impart warmth (8) to the heavenly host. 


This Chapter is found only in two papyri : Paris, III, 93, and 
the Papyrus of A'u. Both of them are, in. some parts, very incorrect. 
The Paris document here and there omits a line ; I had to use 
them both for the translation. 

The first part of the Chapter is only a nomenclature of the various 
parts of the net, very similar to 153A. 

The vignette represents a drag-net drawn by three dog-headed 

I. 1 v\ /www ^ ^^ . I believe there is a slight difference 

of meaning between this old participial form, and the usual [ v\ 

^ . I consider that the first form means : do you know 
well? are you certain to know? or do you pretend to know? 

I I I 



I suppose this word means the papyrus 

flowers which are sometimes tied to the net. (Bergmann, H.I., 
P- 53-) 

3. ^ where we had in 153A. I^ 1 h. 

4. Here the discrepancies between the two texts are so great, 
that I do not venture to give a translation. 

5. The following lines are an abridged recension of Chapter 85, 
where I repeat Renouf's translation. 

6. The bull of Amenta, Osiris, as he is called in the first Chapter 
(see note 5, Chapter i). 

7. I ' Yi^ V^ Thoth, the god of 1 "^ I cyJULOT It Hermopolis. 
(Brugsch, Did. SiippL, p. 927, Did. Gcog., p. 749.) 

litt. warmth, means probably a moral quality. In 

the Canopus inscription 


corresponds to the Greek 



The Chapter of not lettm^ the body decay (i) in the Netherivorld. 

Hail to thee, my father Osiris. I have come to embahn thee. 
Do thou embahii this flesh of mine, for I am perfect like my father 
Chepera, who is my image, he who does not know corruption. 

Come, take hold of my breath of life, lord of the breath, lofty 
above his equals ; vivify (2) me, build me up, thou lord of the 
funeral chest. 

Grant me to go down into the land of eternity, as thou doest 
when thou art with thy father Tmu, he whose body never decays, 
he who does not know destruction. 

I have not done what thou hatest, the command (which I obey) 
is that which thy ka loveth, (5) I have not transgressed it. 

.1 have been delivered, being thy follower, O Tmu, from the 
rottenness which thou allowest to come over every god, every 
goddess, every animal, every creeping thing which is corruptible. 

After his soul has departed he dies, (4) and when it has gone 
down he decays ; he is all corruption ; all his bones are rottenness, 
putrefaction (5) seizes his limbs and makes his bones break down, 
his flesh becomes a fetid liquid, his breath is stink, he becomes a 
multitude of worms. 

(As for me) there are no worms (6). He is impotent whoever 
has lost the eye of Shu (7) among all gods and goddesses, all 
birds and fishes, all snakes and worms, all animals altogether, for 
I cause them to crawl before me, they recognise me and the fear of 
me prevails over them, and behold every being is alike dead among 
all animals, all birds, all fishes, all snakes, all worms, their life is 
like death. 

Let there be no food for the worms all of them. Let them not 
come to me when they are born, I shall not be handed over to the 
destroyer in his cover, who destroys the limbs, the hidden one who 
causes corruption, who cuts to pieces (8) many dead bodies, who 
lives from destroying. 

He lives who performs his commands, but I have not been 
delivered into his fingers, he has not prevailed upon me, for I am 
under thy command, lord of the gods. 

Hail to thee, my father Osiris ! thy limbs are lastmg, thou dost 


not know corruption ; there are no worms with thee, thou art not 
repugnant, thou dost not slink, thou dost not putrefy, thou wilt not 
become worms. 

I am Chepera, my Hmbs are lasting for ever, I do not know 
corruption. I do not rot, I do not putrefy, I do not become worms. 
I do not lose the eye of Shu. 

I am, I am, I live, I live, I grow, I grow, and when I shall awake 
in peace, I shall not be in corruption, I shall not be destroyed in 
my bandages. I shall be free of pestilence, my eye will not be 
corrupted, my skin (?) will not disappear. My ear will not be 
deaf, my head will not be taken away from my neck, my tongue will 
not be torn away, my hair will not be cut off, my eyebrows shall not 
be shaven off. No grievous harm shall come upon me, my body 
is firm, it shall not be destroyed. It shall not ])erish in this earth 
for ever. 


This Chapter is not frequently met with in the papyri ; it was 
written on the wrappings and the bandages of the dead ; for instance, 
on the funeral cloth of King Thothmes III, where it is not complete. 
This Chapter is interesting, as it shows how repulsive to the Egyp- 
tians was the idea of corruption, of the decay of the body, which is 
described here in most realistic terms. This is one of the reasons 
why they gave such importance to mummification. 

Parts of this Chapter are very obscure. The translation has been 
made from the text on the mummy cloth of Thothmes III, supple- 
mented by the Papyrus of JVu. 

The only vignette we have is that of the Turin Papyrus, showing 
a mummy lying on the bed, and illumined by the rays of the sun. 

I- [JO "^^^^j "to pass away, to disappear through corruption 

or decay." Sometimes it seems to have an active sense : to let some- 
thing pass away, to lose it. 

2. ]\]l , n is generally translated "firm, stable, abiding" 

(Chapter i, note 9), but I believe in most cases it has another sense : 
"to vivify, to impart the breath of life," as one may judge from the 
title of Chapter 182, which mentions two acts, one of which is the 


consequence of the other, ^^j^^ T? Tf H H ^li rj ^ 

V^ \\ AAAw. ^^^^ e, Jf : " the book of vivifying Osiris, giving breath 
to him whose heart is motionless." 

In the mythological or celestial geography h u is the East 

lA li ® 

(PL IV). There life originates ; there also the deceased inhales the 
breath of life (Chapter 57, p. no; Naville, Todf., Einl., p. 28). 

3. See Sphinx, V, p. 199. 

4. <zz:> ^^^ ^>v ^^ ^ • ^ consider ^^^^ 

as being here the adverb aftenvards. His soul goes out, and after- 
wards he dies, it goes down and aftenvards he decays. 

5. n _^ "v^ ^5. Ol] V^^^^^' ^'"' ^'^^ destroyers; the word 
occurs again further on : the destroyer who is in his bush(?) or cover, 
the hidden one. It is evidently a metaphor, for the sense is 
obvious ; it is putrefaction. The word in the Turin papyrus 

\ _Jp \)(][ U^5 litt. locks, might apply to the vegetation or 

the excrescences which are often the sign of putrefaction. 

6. "^ c ^v\ I ^ ^ _ . The passage is very obscure. 

I believe the drift of the idea is this : after having described very 
thoroughly what corruption is, the deceased says : as for me I am 
protected against those evils. F.ven should every being fall into 
corruption, having lost the eye of Shu, it is nothing to me, because I 
am feared by all. 

^ ^ v^ I "worms do not exist." ,_^ is explained 

by two passages. At Abydos the priest says to the god (Mar., 

, n j\ <rr> -0:=- -ju- fi ^ n n "^^^^^ ^ 

Abydos, I, p. 34) \\ ~^^^- -<e>- U '■■'^'^ H I ^2>- „^ . 

"I have come to perform the ceremonies, for I have not come to do 
nothing, I have not come in vain." In the poem of Pentaur, when 
Rameses II, addressing Amen, recalls all he has done to honour the 

god, he says : ^ V^ 1 AK (. L -^==^ Y J *^ m 

r^ Pf V\7i : " is it nothing, this thy terrace which I built for thee ? " 

7. The eye of Shu is either an amulet or a magic power residing 






Chap. 155. Chap. 156. 
B.M., 9900. 

Chap. 158. Chap. 157. 

Lepsius, "Todt." 

Chapter 159. Leyden Papyrus. 

Chapter 160. Leyden Papyrus. 

Chapter 159. Lepshs, " Todi." 

Chapter 160. B.M., 9900. 


in some part of the body, which prevents it from becoming worms. 
It is the defence against corruption. Further the deceased says : 
" I do not become worms ; I do not lose the eye of Shu." 
8. Litt. ploughs into dead bodies. 


Chapter of the Tat of gold. ( i ) 

Here is thy backbone,(2) thou still-heart ! here is thy spine, thou 
still-heart ! Put it close to thee. I have given thee the water 
thou wantest. (3) Here it is. I have brought to thee the Tat, in 
which thy heart rejoiceth. 

Said on a Tat of gold inlaid into the substance of sycamore-wood, 
and dipped into juice of ankhamu. If it is put on the neck of this 
Chtt, he arrives at the doors of the Ttiat, and he comes forth by day, 
et'en though he be silent. The Tat is put in its place on the first day 
of the year, as is done to the folloiuers of Osiris. 


After the interruption due to Chapters 153 and 154, we revert 
to the series inaugurated by 151, the description of the chamber in 
which the mummy is deposited, and of the funeral equipment of the 
deceased, his amulets and ornaments. The papyrus III, 93 (Pb), 
of the Louvre, throws several of these Chapters into one, with the 
title : the description of the hidden things of the Tuat, and the vignette 
(PI. LV) represents three figures of Chapter 151 : the statuette, the 
torch or flame, and the Anubis ; besides two Tat of different 
substances, one of them for the wall, and one to be put on the neck 
of the deceased, and a buckle. 

The vignette of Chapter 155 represents a Tat of gold. The 
various versions of the Chapter differ mostly in the rubric. I followed 
the papyrus of Nebseni (Aa), filling up the gaps from other texts. 

I. The rubric seems to explain that the text refers to a Tat of 
gold, which is inlaid into the wood of a mummy-shaped coffin, on 
the neck, and which holds fast by means of the sap or gum of a tree 
or fruit called ankhamu, 

2 X 


2. This shows that the Tat is originally a conventional repre- 
sentation of a backbone. 

3. The juice or gum just mentioned, in which the Tat is dipped. 


Cliapler of the buckle of carnelian, ivhich is put on the neck 

of the deceased. 

The blood of Isis, the virtue of Isis ; the magic power of Isis, 
the magic power of the Eye are protecting this the Great one ; they 
prevent any wrong being done to him. 

This Chapter is said on a buckle of carnelian dipped into the juice 
of ankhamu, inlaid into the substance of the sycamore-wood, and put 
on the neck of the deceased. 

Whorcer has this Chapter read to him, the virtue of Isis protects 
him : Horus the son of Isis rejoices in seeing him, and no jcay is 
barred to him, U7ifailingly. 


M. Maspero, who made a special study of this Chapter {Le 
chapitre de la boucle, Comptes Rendus de PAcad. des Inscr. et Bell. 
Lettres, 187 1), has shown that there are several recensions. This, 
which is probably the oldest, is taken from the papyrus of Nebseni, 
with a few additions from texts of the same date. 

The protective power of the buckle is shown in the vignette 
of Chapter 93, where a buckle with human hands grasps the deceased 
by the left arm, and prevents him from going towards the East. 


Chapter of the vulture of gold, put on the neck of the deceased 

Isis has arrived ; she hovers over the dwellings, and she searches 
all the hidden abodes of Horus when he comes out of the Northern 
marshes, knocking down him whose face is evil. 


She causes him to join the Bark, and grants him the sovereignty 
over the worlds. 

When he has fought a big fight, he decrees what must be done 
in his honour ; he causes fear of him to arise, and he creates terror. 

His mother, the Great one, uses her protective power, which she 
has handed over to Horus. 

Said on a vulture of gold. If this Chapter is written on it, it 
protects the deceased, the paii>erful one, on the day of the funeral, 
undeviatingly for times infinite. 


This and the two following Chapters have not been found in the 
old recension. They are taken from the Turin text. 

The vignette represents a vulture with outspread wings, which is 
often found made of cartonnage on the mummies. The same bird 
is often painted on the ceilings of tombs or temples. 

The Chapter of the collar of gold, put on the neck of the deceased. 

O my father ! my brother ! my mother Isis I I am unveiled and 
I am seen. I am one of the unveiled ones, who see Seb. 

Said on a collar of gold, on which this Chapter has been 7vritten, 
and which is put on the neck of the deceased, the day of his burial. 


The Chapter of the column of green Felspar, (i) put on the neck 

of the deceased. 

O thou who comest out every day, in the divine house, she who 

has a big voice, who goeth round She takes hold of the 

potent formulae of her father, the mummy which is on the bull. (2) 

She is Renent 



Said on a column of green Felspar, on tvhich this Chapter has been 
written, and 7vhich is put on the neck of the deceased. 

The vignelte of this Chapter and the next, show distinctly that 

the I is a miniature column or tent-pole, with the papyrus capital, 

and papyrus leaves at the base. 

This Chapter is taken from the Turin text; parts of it are quite 

1. ^C\ , a mineral which has not yet been det£rmined. 
c=n=i_^lir . . 

Brugsch calls it " Opal." Lepsius thought its colour was blue. 

Dr. Budge translates " mother-of-emerald." Renouf 's translation is 
"green Felspar" (see Chapter 29B, note). 

2. The mummy carried off by the Apis bull, a representation 
often seen on the coffins after the XXIInd dynasty. 


Giving the column of green Felspar. 

I am the column of green Felspar, which cannot be crushed, (i) 
and which is raised by the hand of Thoth. 

Injury is an abomination for it. If it is safe, I am safe ; if it is 
not injured, I am not injured ; if it receives no cut, I receive no cut. 

Said by Thoth : arise, come in peace, lord of Heliopolis, lord 
who resides at Pu. 

When Shu has arrived, he found the stone at Shenemu, as its 
name is neshem. He (the deceased) makes his abode in the 
enclosure of the great god ; whilst Tmu resides in his dwelling; (2) 
his limbs will never be crushed. 


For Chapter 160, we have a text from London, 9900 (Aa) ; it is 
not complete, but the gaps can very easily be filled up from the 
Papyrus Busca. 


The vignette of Aa represents Thoth I)ringing the column, 
enclosed in a box or a casket. 

r. I suppose the symbolical expressions of this Chapter mean 
that the fies/iem, of which the column is made, is a very hard stone, 
which is proof against any injury. 

'-^ O or ^ (2, which I translated '^ crush," means probably 

"grind to powder," and I , "to receive a cut," means to be 

scratched or incised by a sculptor's tool. The power of the amulet 
consists in making the body of the deceased as hard as neshem. 

, a variant of when it refers to Tmu (Nav., Todt., 

ch. XVII, 1. 12). 


The Chapter of unfastening the opening in the sky. Thoth does it so 
that it may be finished when he opens {the sky) 7viih A ten. (i) 

Ra (2) is living, the tortoise (3) is dead. The body has been 
offered in the earth ; the bones have been offered of N. [The West 
wind of Isis]. (4) 

Ra is living, the tortoise is dead. It is safe that is in the funeral 
chest of N. [The East wind of Nephthys.] 

Ra is living, the tortoise is dead, the limbs are well wrapped 
up. Kebehsenef is to keep watch over them for N. [The North 
wind of Osiris.] 

Ra is living, the tortoise is dead. His wrappings have been 
opened ; they reveal his figure. [The South wind of Ra.] 

Everybody 7vho has these figures on his coffin, the four openings of 
the sky are open to him ; one in the North, it is the 7vind of Osiris ; 
one in the South, it is the wind of Aah (the mooti) ; one in the West, 
it is the wind of Isis ; one in the East, it is the wind of Nephthys. 
Every one of these winds, which are at his entrance when he wants it, 
breathes into his tiostrils. 


Let no one outside knoia it, it is a mystery wJiich is not knawn to 
the common people. Do not reveal it to any one, may he be thy father 
or thy son, except thyself. It is a real mystery, and every one of these 
things is unknown to all men. 


This Chapter is so short in the old recension (Paris, III, 93) 
that it could hardly be understood without the rubric of the Turin 
text. The four Thoths, each of whom opens a door, are the four 
winds, coming from the four cardinal points {Zeitschr. fiir Aeg. 
Sprache, 1877, p. 28). 

We have already learned from Chapter 59 that it is one of the 
privileges of the deceased to have the command of the four winds. 

1. The title is obscure. I suppose that the scribe, who had a 
very short space at his disposal, left out a word or two. 

2. Magic formula, which enables Thoth to open the door. 

3. See Chapter 83, note i. Brugsch calls the tortoise the evil 

4. The words in brackets, as well as the rubric^ are taken from 
the Turin Todtenbuch. 


Chapter of causing a flame {f) to arise tinder the head of the 


Hail to thee, thou lion, (2) thou mighty one, with high plumes, 
the lord of the double crown, who wavest the flail, thou art the lord 
of the phallus, (3) thou art vigorous when ariseth the morning light, 
to the rays of which there is no limit. 

Thou art the lord of forms, with numerous colours, who conceals 
himself within his eye to his children. 

Thou art the mighty enchanter among the cycle of the gods, 
thou swift runner, with quick strides. Thou art the mighty god 
who cometh to him who calleth for him, who delivereth the 
oppressed from his tortures. Come to my voice. I am the cow. 
Thy name is in my mouth. I am going to utter it. Hakahaka (4) 


is thy name. Furaa is thy name. Aakarsa is thy name. Ankrobata 
is thy name. Khermauserau is thy name. Kharosata is thy 

I adore thy name. I am the cow. Listen to my voice, on the 
day when thou puttest a flame under the head of Ra. Behold he 
is in the Tuat, and he is mighty in HeliopoHs. (5) Grant that he 
may be who is on earth. He is thy son, who loves thee. 
Do not ignore his name. Come to Osiris N. Grant that a flame 
may arise under his head, for he is the soul of the great body which 
rests in HeliopoHs ; the shining one, the form of the firstborn is his 
name. Barokatat'aua is his name. 

Come, grant him to be like one of thy followers, for he is even 
as thou art. 

Said 071 the image of a coiv, made oj pure gold, to be put on the 
neck of the deceased. Also if it is painted o?i neiv papyrus, and 
put under his head, there will be a quantity of flames all around him 
like those that are on earth. This is a very great protection, which the 
cow granted to her son Ra, after he had gone to rest. His abode is 
surrounded by warriors of blazing fire. (6) 

If thou puttest this goddess on the neck of the King who is on earth, 
he is like f re in pursuing his enemies, his Jwrses cannot stap. 

If thou puttest it on the neck of a man after his death, he is mighty 
in the Netherworld. Nobody will drive him atvay from the gates of the 
Tuat undeviatingly . 

And thou shall say 7vhen thou puttest this goddess on the neck of 
the deceased : O Anion of Anions, thou tvho art in the sky, turn thy 
face towards the body of thy son, make him sound in the Netherivorld. 

This book is most secret. Do not let it be seen by any man, for it 
is forbidden to know it. Let it be hidden. It is called the book of the 
mistress of tlie hidden abode. This is the end. 


Chapters 162-165 ^^^ <^^ ^ ^^^y '^^^ date. They are of a different 
character from the other chapters of the Book of the Dead. They 
belong rather to the magic books of the old Egyptians. When they 
were written there was a decay in the religion, which drifted more 
and more into magic, for which the Egyptians were famous under 
the Roman Empire, ^^'e find there a great number of barbarous 
words unintelligible to us, and probably also to the old scribes, since 


they differ widely according to the papyri. They remind us of those 
which are found in the magical texts (Chabas, Pap. Magique Harris., 

P- ISO- 

It is probable that Chapter 162 is older than the following; several 

papyri end with it, and it has the rubric J\ V\ ^.^>_ n ^ this is the 

end, which is found in the older texts after Chapter 149. 

The late Dr. Pleyte, of Leyden, made a special study of these 
chapters, and of several others of late date {Chapitres suppUmentaires 
dii Livre des Morfs, Texte, Traductiofi et Commentaire, Leide). The 
collation which he published of various documents is the text on 
which this translation has been made. 

The vignette generally consists of a cow, having between her 
horns a solar disk, with two plumes. Occasionally behind her there 
is a goddess with a cow's head having the same attribute. This cow 
I consider to be the goddess Nut, the mother of Ra. An image 
of the cosv, made of pure gold, is to be put on the neck of the 
deceased ; or, what would be much easier and cheaper, it is to be 
painted on a hypocephalus of new papyrus, and put under the 
deceased's head. Part of this chapter is the usual text found on the 

The result of the gift of one of these amulets will be that in the 
Netherworld the deceased will be surrounded by flames. This is the 
effect of the presence of the amulets here described. It does not take 
place in this world, but in the other, where Ra himself enjoys a similar 
protection, being surrounded by " warriors of blazing fire." This 
image seems to point to the magnificent sunsets often seen in 

I. All the translators have interpreted 1 \\\ by " heat," the 

vital heat of the body. But this is not the true sense of the word, 

which means " flame," \y\\ "'^^^ IX "flame of fire." The root 

11 implies the idea of darting, springing forth like a flame or a 

spark, and not of latent heat. 1 1) | 1 '^^ cannot mean any- 
thing except a great quantity of flames. These flames will be the 
protection of the deceased. 

2. The lion addressed by the cow, a god of light and fire, is pro- 
bably Ra himself. 



Chapter CLXII. 
Lepsius, Todtenbuch. 

Chapter CLXIV. Lepsius, Todtenbuch, 

Chapter CLXIII. Lepsius, Todtenbuch. 

Chapter CLXV. Lepsius, Todtenbuch. 

Chapter CLXVI, ^. a. 

Chapter CLXVII, A. a. 


3. For the connection between generation and light, see Kuhn, 
" Herabkunft des Feuers," p. 70 and ff. 

4. These barbarous names, as well as those of the following 
chapters, have not yet been explained. Their interpretation is to 
be looked for in the African languages, for Chapter 164 connects 
them with the si)eech of the negroes, and the Anti of Nubia. 

5. I have kept for [jl Renoufs translation : Heliopolis. But 

it must not be understood as referring to the well-known city at the 
head of the Delta. m is here a city in the other world. It is 

a name belonging to the mythological and not to the terrestrial 

6. I consider the word ^^\^ m ^s\ 1 of the Turin 

text, or according to other papyri, ^ (XI V\ ll (. I I 

rO ^s Y^ I I as connected with ^ || ^'re, burning. 


Chapters brought from another book, in addition to the '■'■coming 
forth by day.'' Chapter of not letting the body of a man decay in the 
Aktherworld, of rescuing hi)n from the devourers of S07ils who imprison 
men in the Tuat, and of not raising his sins on earth against him, but 
of saving his flesh and his bones f'om the 7vo?'ms and from every evil- 
doing god in the Netherivorld, so that he may go in and out as he 
likes, and do everything he desires without restraint. 

— I am the soul of the great body which rests in Arohabu. I am 
protecting the body of Hanirta, the lord of motion, who rests in the 
marshes of Senhakarokana. 

— O thou soul of souls, who art not unwilling to rise when thou 
restest in thy body which dwelleth in Senhakarokana ! Come to 
Osiris N., deliver him from the Powers of the god whose face is terrible, 
who takes possession of the heart, and takes hold of the limbs ; a 
flame rushes out of their mouths, so that they consume the souls. 

2 Y 


— O he who goes to rest in his body, and then rises a burning heat, 
blazing even within the sea, and the sea goes up because of this 
burning vapour, at the time of the morning ; come, bring thy fire ; 
pour thy burning vapour on him who will raise his hand against 
Osiris JV. for ever and ever. 

— Hail, Osiris JV., thy duration is that of the sky ; thy duration is 
the duration of the ultimate circles, (i) The sky holds thy soul ; this 
earth holds thy figure. 

— Deliver Osiris JV. Do not let him be carried away by his 
enemies, to him who devours the soul, who raises evil accusations. 
Restore his soul to his body and his body to his soul. 

— It is he who is hidden in the pupil, in the Eye of Sharosharo. 
Shapuarika is his name. He resides on the north-west front of Apt, 
in the land of Nubia, and he will never navigate towards the East. 

— O Amon the bull, the scarab, the lord of the two eyes whose name 
is : he with the terrible pupil. Osiris A^. is the image of thy tw^o eyes, 
Sharosharo is the name of one, Shapuarika is the name of the other 
one. He is Shaka Amon, Shaka Nasarohaut ; Tmu who illuminates 
the two earths is his true name. Come to Osiris M, he belongs to 
the land of Truth, do not leave him alone. He is of the land which 
is not seen again. 

— Thy name is with the mighty Glorified. (2) He is the soul of 
the great body which is in Sais of Neith. 

Said on a serpent having two legs, and bearing a two-horned disk. 
Two eyes are before him, having two legs and two tvitigs. 

In the pupil of one is the image of one raising his arm, with the 
face of Bes, wearing his plumes, and having the back of a hawk. 

It is painted zvith anti and shethu, mixed with green colour of the 
South, and tvith waterfront the Western lake of Egypt ; on a bandage of 
new linen, in which all the limbs of a man zvill be wrapped. 

This he will fiot be driven away from all the gates of the Tuat ; 
he will eat, drink, ease his body as if he 7vere on earth ; no outcry will be 
raised against him ; his etiemies 7vill be powerless (?) against him. 

If this book is read on earth, (3) he is not carried atvay by the 
messetigers, the wicked ones who do evil on all the earth ; and 
he will not be wounded, he will not die from the blow of the king. He 
will not be taken to prison ; for he will go in to his attendants and go 
out victorious, he ivill be free from the fear of evil doers who are on the 
whole earth. 



This Chapter begins with a general title applying to 163-5, ^^^ 
probably to other ones not included in the papyrus of Turin : 
" Chapters brought from another book, an addition to the coming 
forth by day." This means that these chapters were not considered 

as belonging to the <=> ^^^^ ^^ "'■^^ coming forth 

by day," the original Book of the Dead, which in old times ended 
with Chapter 149, and later on with Chapter 162. 

The vignettes represent the figures described in the rubric for 
which the chapter was written. 

Dr. Pleyte first discovered that this Chapter is a kind of dialogue, 
consisting of words spoken by the god, and a prayer addressed to him 
in favour of the deceased. The strange names which occur in the 
text lead us here also to Africa, since it is said of the deceased that 
he resides in Apt of Nubia, Napata. 

I. A papyrus, in Turin of a woman, reads here )sK II ^9 

[ni\T\ I O I 

[ ^ O \>^' etc., "thy duration is the 



O I 

duration of the ultimate circles." 

2. '^ Vi> ^ I C/iuu. Renouf either keeps the Egyptian 
word, or translates • " the Glorious ones, the Glorified." See note i, 
ch. I, ch. 15, etc 

3. The amulet tias also an influence on earth, it protects a man 
against hidden dangers, which arise not from men but from 
some invisible causes, and agents like those evil messengers, 
probably spirits, who might be called " angels." I believe that 

^ ^:^ J] /ww« I , " the blow of the king," must mean some 

sudden illness like V\ '^^'^ 1 ■ Dr. Pleyte also considers 

this part of the rubric as applying to a man's life on earth ; there is 

only this expression <r::^> / 1) | which does not agree with this 

explanation, and would rather lead us to think that what is described 
in this part of the rubric takes place in the other world. 

2 Y 2 



Another Chapter. 

Hail, Sekhet, Bast, daughter of Ra, lady of the gods, whoholdeth 
her fan of plumes, the lady of the scarlet garment, the mistress of the 
white and red crown, the only one who stands above her father, 
when there are no gods to stand above her ; the great magician in 
the boat of millions of years, lofty when she rises m the abode of 
silence, the mother of the Shakas, the royal wife of the lion Haka. 

These are the forms of the princess, the mistress of the funereal 
chamber, the mother on the horizon of the sky, the joyful, the 
beloved, who destroyeth the rebels collected in her fist. 

She stands at the prow of the boat of her father, in order to strike 
down the evildoer, in order to place JNIaat at the prow of the boat 
of Ra. 

Neith, the burning one, after whom nothing remains ; she who 
follows Kaharo, who follows Saromkaharomat is thy name, thou art 
the mighty burning wind behind Kanas, (i) at the prow of the boat of 
her father Haropukaka Scharoshaba, in the language of the negroes 
and of the Anti of the land of Nubia (2). 

Acclamations to thee, mightier than the gods; thou art praised by 
the gods of Hermopolis, the living spirits who are in their tabernacles. 
They give praise to the valour of Mut (?), (3) and they begin to bring 
offerings to the mysterious gates. Their bones are sound, they are 
delivered from dangers ; they become powerful in the eternal abode ; 
they are delivered from the society of the wicked one, the spirit with 
a terrible face, which is among the assembly of the gods. 

The child (4) who is born of him with the terrible face, will hide his 
body to the cursed serpent whose breath is burning ; because he has 
found the names ; the niysterious lion is one, the soul of the dwarf 
(is the other). As for the eye of the great one, the princess of the 
gods, her name is she who partakes of the name of Mut. 

His soul is powerful, his body is sound ; they are safe from the 
abode of the enemies who are in the society of the wicked one. 
They will not be imprisoned. 


These words which were spoken by the mouth of the goddess 
herself have become the words of the goddesses, and the male gods, 
and of every soul to whom a burial is given. 

Said on a Mut having three faces : otie is the face of the Pekha- 
vulture having two plumes ; the other is the face of a man, ivearing 
the red and the white cro^vn. The other is a face of a Ner-vulture, 
having two plumes, 7vith a phallus and wings and the claws of a lion. 

It is painted with anti with resin (?) mixed with greeti colour, on a 
scarlet bandage. There is a dwarf in front and behind her ; he looks 
at her and wears t7vo plumes. He has one arm raised, and he has 
two faces, one of a hawk and the other of a man. 

He 7vhose body is ivrapped up in these bandages, he is mighty among 
the gods in the N'etherivorld. He is never repulsed ; his flesh and his 
bones are like one who never died ; he drinks at the source of the river, 
he receives fields in the garden of Aarru ; a star in the sky is given 
to him. 

He is delivered froju the fiend-serpent with a burning mouth. His 
soul will not be imprisoned like a bird ; he will be lord of those around 
him, and he will not be eaten by worms. 


The translation of these magical Chapters is still more uncertain 
than that of the rest of the book, and the text is often very corrupt. 

The vignette consists of the three figures described in the rubric. 
That which is given here is taken from the Turin papyrus. It differs 
slightly from the description and from the vignettes of the other 
texts. The middle figure should have a man's body with a lion's 

(i) A papyrus at Leyden reads here dlJ^'^ ' ^'^^ enemies. 

(2) There it is said distinctly that these barbarous words belong 
to African languages. They are probably not all proper names ; 
some of them seem to have a sense which we have not yet dis- 
covered, for instance, the word Shakas in this expression : the 
mother of the Shakas. 

(3) Very uncertain text. 

(4) These words seem to apply to the deceased. 



Chapter of landing and not being obscured, so that the body may 
prosper in drinking water. ( i ) 

the very high one, the great one, 
Amen, Amen, the Hon Kasapa, 

The first-born of the gods on the East of the sky. 

Amon of the Takruti, 

Amon who hides his colours, whose forms are mysterious, and 
who is master of the horns of Horus, 

The great one of Nut. 

Kaarki is thy name, 

Kasaka is thy name, 

The Sphinx is thy name, 

Kasabaka is thy name. 

Amon of the Ankak Takashar, Amon the sphinx is thy name. 
O Amon ! I implore thee. Behold, I know thy name ; thy forms 
are in my mouth, (2) and thy colours in my eyes. 

Come towards thy offspring, thy form, Osiris N. Bring him 
towards the gate of eternity, grant him to rest in the Tuat ; that 
his flesh may be entire in the Netherworld ; that his soul may be 
powerful, that his body may be complete, (3) that he may be free 
from the society of the wicked one, that he may never be fettered. 

1 implore thy name, and thou art a shield for me ; for thou 
believest that I know thee. 

great one, great one, 

Amon (the hidden one) is thy name, 

Rukashaka is thy name, 

Thou art for me a shield. 

Baarkai is thy name, 

Markata is thy name, 

The Sphinx is thy name, 

Nasakabuba is thy name, 

Tanasasa is thy name, 

Sharshatakata is thy name. 

Amon, Amon, O God, O God, Amon. 

1 implore thy name, and as 1 have given thee to understand 


(that I know thee), grant me to rest in the Tuat, and that all my 
limbs be reunited. 

Said by the Spirit which is in Nut : I am doing, I am doing 
all thou hast said. 

Said on the figure with raised arm. There are plumes on its head ; 
its legs are apart ; its torso is a scarab. It is painted in blue with 
liquid gum. 

Said also on a figure the middle part 0/ which is that of a man ; 
his arms are hanging dozvn. The head of a ram is on his right 
shoulder, and another on his left shoulder. Thou ivilt paint on one 
bandage the two figures of the god with raised arm, and put it across 
the chest of the deceased, so that the two painted figures may be on his 

He to whom this has been done, the impure ones in the Tuat can do 
nothing to him. He drinks the nmning wafer of the stream, he shines 
like a star in the sky. (4) 


The vignettes consist of the amulets described in the rubrics. 

1. The explanation to this extraordinary title seems to be given in 
the last sentence of the rubric, where it is said of the deceased : " he 
drinks the running water of the stream, he shines like a star in the 
sky." The amulet for which this text was written will prevent the 
deceased, who is to be as bright as a star, from having his light taken 
from him, from being obscured. The other blessing conferred upon 
him is that of drinking water of the stream. It is difficult to say why 
these two blessings alone are mentioned. 

2. I am ready to utter the names of thy different forms, and I see 
thy various colours. 

3. That his body may be reconstituted. It is curious to find in 
so late texts a vague remembrance of what seems to have been the 
prevalent custom in prehistoric times, and perhaps also during the 
Thinite period : the dismemberment of the body of the deceased. This 
custom was so entirely superseded by the opposite process the 
mummification and the careful preservation of the body, that the old 
tradition is always mentioned with horror and disgust. The Book of 
the Dead is full of objurgations against the dismemberment of the 

4. The Turin Todtenbuch ends here. 



Chapter of the Pillow. 

Awake ! thy sufferings are allayed, ^V. Thou art awaked when 
thy head is above the horizon. Stand up, thou art triumphant 
by means of what has been done to thee. 

Ptah has struck down thine enemies. It hns been ordered what 
should be done to thee. Thou (i) art Horus, the son' of Hathor, 
the flame born of a flame, to whom his head has been restored 
after it had been cut off. 

Thy head will never be taken from thee henceforth. 

Thy head will never be carried away. 


With Chapter i66 begins a series of chapters which are not in the 
Todtenbuch, and which have been collected from various papyri. 
For most of them there is only one text, therefore the translation is 
often very uncertain. 

This Chapter, which is taken from London 9900 {Ad), seems to 
be only a variant, with a few additional sentences, of Chapter 43, 
'•' Chapter whereby the head of a person is not severed from him in 
the Netherworld.'' It alludes to the reconstitution of the body of 
the deceased, and to providing him with all his sepulchral equip- 
m.ent. Head-rests like that which is represented in the vignette are 
often found in the tombs with the coffins already at the time of the 
Xlth dynasty 

Chapter 166 was first discovered and translated by Dr. Birch 
{Zeitschr., 1868, p. 82). 

(i) Here begin the words of Chapter 43. 

(2) ^ \L ';^ [jr.. The second word should be 

taken as a patronymic, "flame-born." Chapter 43 has "^^"^ f/. 



Chapter of bringing an Eye. 

When Thoth had brought the Eye, he appeased the Eye, 
After Ra had wounded (i) her, she was raging furiously and then 
Thoth calmed her after she had gone away raging. As I am sound, 
she is sound and JV. is sound. 


This Chapter taken also from London 9900, is a mere abridg- 
ment of lines 30-34 in Chapter 17. It refers probably to an eclipse. 
The Eye, the moon is pierced or wounded by Ra, which causes the 
goddess to be furious. Then, according to Chapter 17," Thoth calms 
her troubled state (Brugsch), and brings her whole and sound without 
any defect." This is called to appease the goddess. 

I. The correct reading according to Chapter 17, is : 

■^J^^^ °'' ^"l^J^^^ -^'"^'"^^ ^^''^- ^"^^^-' 
p. 751) translates the word : to pierce. 


Chapter 168 should not have been placed among those of 
the Book of the Dead, it belongs to another book similar to the 

-Vh- , the book engraved on the walls of the royal tombs. It 

describes gods and genii of <cz> I ¥\ the bounds (1) in 

the Tuat who confer certain blessings on the deceased ; such as this : 
"those who lift up their faces towards the sky at the prow of the 
boat of Ra, grant that Osiris N. may see Ra when he rises." A 
vignette gives the appearance of the god or genius spoken of. 
Every one of them is followed by this sentence : "for the libation 
of a vase has been made on earth by Osiris N. who is (now) the 
lord of abundance, and goes round the garden of Hotepit." 

The three versions which have been preserved of this text are 

2 Z 


very fragmentary. The most complete, papyrus 10478 of the British 

Museum, contains only the 7 to 12. As the interest of 

<r=> o 111 

this text, the character of which is chiefly pictorial, lies in the 
vignettes, it has been thought unnecessary to give a translation of it. 
I. See note 2, Chapter 127. 


Chapter of 7-aising the funereal Bed. 

Thou art a lion, thou art a sphinx, thou art Horus who avengeth 
his father ; thou art these four gods, those glorious ones who are 
shouting for joy, who are making incantations, and who bring out 
water by the power of the tramp of their feet. Thou risest on the 
right, thou risest on the left. Seb has opened thy blind eyes, (i) 
he has loosened thy legs which were fettered. Thou hast received 
thy heart of thy mother, thy whole heart of thy own body ; thy soul 
is in the sky, thy body is under the ground. There is bread for thy 
body, water for thy throat, sweet breeze for thy nostrils. 

Thou restest in their funereal chambers, which those who are in 

their coffins have opened for thee and for thy when thou 

journeyest ; thou art firm on thy pedestal, of thy existence, thou 
appearest in heaven, and thou fastenest the tackle (2) by the side 
of Ra, 

Thou fishest with the net on the river, the water of which thou 
drinkest ; thou walkest on thy feet, and thou dost not walk headlong. 
Thou appearest on the surface of the earth, and thou doest not come 
forth from under solid ground, the strength (3) which is in thee will 
not be shaken through the action of the god of thy domain. 

Thou art pure, thou art pure, thy forepait is purified, thy hind- 
part is cleansed with bet and natron, and cooled with incense. 

Thou art purified with the milk (given to) Apis, and with beer 
of the goddess Tenemit, with natron which removes all what is 
wrong in thee, and which was provided by the daughter of Ra when 
she gave it to her father Ra ; and when she raised for thee the 
mountain where is buried her father Osiris. (4) 


I have taken a bite of these sweet things which are on the 
hands (?) of Osiris N. the loaves (?) from above, which belong to 
Ra, made of grain of Abu, and four loaves from below which be- 
long to Seb, made of grain from the South. The god (5) of thy 
domain brings thee the Field of Hotepit, his hands are before thee. 

Thou goest out like Ra, thou art powerful Hke Ra, thou art in 
possession of thy feet. Osiris N. is in possession of his feet at all 
times and at all hours; thou wilt not be judged, thou wilt not be 
impiisoned, thou wilt not be guarded, thou wilt not be put in bonds, 
thou wilt not be placed in the house where are the enemies. Cakes 
are piled up before thee, and offerings are well guarded for thee. 

There is no one to oppose thee and to prevent thee from 
going out. 

Thou receivest thy clothing, thy sandals, thy stick, thy linen, 
thy weapons, with which thou wilt cut off heads, thou wilt twist 
round the necks of thy foes ; these enemies who would bring death 
to thee, they will not approach thee. 

The great god speaks to thee : Let him be brought here for all 
that will happen. The hawk rejoices in thee, the cackler cackles 
to thee, Ra opens to thee the doors of the sky. Seb opens for 
thee the earth. 

Thou art great, a mighty (6) Chu, whose name is not known, 
the soul which opens the Amenta. It is mighty this soul of N., 
for he (7) is beloved of Ra and well pleasing to his circle, he joins (?) 
the ways, he guards the men, and guides the lion to the place where 
his ka is propitiated. N. . . . the lord of mankind causes thee to live 
and that thy soul be sound, that thy body may be enduring and 
great, that thou mayest see the light (8) and breathe the wind, that 
thy face may be revealed in the house of right, that thou mayest 
be stationed in the meadow, and not see any storm, that thou 
mayest follow the lord of the two earths, that thou mayest refresh 
thyself under the merit tree by the side of the goddess, the great 
magician. (9) 

Seshait is sitting in front of thee. Sau is protecting thy limbs : 
the bull milks for thee his cows which are in the train of Horse- 
chait. (10) 

Thou washest thy face at the mouth ot the stream of Cheraba, 
thou art welcome to the great gods of Pu and Tepu ; (11) thou 
seest Thoth conversing with Ra in the sky. Thou goest out and 
goest in into Anit, thou conversest with the Rehiu. 

2 Z 2 


Thy ka is with thee, that thou mayest rejoice; and the heart of 

thy birth; thou wakest thy are happy; the cycle of the gods 

give pleasure to thy heart. Thou goest out (and thou seest) four 
loaves for thee from Sechem, and four loaves from Hermopolis ;. 
thou goest out and there are four (loaves) from Heliopolis on the 
table of the lord of the two earths. 

Thou wakest in the night, and thou art welcome to the lords 
of Heliopolis, Hu (12) is in thy mouth, thy feet do nol turn back, 
there is life in thy limbs. 

Thou seizest the sma (13) at Abydos and thou conductest victuals 
to the great gods and vases of drmk to those who are above the 
clouds in the festival of Osiris, on the morning of the Uak festival ; 
the hersheta priest decks thee with gold ; thy garment is well arranged 
with byssus; the Nile rises over thy body; thou art glorious (14) .... 
thou drinkest on the shore of the lake ; thou art welcome to the 
gods who are in it ; thou comest forth in the sky with the gods who 
bring Maat to Ra, thou art brought before the cycle of the gods, 
thou art like one of them. Thou art the gander among the geese 
which are offered to Ptah Anebefres. 


This Chapter and the following are found in one papyrus only, 
Paris, III, 93, a document more remarkable for the beauty of its 
vignettes than for the correctness of the text. 

Both Chapters refer to 8 Vj ^;:z::^ ( ( 

or couch on which the deceased will lie like Osiris. None of them 
has a vignette. As in the course of these chapters there is no mention 
of the bed itself, we must suppose that they were read while the bed 
was raised or arranged. The translation of this text is particularly 
difficult, and often conjectural, owing to our papyrus having no 
other document to compare it with. 

1. All this bears a great resemblance to Chapter 26. 

2. In landing, see Chapter 99. 

I the funereal bed 

Q c LZTZl 

3. [ \\\^ ■ -'■ ^'^^^ ^^P^ Renoufs translation, 

" Strength," but I believe the sense is the same as before : " solid 
ground, dry land, continent (Feste, Brugsch)," as we find in this 


sentence from the Stele at Abusimbel : aaa^a^ 

;l "^ ^rr^--^-n 



111 I ^ 

" the mountains, the water, and 

the continents are shaken by thy name." 

4. For the mountain where the burial of Osiris takes place, see 
vignette to Chapter 186. 

5. I translate as if there was ] 

6. "Mighty," Renouf's translation. I should prefer ''distin- 
guished, eminent," see note 2, Chapters. 14 1-3. 

8. The light kmdled for liis ka (see Chapter 132, A and B), 
and which gives life to the ka. The lighting of a lamp is a symbol 
of the birth (Lep., Denkm.^ Ill, 74 c.) and accompanies it. 

9. For this word I have not followed Renoufs translation, 
which would have been : the master of the words of power (see 
Chapter. 108). 

10. A name of Isis, represented as a cow, and worshipped as 
such, chiefly in the town of Apis, the capital of the Libyan nome, 
near Lake Mareotis. The bull there was Osiris, and the calf Horus 
(see note 4 on Chapter 109). 

11. See note 5 on Chapter 18. 

12. The god of abundance. 

13. lyiji^ an unknown object : however, the sense is clear. 

This means : thou becomest the [1 wf ' A V v ' ^^^^ look-out 

of the ship which is transporting victuals (see Chapters 109 and 149^^). 

14. The text seems to be very incomplete here. 


Chapter of a>'ra?igifig the funereal Bed. 

Thy limbs have been given thee, thou takest hold of thy bones, 
I have set for thee thy limbs ; the earth is bent upon protecting thy 
flesh. Thou art Horus who was within the egg; when thou art 
raised, thou seest the divine body (of Ra), thou marchest towards the 
horizon, to the place where thou likest to be ; and when thou art 


there, there are haihngs and cries of welcome, with all (good things) 
which appear on the altar, 

Horus has raised thee when he rose himself, as he did for him 
who is in the sacred abode. 

Hail, Osiris, thou art born twice. Ua has raised thee, Anubis 
on his mountain has caused thy bandages to grow upon thee. O, 
JV. Ptah Sokaris grants thee to put thy hand on the ornaments of 
the divine house. 

O, N'., Thoth himself conies to thee with the writing of divine 
words ; he grants thee to direct thyself towards the horizon of the 
sky to the place where ^hy ka likes to be,; he has done it to Osiris 
on the night when he came forth living. 

Thy white diadem is established on thy brow. The god Nemu 
is with thee ; he grants thee to be at the head of the ? 

Hail, jV., arise on thy bed, and come forth. Thou are raised by 
Ra on the horizon of the Maati in his boat. 

Hail, i^", thou art raised by I'mu, who grants thee to endure 
for ever. 

Hail, N-t thou art raised by Amsu of Koptos ; thou art adored 
by the gods of the shrine. 

Hail, N., blessed be thy coming in peace to thy house of eternity 
and to thy everlasting monument. 

Salutations to thee in Pu Tepu, in the shrine which thy ka 
loveth, within thy dwelling. 

Mighty is thy soul, thou hast been raised from thy resting 
couch (?), thou art greater than the victim (?) which has been 
embraced by the gods. 

Tliou art like the god who begets the beings. It is admirable 
what thou Greatest more than that of the gods. 

Thy splendour is greater than that of the Glorified, thy spirits 
are mightier than those who are in (?). 

Hail, N., thou art raised by Ptah Anebefres, who puts thy dwelling 
in front of that of the gods. 

Hail, JV., thou art Horus, the son of Osiris, begotten by Ptah, 
created by Nut. Thou shinest like Ra on the horizon when he 
lighteth the two earths by his rays. 

The gods say to thee : Come, come forth, see what belongs to 
thee in thy house of eternity. 

Thou hast been raised by Rennut, the great one, who conceived 
Tnm in the presence of the circle of the gods of Nut. 


I am the second outcome of the sky, and the third of him who 
makes his light. I have come out of the womb ; I have been an 
infant hke my father; there are no perverse actions of mine in the 

various events of my lot. 

Chapter of wrapping up {the deceased) in a pure garf?ient. 

O Tmu, Shu, Tefnut, Seb, Nut, Osiris, Isis, Sut, Nephthys, 
Horus of the two Horizons, Hathor in the great dwelling, Chepera, 
Mentu lord of Thebes, Amon lord of Nestaui, ye the great cycle of 
the gods, ye the small cycle of the gods, ye gods and goddesses 
issued from Nu, Sebek of Shet, Sebek in all his manifold names, 
in all the abodes where his ka likes to be ; ye gods of the South and 
of the North, ye gods in heaven and on earth, grant a pure garment 
to the mighty Chu N. ; give him to be glorious by it and destroy all 
that was wrong in him. 

This pure garment of A^ has been allotted to him for ever, for 
eternity , for you destroy all that is wrong in him. 


This Chapter, which has no vignette, is found in one papyrus 
only, written for a deceased of the name of Amenophis. Its 
Theban origin is clearly indicated by the mention of Mentu and 
Amon, the two great gods of Thebes. 

Its character is different from the Book of the Dead in general. 
It seems to be part of a ritual such as the Ritual of Amon and 
Mut, with which it has a great likeness (see Moret, Rituel du culte 
dtvin, ch. 6). (i) The clothing in a pure or perhaps a clean garment, 
will be the sign that all that was wrong in the deceased has been 
destroyed by the gods. Therefore the deceased calls on them, 
asking them to complete this destruction in order that he may shine 
or be glorious, wearing the pure garment. 

It is alluded to in the next Chapter (fifth verse), " thou 
puttest on the pure garment, and thou divestest the apron, when 
thou stretchest thyself on the funereal bed." 



Begi7ining of the Chapter of reciti?ig the ceremonies made in the 


(i) with bet incense, I inhale the smell of natron and incense 

I have been purified through the sacred utterances 

coming out of my mouth. I am pure verily of the fishes in 

the river, towards the statue in the house of purification ; they are 
pure the words of N. 

Blessed be thou, N., thou art well pleasing to Ptah, well pleasing 
to Anebefres, well pleasing to all gods, well pleasing to all goddesses. 
Thy beauties are like a quiet stream, like the choicest water ; thy 
beauties are like a festival hall in which everyone exalts his god ; 
thy beauties are like the pillars of Ptah, like the shoots of the 
maut (2) plant of Ra. N. is the pillar of Ptah and the ewer of 

O (3) thou who art called aloud, thou who art called aloud, thou 
the lamented, thou art glorified, thou art exalted, thou art glorious, 
thou art strong. 

O thou who art raised up, thou art raised up, N. has been raised 
up by means of all the manifold ceremonies done to him ; thy 
enemies are struck down ; Ptah has struck down thine enemies, thou 
art victorious and thou hast dominion over them. Thy words are 
listened to, what thou hast ordered is clone, thou art raised, thou 
art triumphant before (4) the Circles of gods attached to every god 
and every goddess. 

O thou who art called aloud {bis), second verse. Thy head 

is woven by a woman from Asia ; thy face shines brighter 

than the moon ; the top of thy head is lapis blue ; thy hair is darker 
than the doors of the Tuat, thy hair is black like the night ; thy 
forehead is adorned of blue ; the rays of Horus are on thy face. 
Thy garments are of gold ; Horus has decked them with blue ; thy 
eyebrows, the two sisters joined together ; Horus has adorned them 

with blue ; thy nose inhales the pertume of and thy nostrils 

are like the winds in the sky. 

Thy eyes are the seers of the hill of Bachau, thy upper eyelids 


are enduring for ever ; their lashes are of real lapis ; thy pupils are 
pleasant gifts, and thy lower eyelids are painted with antimony. 

Thy lips utter for thee words of truth, they repeat the words of 
truth of Ra which are well pleasing to the gods. Thy teeth are the 
two heads of the serpent by which the two gods are seized, thy 
tongue is voluble ; thy voice is more shrill than that of the bird in 
the marshes ; thy ears (?) are well established at their place, they go 
(with thee) to the land of Amenta. 

O thou who art called aloud {^/'s), third verse. Thy neck is 
adorned with gold, it is girt with electron ; (5) thy throat and thy 
lungs are like Anubis ; (6) thy backbone is like the Uat' goddesses ; 
thy back is lined with gold and girt with electron ; thy loins (7) 

are like Nephthys (8) is a Nile which is flowing. Thy 

buttocks are two eggs of crystal, thy legs are well fastened for walking, 

thou art sitting in thy place thou hast received from the gods 

thy two eyes. 

O thou who art called aloud (i>is), fourth verse. 

Thy throat is like Anubis, thy limbs are necklaces made of gold ; 
thy breasts are two eggs of crystal which Horus has painted blue, thy 
forearms are adorned with topaz, thy shoulders are well established 
on their base ; thy heart is happy every day, thy whole heart is the 
work of the two divine Powers, thy body worships the stars of the 
gods above and below ; for thy belly is like a calm sky, and thy 
bowels are the Tuat which nobody can fathom, and which sends out 
light in the dark night ; its offerings are eatable plants. 

He (JV.) praiseth the Majesty of Thoth, saying : the desires of 
his beautiful person take place in my tomb ; as my god commanded 
me. Every pure thing he loves is there. 

O thou who art called aloud (Ifis), fifth verse. 

Thy thighs are a pond in a time of abundant inundation ; a 
pond which is lined by the children of the god of water ; thy legs 
which go to and fro are of gold ; thy knees are lentisks in the 
marshes ; they feet are firm every day ; thy shin-bones lead thee on 
the right path. 

Thy arms are pillars on their bases ; thy fingers are .... of gold ; 
their nails are like knives of flint in what they do for thee. 

O thou who art called aloud (di's) .... 

Thou puttest on the pure garment and thou divestest thy apron 
when thou stretchest thyself on the funereal bed ; haunches are cut 
for thy Aa, and a heart is offered unto thy mummy. Thou receivest 

3 A 

350 1300K OF THE DEAD. 

a bandage of the finest linen from the hands of the attendant (9) ot 
Ra; thou eatest on thy resting couch bread which has been baked 
by the fire goddess herself; thou eatest the haunch, thou seizest the 
meat which has been prepared by Ra in his holy place ; thou washest 
thy feet in silver basins made by the skilful artist Sokaris ; thou 
eatest bread placed on the altar, and prepared by the holy fathers, 
thou livest upon baked cakes and hot drinks from the store-house ; 
thou inhalest the smell of flowers ; thy heart is not reluctant at the 
sight of offerings ; thy ministrants make for thee the loaves and the 
cakes of the Powers of Heliopolis ; and they themselves bring thee 
the sacred things ; thy offerings have been chosen for thee ; and thy 
ordinances are in the gates of the Great Dwelling ; thou risest like 
Sahu and thou arrivest like the morning star ; Nut stretches forth 
her arms towards thee ; Sahu, the son of Ra, and Nut, the mother 
of the gods, the two great gods of the sky, they speak one to 
another saying : Take him in thy arms ; I have brought in my arms 
the form of N. in the happy day when he is glorified, when his 
memory is recorded, when he is in the mouth of all generations. 

Thou, raised one, thou hearest how thou art glorified throughout 
all thy house. 

O thou who seventh verse. 

Anubis has given him his shroud ; he has done all that pleased 
him ; the high-priest has prepared his ribbon ; for he is the 
provider (?) of the great god ; thou goest and washest thyself in the 
lake of Perfection, thou makest offerings in the house of the gods 
of the sky, and thou propitiatest the lord of Heliopolis ; thou 
receivest the water of Ra in ewers, and milk in large vases. 

O thou raised one, thou makest offerings on the altar, and thou 

washest thy feet upon the stone of , on the banks of the 

divine lake ; thou comest forth and thou seest Ra upon the four 
pillars which are the arms of the sky; on the head of Anmutef, and 
on the arms of Apuat who opens for thee the path ; thou seest the 
horizon where are all the sacred things which thou desirest. 

O thou who are called aloud {^ns), eighth verse. 

All the good things have been spread out for thee, before Ra. 
Thou hast a beginning and thou hast an end as Horus and Thoth 
have ordered for thee. They call upon JV., they see how he is 
glorious, they give him to come forth like a god to meet the Powers 
of Heliopolis. Thou journeyest on the great path as thy mummy 
has received the sacred things from thy father ; thy hands are 


wrapped in linen every day ; the beginning of the journey of the 
god is at the gate of the Great DwelHng, 

O thou who art called aloud {/>is), ninth verse. 

JV. Breatheth the air for his nose and for his nostrils, he receiveth 
a thousand geese and sixty baskets of all things good and pure ; 
thy enemies have been struck down ; they are no more. 


This Chapter is taken from papyrus London 9900 Aa. It has no 
vignette, the translation here given is that which I published in 
1873 {Zeitsclirift, 1873, pp. 25 and 81), with a few changes. 

1. Lacunre, 

2. Perhaps the — ^ "^ which M. Loret has identified as 

being the celery {Recueil, Vol. XVI, p. 4). 

3. Here begins a hymn, the first words of which are 

® "O thou who art called 



aloud," repeated twice. These words have become the name of the 
hymn, as we say the Magnificat or the Te Deum. The hymn is 

divided into nine fragments or verses, J (Renouf, Life Work, 

Vol. II, p. 390). 

4. Renouf's translation. See Chapter 18, § 10. Rather than 
before, I should translate, through the action of 

5. " Electron " is Lepsius's translation. Renouf, who translates 
•' copper," has discussed the point in a letter to Lepsius {Life Work, 
Vol. II, p. 2). 

6. I believe this means made of black metal, probably silver, 
blackened by some chemical process. 

7. Papyrus Ebers T^ "foramen ani, rectum." 

8. The text has here ^ an evident blunder. We should read 
here the phallus. 

9. Brugsch, Z)/V/. SuppL, p. 102 1, translates ^^. ^^ v\ ^_j M?\ 

aati, " Bettenmacher." 

3 A 2 



The addresses of Horns to his father when he goes in to see his father, 
and 7i<hcn he comes out of his great sanctuary to see him Rd 
Unneferu, the master of Ta-tser, and then they embrace one 
another ; therefore he is glorious in the Netherworld. 

Hail, Osiris ; I am thy son Horus ; I have come, (i) 

I have avenged (thee). 

I have struck down thy enemies. 

I have destroyed all that was wrong in thee. 

I have killed him who assailed thee. 

I stretched forth my hand for thee against thy adversaries. 

I have brought thee the companions of Sut with chains upon 

I have brought thee the land of the South, I have added to thee 
the land of the North. 

I have settled for thee the divine offerings from the North and 
the South. 

I have ploughed for thee the fields. 

I have irrigated for thee thy land. 

I have hoed for thee the ground. 

I have built for thee ponds of water. 

I have turned up the soil of thy possessions. 

I have made there for thee .sacrifices of thy adversaries. 

I have made sacrifices for thee of thy cattle and thy victims. 

I have supplied there in abundance .... 

I have brought thee .... 

I have sacrificed for thee .... 

I have shot for thee antelopes and bulls. 

I have plucked for thee geese and waterfowl. 

I have bound thy enemies in their chains. 

I have fettered thy enemies with their ropes. 

I have brought thee from Elephantine the fresh water which 
refreshes thy heart. 

I have brought thee all the plants. 

I have settled for thee on the earth all thy subsistence as to Ra. 

I have made for thee bread at Pu with red grain. 




Chapter CLXXIII, .-/.«. 

IJOOK Ol' THE DliAD. 353 

I have made for thee drink at Tepu with white grain. 
I have ploughed for thee wheat and barley in the Field of Aarru. 
I have mowed them there for thee. 
I have glorified thee. 
I have given thee thy soul. 
I have given thee thy power. 
I have given thee .... 
I have c;iven thee .... 

I have given thee the dread which thou inspirest. 
I have given thee thy bravery. 

I have given thee thy two eyes, the two plumes which are on thy 

I have given thee Isis and Nephthys, they are placed on thee. 

I have anointed thee with the offering of holy oil. 

I have brought thee the offering by which thy face is destroyed. (2) 


This Chapter is taken also from London 9900. The vignette at 
the end represents Osiris sitting in a naos. Before him are the 
offerings of fowl and cattle which Horus presents to his father. At 
the beginning the deceased is seen, with raised aims ; he is supposed 
to be Horus, and above him are written the following words : — 
" Adoration to Osiris, Khenta Amenta, the great god, the lord of 
Abydos, king for ever, prince of eternity, the venerable god in 
Restau, pronounced by N., I give thee grain, lord of the gods, the 
one god who liveth on justice. I am thy son Horus. I have come 
to thee. I avenge thee, I bring to thee Maat, to the place where is 
the circle of thy gods. Grant me to be among thy followers, and to 
smite thy enemies. I have established for thee thy food offerings 
on the earth for ever." 

This Chapter was first published and translated in the Zeitsc/iri/f, 
Vol. XHI, p. 83. 

1. These words are repeated before every one of the following 

2. This sentence is abridged. It is given in full by the Ritual 
at Abydos : " I have anointed thy head with the oil of the brow of 
Horus ; if it is destroyed there (on his brow) he is destroyed as god ; 
i.e., his divinity is destroyed." 

354 BOOK OF Till-: DEAD. 

Chapter of causing the Chii to come out of the great door in the sky. 

It is read (i) to thee by 'thy son (Horus). 

The great ones tremble when they see the sword which is in thy 
hand, when thou goest out of the Tuat. 

Hail to thee, the wise one, created by Seb, born of Nut. The 
cycles of the gods are at rest. Horus rests in his dwelHng (2), Turn 
rests in his abode (?). All the gods of East and West rest in the 
great goddess (3) of the birth, between the arms of her who gave 
birth to the god. 

When I am born I see, I recognize where I am, I have been 
raised on my place. The order has been accomplished of her who 
hates sleep and depression, and who stands in Utenet. 

My bread comes from Pu, and I receive my form in Heliopolis. 
Horus, in accordance with the command he had received from his 
father the lord of clouds, Astes, raised him, and I have been raised 
by Tmu. 

I am the great one. I come forth between the legs of the cycle 
of the gods. I have been conceived by Sechet, and Shestet (4) gave 
me birth to be her star, Sothis, the first one, the great walker who 
brings Ra through the sky every day. 

I have come to my abode. I have united the two diadems. I 
shine like a star. O ye flowers, the name of which is " the precious 
bunch," I am the lotus which cometh out of the holy earth ; when 
I am plucked, I settle myself at the nostrils of the Great Figure. 

I have come out of the lake of flame, I have received justice 
instead of evil. I am near the white cloth (5), and I keep watch 
over the Urrei in the night of the great flood of tears. (6) 

I shine like Nefertmu the lotus which is at the nostril of Ra 
when he comes forth on the horizon every day, and the gods are 
purified by his sight. 

N. is triumphant among the ka, smiting the hearts through his 
great wisdom. He is near the god, he is the Sau (7) (the knowing 
one) at the western (right) side of Ra. 

I have come to my abode among the ka, uniting the hearts 
through my great wisdom. I am Sau near the god, at the western 





CLXXXIV, /'./. 

Chapter CLXXXV, L. a. 

Chapter CLXXV. Papyrus of Ani. 

Chapter CLXXIV, A./. 

Chapter CLXXX, L. a. 


Chapter CLXXXVI, Z>. a. 


side of Ra ; my sceptre (?) is in my hand. I am called the great 
favourite, as I am clad in red garments. I am Sau, on the western 
side of Ra, with a stout heart in the cave of Nu. 


This Chapter is already found in the pyramid of Unas (1. 379-399). 
Prof. Erman {Zeitschr., XXXIII, p. 2) has made a special study 
of it, and has pointed out that the title of this Chapter originates 

from a misunderstandinn; of the word 



which should be a star 

and not a gate or a door. Were it not for the vignette, which 
represents the deceased, the woman Muthotepet coming out of a 
door, we should translate : " Chapter of the coming forth of the 
Chu as a great star in the sky " ; in accordance with these words 
found in the course of the chapter: "Shestet gave me birth to be 
her star, Sothis," etc. 

Two papyri only contain this Chapter, one in London and one 
in Paris. The London text has a vignette with these words : " the 
coming out of the door in the sky by ... " 

1. '%:^ '^^^z^ M. Maspero translates: ton fils I'a fait 

(le sacrifice). The word .<2>- is employed here as in the rubric of 
Chapter 141, "to say, to speak." This speech is a ceremonial act, one 

-<s>- fV ° 
of the v\ done for the deceased. 

<=^ Jl 111 

2. We noticed before (Chapter 160, note 2) that is a 

o I 
variant for when applying to Tmu. Here it applies to Horus, 

The unknown word [ [ [ being parallel, I give it conjecturally a 
similar sense. 

3. <=:> "the great one, the great goddess," and its variants 

<=> /n <=> J) etc., occur frequently m the Book of the Dead, 
and seem to be a name of the sky. 

4- [flh^'"^ which is found in the papyrus, is clearly a mistake 
for the name of the goddess Shestcf, which we read in the text of 


5. Perhaps a tent in which he will shelter the Ursei. 

6. See note i, Chapter 4, and Z//^ IVor/i, Vol. Ill, p. 46. I 
suppose it means here a heavy rain. 

7. In the pictures in the royal tombs the sun-god stands in 

his boat between -^^aa and y \_J. Here it is said that Sau is at the 

West of Ra, meaning on his right side. Ra is spoken of here as 
if he were a human being, turning towards the South as all Egyptians 
did. His west is his right-hand side. Even now the Egyptian 
fellaheen in their language do not often say right and left, they 
generally make use of the points of the compass : west of thee, etc. 


Chapter of nof dyitig a second death in the Netherivoiid. 

Thoth (1) ! What has become of the children of Nut? they 
have stirred up hostilities, they have raised storms, they have com- 
mitted iniquity, they have raised rebellion, they have perpetrated 
murder, they have done oppression, and thus have acted, the strong 
against the weak, in all that they have done to me. 

Grant, O Thoth, what Tmu hath decreed. Thou seest not the 
iniquities, thou art not pained at their attacks upon the years, and 
their invasions upon the months, because they have done their 
mischiefs in secret. 

1 am thy pallet, O Thoth, and I bring to thee thine inkstand ; 
I am not one of those who do mischief in secret. Let not mischief 
be done unto me. 

O Tmu ! what is this place to which I have journeyed ? for it is 
without water and without air ! It is all abyss, utter darkness, sheer 
perplexity. One liveth here in peace of heart. There is no 
pleasure of love here. Let there be granted to me glory instead of 
water, air and pleasures of love ; and peace of heart instead of 
bread and beer. 

[Decree this, Tmu, that if I see thy face I shall not be pained 

by thy sufferings (2) Tmu decrees ; behold the great gods 

have given him this mission, he will reign on his throne and he will 
inherit his throne in the Isle of fire : and for thee I decree that the 


god may see him as his second self, and that my face may see thy 

My lord Tmu, what is the duration of my life ? Thou art for 
eternities of eternities, the duration of endless years ; and behold I 
am going to deface all I have done : this earth will become water, 
an inundation as it was in the beginning. I will remain with 
Osiris, and I will make my form like another serpent, whom no man 
will know, and no god will see. 

It is good what I have done to Osiris, who is exalted above all 
the gods. I have given him the power in the region of the 
Netherworld, and his son Horus will inherit his throne in the Isle of 
flame. I will make his throne in the boat of millions of (years). 
Horus is well established on his seat in order that he may take 
possession of his place of rest ; also I send a soul to Sut in the 
West, who is exalted above all gods ; and I have caused his soul to 
be guarded in the boat, so that he may feel reverential fear of the 
divine body (Osiris).] 

O my father Osiris ! I have done for thee what thy father Ra did 
for thee. Let me have increase upon earth, let me keep my dwelling 
place, let my heir be vigorous, let my sepulchre flourish and my 
dependents upon earth. Let all my adversaries be crushed to 
pieces with Selk'et (the scorpion goddess) over their ruin. I am 
thy son, O my father Ra ! thou hast been the cause of this Life, 
Health and Strength. Horus is established upon his throne. 
Grant that my duration of Life may be that of one who attains 
beatitude. (3) 


The translation and notes of this Chapter, except what is in 
brackets, are Renoufs work. They are taken from the introduc- 
tion he published to his edition of the papyrus of Ani (p. 16). 

The vignette represents the deceased and his wife worshipping 

This Chapter is found in the papyrus of Ani, and at greater 
length in a papyrus of the Museum of Leyden, from which it has 
been copied by Naville into his edition. 

The Leyden text is unfortunately very incomplete, both in the 
upper and lower parts of the columns. The two texts differ very 
materially in some of their readings, and will require considerable 
study before a satisfactory translation can be given. 

3 B 


1. The deceased is evidently supposed to be just arrived in a 
place of utter darkness and desolation, and expresses his feelings 
of distress to Thoth in the opening address. 

2. [The text of Leyden is much more complete. Owing probably 
to want of space, the scribe of Ani has shortened his text. There 
the omissions are so considerable that it is impossible to find a sense. 
I have often adopted the reading of the Leyden papyrus in the 
translation of this part of the chapter.] 

3. The remaining columns in the Leyden manuscript, although 
incomplete, enable us to see that the deceased is assimilated 
throughout to Osiris, as born again in his son Horus. There is a 
cry of adoration to him in Sutenhenen, and exultation in En-aaref, 
the whole cycle of the gods is filled with satisfaction at seeing him 
inherit his throne and rule over the earth. Sut is filled with terror 
when he sees the change which has taken place ; the different 
generations of mankind, the past, the present, and the future, are in 
obeisance. Mention is made of the "Hoeing" and of the blood 
which flowed in Sutenhenen [an allusion to the myth of the destruc- 
tion of mankind] and of other particulars in connection with Osiris. 
And the chapter is said to be recited over an image of Horus made 
of lapis lazuli (or blue material) and placed at the throat of the 
deceased. It is also to be recited in the Netherworld. 

Chapter of not dying a second time in the Nethenvorld. 

I execrate the land of the East. I do not go to the dungeon, for 
I have not done those things which are forbidden by the gods. 

For I have passed through the place of purification in the middle 
of the Meskat;(i) the inviolate god has given me his glorious 
attributes on the day when the two Earths were united in the presence 
of the Master of (all) things. 

He who knows this chapter is a mighty Chu in the Netherworld. 

A short Chapter found in one papyrus only, and consisting of a 
few sentences taken from various chapters. 
I. See Note 19, Chapter 17. 



Chapter 0/ raising the Chu, of vivifying his soul in the Netherworld. 

O Nut, Nut, who created the father out of his earth (i) and Horus 
after him, who bound his wings as to a hawk and his feathers hke 
Kemhesu, (2) who brought him his soul, and who perfected his 
words, who showed him his abode in the presence of the stars, the 
occupiers of the sky, for he is the great star of Nut. 

Thou seest JV. uttering words to the Glorified, for he is the great 
form who will not rule (?) over them if thou art not among them. 
Thou seest the head of TV! as a ba (3) (ram) ; his horns are like those 
of a sacrificed victim, those of a black ram, born of the ewe who 
bare him, and suckled by four sheep. 

There came to thee Horus with blue eyes, do thou guard Horus 
with red eyes in his sickness and in his wrath ; let his soul not be 
opposed, let his messengers come to him, and his quick runners (4) 
hasten to him ; let them come on the west side, and one by one (.'') 
march towards thee. 

The god has said this : thy words are those of the father of the 
gods, (5) thy name will be triumphant before the gods; they exalt 
thee and the cycle of the gods give thee their hands. 

Said by the god to the father of the gods : take possession of the 
door of the ka on the horizon, let them throw open their gates ; 
thou art welcome to them, do thou prevail over them, let them 

advance towards the god (6) when they come out they raise 

their faces, they see him before the great god Amsu (6) thy 

head, I have raised for thee thy head, take possession of it his 

head has perished behind thee, thy head will not perish and what 
thou hast done before men and gods will not be destroyed. 


This Chapter is found in the pyramid of Unas (11. 361-376), where 
the text is not much better than in the Papyrus London 9900. 

1. I believe this obscure expression means Osiris. 

2. A form of Horus represented as a crouching hawk, with two 
feathers on his head (Renouf, Life Work, Vol. HI, p. 236). 

3 B 2 


3. 'Jliough 1^ is written by a bird with a liunian head, it 

applies to the soul represented by a ram. See vignettes to Chapter 85. 

4- P fl '^^ O ' evidently the word H (] ''^*' o ^ ^ of the 

inscription of the " Destruction of mankind," where it refers to 

\/ °^^^^ I the messengers. 


c> \> 

means properly a hunter, a man of the field, which 
W I 

would have no sense here. Unas reads H i 'j | | ] "the divine 

fathers." Adopting the reading of Unas in the singular, I read the 
father of the gods, probably Seb, who is mentioned a little further 
in the text of the pyramid. 
6. Lacunse. 


Chapter of raising the body, of givifig it eyes, of makiiig it possess ears, 
of fixing its head, of putting it on its base. 

Thou hast received the eye of Horus ; (i) thy table is a table of 

Hail, Hunnu, lift up thy heart to purify thy body ; they have 
eaten the eye of Horus, the olive of Heliopolis, (2) they destroy 
(what is wrong) in the body of Osiris. 

(3) The mouth of N. had been thirsty ; but he will never hunger 
(any more) ; N. will never thirst ; for Chas delivers him and does 
away with hunger. 

O you who fill the vases, you chiefs who distribute bread and 
cakes, and who have charge of the waterflood ; there was ordered 
for N. bread and beer, Ra himself ordered them ; he ordered them 
to those who fill the year with plenty ; they seize them (the gifts) 
and they give him his wheat, his barley, his loaves, for he is th^ 
great bull. 


Grant to N. tlie charge of the five loaves in the funerary chapel ; 
there are three in heaven for Ra, there are two on earth for the 
cycle of the gods, and Nu sees them. 

O, Ra, be gracious to N. in this happy day when N". joined Shu 
and Isis, and when he was united to (Nckhebit) ; (4) they give bread 
and lieer to N., and they do all the things good and pure in this 
happy day, the things of Turn, bringing him the things of the eye of 
Horus . . . whenever he arrives to see the god. 

Thou takest possession of water, and thou marchest towards the 
altar of Sashert : four measures of water, as was commanded by 
Osiris to N. Shu has handed over his wealth to N. ; they are thy 
bread and thy beer. 

Awake, lofty judge; awake, thou sleeper; awake from thy. . . 
thy offerings are brought before Thoth and Horus, who comes out 
from the Nile, and Apuat who comes out of Asert. 

It is pure, the mouth of N. ; the cycle of the gods offers incense 
to the mouth of N. His mouth is pure verily, and his tongue in his 
mouth, for N. hates filth, he is washed from impurity as Sut is washed 
in the city of the Rehui when he goes with Thoth to heaven. 

Feed N. with you ; let him eat what you eat, drink as you drink, 
sit as you sit, be mighty as you are mighty, navigate as you navigate. 
The tent of N. is woven in the field of Aarru, his running water is in 
the Garden of Hotepit. Offerings are made to him among the 
gods ; the drink of N. is the wine of Ra. 

He goes round the sky like Ra, he travels over the sky like 
Thoth. N. execrates hunger, he does not eat (feel) it, he execrates 
thirst. N. has received bread from the lord of eternity. 

He ordered that JV. should be conceived in the night and born 
in the morning, close to the follower of Ra, before the morning star. 

N. was conceived of N. and born of N'., he brings you the loaves 
which he found in the pupil of the eye of Horus, on the bough of 
the tennu tree. 

When he came, Khenta Amenta brought him the victuals and 
the offerings of Horus in his abodes where he lives of them. N. 
lives of them ; as Horus drinks, N. drinks ; his food is on the altar of 
Sashert. N. is welcome to Anubis on his mountain. 

Hail, N., thy figure is that which thou hadst on earth, thou art 
living and renewed every day. Thy face is unveiled, and thou seest 
the lord of the horizon ; he gives bread to N. at his hour of the day 
and at his appointed time in the night. Horus has avenged thee. 


he has smashed the jawbones of thy enemies, he has smitten the 
violent one at the door of his fortress. 

Hail, JV., thine enemies are no more, in the great hall the scales 
are right concerning thee, thou makest long strides like Osiris (5) 
the lord of the arrivals in the Amenta. He arrives when he likes, he 
sees the great god in his creations, life is given to his nostrils, he is 
triumphant over his enemies. 

Hail, A^. Thou hatest falsehood, thou propitiates! the lord of (all) 
things in the night of "stopping the tears," thou receivest sweet life 
from the mouth of the cycle of the gods, and Thoth is- satisfied in 
giving thee victory over thine enemies. 

Nut spreads her wings over thee in her name of the veil of the 
sky, she giveth thee to be in the following of the great god, thine 
enemies are no more. She delivers thee of all evil things in her 
name of Chnumeturit, for she is the great one among her children. 

O chief of the hours, in front of Ra, make way for JV. that he 
may arrive into the circle of Osiris, the living lord of the two earths, 
who lives eternally. 

JV. is in the following of Nefertmu, he is the lotus at the nostrils 

of Ra he is pure, in the presence of the gods ; he sees Ra 



This Chapter, taken from London 9900, is found complete in the 
pyramid of Unas (1. 166 ff.). Four other pyramids, those of Teta, 
Pepi I, Merenra and Pepi II contain the greatest part of it ; as also 
does a stele of the Xllth Dynasty found in Abydos, and belonging 
to a man called Nehi. Hatshepsu had it copied on both sides of 
the chamber of offering specially dedicated to her {Deir el Bahari, 
Vol. IV, pi. CIX-XIII and p. 8). In the pyramids as well as at 
the temple this text is connected with offerings. The representation 
in the temple may be considered as the vignette to this chapter. 
We see there the queen sitting before an altar of offerings called 

The eye of Horus, a generic term applied to 

a great number of offerings. 

2. There is much confusion in the first lines of this chapter. 


3. Text evidently incorrect. 

4. Taken from Unas. 

5. I read ^ I ■ ■'^z:;* (Lepsius, Todt., 148, 3, title to 

Chapter 180), to make long strides, means to go about freely. 

6. Formula inscribed on the coffin of King Mycerinus, in the 
British Museum, and on many coffins of the New Empire, especially 
under the Saites. 


Chapter of coming forth when goi?ig out of yesterday (i) and coming 
in the {present) day, being equipped by one's own ha?ids. 

I am raised from yesterday, I come to-day, I come out of my 
own creations. 

I am the sap coming out of its tree, I am the flow coming out of 
its form ; for I stand before the lord of the white crown, I am 
gracious ; my words are well established before the lord of the red 
crown, he who avenges (2) his eye. 

I died yesterday, but I come to-day ; (3) I made my way towards 
the doorkeeper of the great god ; I come forth by day against my 
enemy ; I triumph over him for ever. He is given me, and he 
will not be rescued from my hand ; he will dwindle away in my 
possession, before the great circle of gods in the Netherworld. 

I have been given the diadem of the great goddess which is 
on the head of the shadow, and on the figure of the living gods. 

I have made my way my enemy is brought to me ; he is 

given me and he will not be rescued from my hand ; he will dwindle 
away in my possession, before the circle of gods of Osiris in his 

festival, when the inhabitants of the Amenta (4) in his name 


I am the lord of the red ones in the day of the births, I am the 
master of the sword, it will not be taken away from me. 

I am in my bower, I have the sweet juice from my palm trees ; 
they bring me what is agreeable to my heart. 



I come forth in the day against this my enemy ; when he 
is brought to me I triumph over him, he will not be rescued from 
my hand, he will dwindle away in my possession in the presence of 
the great circle of gods in Ta-tsert, and the queen of the souls, the 
most mighty. 

I rest in the garden of Hotepit, according to the commands 
of the lords of Cheraba, my figure is high in the presence of the 
most mighty ; I am strong, I rest in the isles of the garden of 


This Chapter is found in two papyri only : London 9900 Aa, and 
the papyrus of iV//. This last text differs considerably from the first 
at the end of the chapter. The translation is made from Aa, with 
occasional references to N?(. 


I. The explanation of this curious expression l-^ 

(T) is given by the words of Nu ^^ ^ v8\ Vs. ' 


I died yesterday, but I come to-day." 


Q yester- 

day is the past, is death ; whereas 




this day, 

the present day, is life. Leaving what has been, and coming to what 
is, is only a figure meaning resurrection after death. 

2. I have kept Renouf's translation, although I consider it is 

1 he word | ^ 


means reconstitute, restore, 

and not avenge. The common expression, Horus the avenger of his 
father, should be translated : " Horus who reconstitutes the body of 
his father " torn to pieces by Sut. 

3. These words are taken from the text of Nu. 

4. In both papyri there are words omitted here. 



Chapter of coining forth by day, of giving praise to Rd in the 
Amefita, of paying homage to the inhabitants of tJie Tuat, of 
opening the way to the mighty soul in the Netherworld, of letting 
him walk, lengthen his strides, and go in and out in the Nether- 
tvorld ; attd take the form of a living soul. 

Ra sets as Osiris with all the splendour of the Glorified and of 
the gods of the Amenta ; for he is the one, the marvellous in the 
Tuat, the exalted soul in the Netherworld, Unneferu who exists for 
ever and eternally. 

Hail to thee in the Tuat, thy son Horus rests in thee, thou 
speakest thy words to him ; grant him that he may be resplendent 
before the inhabitants of the Tuat, that he may be the great star; 
that he may bring what is his to the Tuat and may travel in it, he, 
the son of Ra proceeding from Tmu. 

Hail to thee in the Tuat, god seated upon his throne, who boldest 
thy sceptre hik, king of the Tuat and lord of Acherta, great prince 
wearing the double diadem, great god who hides his dwelling, lord 
of wisdom, chief of his circle of gods. 

Hail to thee in the Tuat, praises also to what is in thee; (i) hail 
to thee in the Tuat, the weeping gods cut their hair in thy honour, 
they clap their hands, they implore thee, they pray thee, they weep 
before thee. Thy soul rejoices and thy body is glorious. 

It is exalted, the soul of Ra in the Amenta, his body is blessed 
there ; the powers praise him in the bounds of the Tuat, Teb Temt (2) 
who rests in his covering. 

Hail, Osiris, I am the servant of thy temple, the inhabitant of thy 
divine dwelling, thou speakest to me thy words ; give me to shine 
before the inhabitants of the Tuat like the great star who brings 
what is his to the Tuat, who journeys in it, he the son of Ra, pro- 
ceeding from Tmu. 

I rest in the Tuat, I am the master of the dusk, I enter in there 
and I come out. The arms of Tatunen receive me, the blessed lift 
me up. Stretch your arms towards me, for I know your gates, (?) 
guide me. Praise me, ye blessed ones, praise me, rejoice in me as 

3 C 


in Ra, praise me like Osiris, for I have placed before you your 
offerings and you take possession of your victuals, according to the 
orders Ra gave me. 

I am his favourite, I am his heir upon the earth. I have arrived. 

Ye blessed ones grant that I may enter the Tuat, open me the 
entrance to the good Amenta. I have presented the sceptre to 
saJm, and the ne/iu/ies (3) to him whose name is hidden. 

Look at me, ye blessed ones, divine guides in the Tuat ; grant 
that I may receive thy glory, that I may shine like the god of 
mysteries ; deliver me from the gods of the pillory, who fasten to 
their posts ; do not bind me to your posts, do never send me to the 
place of destruction. I am the heir of Osiris, I receive the nemines 
in the Tuat. 

Look at me, I shine like one who proceeds from you, I become 
like him Avho (praises) his father, and who extols him. 

Look at me, rejoice in me, grant that I may be exalted, that I 
may become like him who destroys his forms ; open the way to my 
soul, set me on your pedestals ; grant that I may rest in the good 
Amenta, show me my dwelHng in the midst of you, open for me your 
ways, unfasten the bolts. 

Ra, who guides this earth, for thou art guiding the powers and 
following the course of the gods ; I am the guardian of his door who 
tows the navigating gods. 

1 am the only one, the guardian of his door, he who puts the 
gods in their abodes. 

I am on my pedestal in the Tuat. I am the possessor among 
possessors ; I am at the far end of the Tuat. 

I am the blessed one in the Acherta, and I make my resting 
place in the Amenta, among the powers and among the gods. 

I am the favourite of Ra ; I am the mysterious Bennu who 
enters in peace in the Tuat and goes out of Nut in peace. 

I am the lord of the thrones (4) above, traversing the horizon in 
the train of Ra ; the offerings for me are in the sky in the field of 
Ra, and my portion on earth in the garden of Aarru ; I journey in 
the Tuat like Ra ; I weigh the words like Thoth, I march as I will, 
I hasten in my course like Sahu the mysterious one, and I am born 
as the two gods. 

I am the chief of the bearers of offerings to the gods of the Tuat, 
who gives offerings to the Glorified. I am the brave one who 
strikes his enemies. 


O ye gods, O ye Glorified who precede Ra, and who escort his 
soul, tow me as you tow him, in the same way as you conduct Ra 
and tow those in the sky. I am the lofty power in the Amenta. 


The papyri give us four versions of this Chapter. Two of them 
are in London 9900 Aa, but as they are both copied from the 
wrong side, they are of little use. Each of them had its own title; 
one was, "the worsliipping of Ra in the good Amenta, the praising 
of the inhabitants of the Tuat," and the other, "chapter of towing 
(the gods) " ; the two other copies are, one in a papyrus in Paris and 
the other at Leyden. 

This Chapter does not properly belong to the Book of the Dead. 
It is part of a book engraved at the entrance of nearly all the tombs 
of the kings, the so-called " Litany of the Sun." This chapter is 
taken from the end of the book. The various paragraphs are not 
always in the same order as in the monumental text. There are 
abridgments and many omissions, which in the translation have been 
filled up from the text in the tombs. 

The papyrus of Leyden (La) has a vignette representing the 
deceased worshipping two gods. 

I. Words taken from the text in the tombs of the kings. 

The texts in the tomb mention here the god 


who occurs there frequently, and who is quite unknown in the Book 
of the Dead. This god is often spoken of as being in a 

IZD, a kind of oval case. The text here reads 


— ^ £^ , which has no meaning. 

3. The head-dress H. worn by the sphinxes. 

The tombs read here "^ — <. 1 

oCl 1 

3 C 2 



Chapter of arriving before the Divine circle of Osiris and before the 
gods, the guides in the Tuat, before the guards of their halls, (i) the 
heralds of their gates and the doorkeepers of their pylons in the 
Amenta, and of taking the form of a living soul and praising 
Osiris the lord of his circle of gods. 

Hail to thee, Chenta Amenta, Unneferu, lord of Tatsert ; thou art 
shining like Ra. He himself comes to see thee and he rejoices in 
seeing thy beauties. His disk is thy disk, his rays are thy rays, his 
diadem is thy diadem, his height is thy height, his splendour is thy 
splendour, his beauties are thy beauties, his might is thy might, his 
odour is thy odour. His width is thy width, his abode is thy abode, 
his throne is thy throne, his descendence is thy descendence, his 
judgment is thy judgment, his Ament is thy Ament ; his wealth is 
thy wealth, his duration is thy duration, his creations are thy 
creations ; such as he is such art thou, (2) such as thou art such 
is he. 

He shall not die, thou wilt not die; if he will not triumph over his 
enemies, thou wilt not triumph over his enemies ; no evil things will 
happen to him, no evil things will happen to thee for ever and ever. 

Hail, Osiris, son of Nut, lord of horns, wearing the high atef Q.xo\ir\, 
o whom the 2irer diadem and the hik sceptre has been given in the 
presence of the cycle of the gods. Turn has raised the fear of his might 
in the hearts of mankind, of the gods, the Glorified and the dead ; 
the royal power has been given him in Heliopolis : he is the great 
forms in Tattu, the lord of fear in his two abodes, the very brave one 
in Restau, he whose memory is pleasant in the palace, the very 
brilliant in Abydos. It has been given him to triumph before the 
whole cycle of the gods ; he is mighty more than the great powers j 
the fear of him is over the whole earth. 

The (3) great ones stand on their shrines before him, the prince 
of the gods of the Tuat, the great power of the sky, the lord of the 
living, and the king of those who are therein. Thousands glorify 
him in Cheraba, the future ones rejoice in him. He receives the 
choicest meat offerings in the upper abodes j haunches are presented 



Chapter CLXXXI, Z. a. 

^ 4: ^^ 

'- t t 

Chapter CLXXXII, A. t. 


to him in Memphis, the festival of the Eve's provender is celebrated 
to him in Sechem, he is the great, the mighty one. 

Thy son Horus avenges thee, he destroys all that is wrong in 
thee ; he has fastened to thee thy flesh, he has set thy limbs and 
joined thy bones ; he has brought thee .... (4) Arise, Osiris, thy 
hands have been given thee, stand up living for ever. 

Seb made a mark (5) on thy mouth ; the great cycle of the gods 
protect thee .... They come with thee towards the entrance of the 
hall of the Tuat. Thy mother Nut stretches her hand behind thee, 

she protects thee, she doubles her care for thee (4) of the 

children. The two sisters Isis and Nephthys come to thee ; they fill 
thee with life health and strength, and all the joy which they 

.... in thee, because of thee. They gather for thee all kind of 
good things within thy arms. The gods, the lords of the ka, come 
near thee ; as they praise thee for ever. 

Happy art thou, Osiris, thou shinest brilliantly, thou art powerful ; 
thou art glorified. Thy attributes have been fixed to thee ; thou art 
like Anubis. Ra rejoiceth in thee, he is bound to thy beauty. 

Thou sittest on thy holy seat. Seb procures for thee what thou 
desirest to receive, it is on thy hands in the Amenta. 

Thou navigatest through the sky every day, thou leadest him 
(Ra) to his mother Nut, where he sits living in the Amenta, in the 
boat of Ra, every day. Thou art with Horus in order that the 
protection of Ra may be behind thee; and the glorious power of 
Thoth may cling to thee and the health of Isis be within thy limbs. 

I have come to thee, lord of Ta-tsert, Osiris Chenta Amenta, 
Unneferu, who lasts eternally and for ever ; my heart is right ; my 
hands are pure; I have brought good things to my lord and 
offerings to him who made them. I have come from afar to your 
abodes. I have done a good thing on earth, I have struck for thee 
thy enemies like bulls, and I have slaughtered them like victims, I 
have made them to fall down on their faces before thee. 

I am pure, thou art pure. I have purified thyself for thee, in 
thy festival, I have dressed geese for thee on thy altar, for thy soul, 
for thy Form and for the gods and goddesses who follow thee. 

Whoever ktwivs this book, 7io evil thing can have mastery over him ; 
he is not driven away from the doors of the Tuat ; 7vhen he goes in 
and out, he receivei bread and beet and ail good things before the 
inhabitants of the Tuat. 



This Chapter is found in two papyri : one at I^eyden, and one at 
Naples. Its title begins like that of Chapter 124. The first para- 
graphs are translated from the papyrus at Leyden, which stops 
suddenly, because the space allotted to the text, below the vignette, 
came to an end. From there the scribe passes over to the rubric. 

1. See note to Chapter 144. 

2. See note 5, Chapter 144. 

3. The following is taken from the papyrus at Naples. 

4. Lacunae. 

5. This is part of the funereal ceremonies. 1 Y is to 

A ^ a I 

touch the mouth or make a mark on it with the instrument called 

f^ — > (Schiaparelli, Libro dei Funerali, Vol. I, p. 139). 


Book of vivifying ( i ) Osiris, of giving air to him whose heart is 
motionless, through the action of Thoth, who repels the enemies of 
Osiris who come there in his form (2) ... as protector, saviour, 
defender in the Netherworld. 

It is said hv Thoth himself, so that the morning light may shine 
on him {Osiris) every day. 

I am Tholh, the perfect scribe, whose hands are pure, who 
opposes every evil deed, who writes justice and who execrates every 
wrong, he who is the writing reed of the Inviolate god, the lord of 
laws, whose words are written and whose words have dominion over 
the two earths. 

I am the lord of justice, the witness of right before the gods ; I 
direct the words so as to make the wronged victorious. I have 
dispelled darkness, and driven away the storm. I have given the 
sweet breaths of the North to Osiris when he comes out of the womb 
which bare him. I give Ra to be setting as Osiris and Osiris to be 
setting as Ra. I give him to enter the mysterious cave in order to 


revive the heart of him whose heart is motionless, the exalted soul 
which is in the Amenta. 

Hail, acclamations to thee, god whose heart is motionless, 
Unneferu, the son of Nut. I am Thoth, the favourite of Ra, the 
very brave, who is beneficent to his father; the great magician in 
the boat of millions (of years) ; the lord of laws, who pacifies the 
two earths by the power of his wisdom . . , who drives away enmity 
and dispels quarrels, who does what is pleasing to Ka in his shrine. 

I am Thoth, who giveth Osiris victory over his enemies ; I am 
Thoth, who prepares to-morrow and who foresees what will come 
afterwards ; his action is not vain when he settles what is in the sky, 
the earth and the Tuat, and when he gives life to the future ones. 

I give breath to the hidden ones by the virtue of my speech. 
Osiris is triumphant against his enemies. 

I have come to the lord of Ta-tsert, Osiris the bull of the Amenta, 
who lasts forever. I give an eternal protection to thyliinbs; I have 
come bearing the amulet in my hand ; my protection is active every 

The living charm is behind him, behind this god, whose ka is 
glorious, the king of the Tuat, the prince of the Amenta, who takes 
hold of the sky, triumphantly, on whom the atef zxoww is established, 
who shines with the white diadem, who has seized the hook and the 
flail ; mighty is his soul, the great one of the urer crown ; who has 
united all the gods, the love of him penetrates their bodies, Unneferu 
who lasts for ever and eternally. 

Hail to thee, Chenta Amenta, who giveth birth to all human 
beings a second time, who is renewed in an instant, who is better than 
those who were before. Thy son Horus establishes thee on the 
pedestal of Tmu ; thy face is perfect, Unneferu. 

Arise, bull of the Amenta, thou art established, well established 
in the womb of Nut ; she replenishes thee (with life and health) 
when thou comest out of her. Thy heart is well established on its 
stands and thy whole heart as at the beginning. Thy nose is vivified 
with the breath of life ; thou art living, renewed, made young like 
Ra every day, thou art great and triumphant, Osiris, who has been 

I am Thoth, I have calmed Horus, I have pacified the Rehiu in 
their moment of storm. I have come, I have washed away the Red 
ones ; I have calmed down the riotous, and I have struck him 
with (?) all kinds of evil things. 


1 am Thoth, I have celebrated the festival of Eve's provender in 
Sechem. I am Thoth, I come every day from Pu Tepu, I have 
directed the offerings, I have given cakes to the glorious ones who 
stretched forth their hands. I have avenged the arm of Osiris, 
I have embalmed it. I have made sweet its fragrance like good 

I am Thoth, I come every day to Cheraba ; I fastened the tackle ; 
I let the boat go : I brought it from East to West. I am higher on 
my pedestal than any god, for my name is he who is high on his 
pedestal. I opened the good roads in my name of Apuatu, I give 
thee acclamations, and I throw myself down on the earth before 
Osiris Unneferu the eternal, the everlasting. 


Chapters 182 and 183 are hymns to Osiris very like each other, 
supposed to be pronounced by Thoth himself. Occasionally it is 
difficult to distinguish whether the words are spoken by the god or 
the deceased. 

Chapter 182 is taken from Papyrus looio in London. 

The vignette represents the mummy on the funeral bed, sur- 
rounded by several gods and genii. 

1. See note 2, Chapter 154. 

2. A word is omitted there. 


Adoration to Osiris, giving him praise, boiving doivn before Unneferu, 
failing on ofie's face before the lord of Ta-tsert, and exalting him 
who is on his sand. 

I have come to thee, son of Xut, Osiris, prince everlasting. I 
am in the train of Thoth, I rejoice in all that he has done. 

He brings thee sweet breezes to thy nose, the breath of life to 
thy beautiful face, the wind coming out of Tmu to thy nostrils, lord 
of Ta-tsert. 

He grants that the morning light shine on thy body, he illumin- 
ateth thy path with his rays, he removeth all that is wrong in thy 


body by the virtue of his speech. He appeases the two gods, the 
two brothers, he drives away anger and quarrel, and he made the 
two Rehti, the two sisters, gracious unto thee, so that the two earths 
may be at peace before thee ; he removes the displeasure out of their 
hearts, so that one embraces the other. 

Thy son Horus is triumphant before the whole cycle of gods ; 
he has received the royal power on the earth, and his dominion over 
the whole earth ; the throne of Seb has been imparted to him ; the 
high dignity of Tmu is kept in record as his possession, engraved on 
a brick of iron, as was ordered by thy father Tatunen in his 

(This god) giveth thee to join him on the firmament, when he 
raiseth water on the mountains in order to make growth come forth 
on the mountains, and all growth spring out of the earth ; he 
brings forth all products on water and on land. 

Thou hast handed over to thy son Horus all the gods of Heaven 
and the gods of earth, they are his servants at his gates, and all that 
he has commanded is before them ; they fulfil it at once ; thy heart 
is satisfied, thy heart, lord of the gods, is overjoyed because of it. 

Egypt and the desert are at peace ; they are the vassals of thy 
royal diadem ; the temples and the cities are well ordered in their 
places; the cities and the provinces are his possession according to 
their names, they bring to thee tributes of offerings, and they make 
libations to thy name for ever. Thou art called upon, and thy name 
is praised, thy ka is gratified by funereal meals. 

The Glorified who are in thy following sprinkle water on thy food 
by the side of the dead souls in this land. All thy thoughts are 
excellent like those of him who was at the beginning. 

Be crowned, son of Nut, as the Inviolate god is crowned ; thou 
art living, thou art revived, thou art renewed, thou art perfect. Thy 
father Ra giveth health to all thy limbs, thy divine circle giveth thee 
praise. Isis is with thee, she will never leave thee before all thy 
enemies are struck down. 

All the lands praise thy beauties like Ra when he rises every 
morning; thou art crowned like him who is high on his pedestal, thy 
beauties are exalted, thy strides are lengthened ; thou hast received 
the royal power of Seb, thy father who creates thy beauties ; thy 
mother gave existence to thy limbs, Nut who bare the gods bare 
thee to be the chief of the five gods. The white crown of the South 
is placed on thy head; thou seizest the hook and the flail. AVhen 

3 D 


thou wast still in the womb, before thou didst appear on earth, thou 
wast crowned to be lord of the two earths, the a^e/ crown of Ra was 
on thy head. 

The gods come to thee, bowing down, the fear of thee possesses 
them ; they see thee with the might of Ra, and the valour of thy 
majesty fills their hearts. 

Life is with thee, abundance is attached to thee. I offer Maat 
before thee : grant that I may be in the train of thy majesty like one 
who is on the earth. May thy name be called upon, may it 
be found among the just ones. 

I have come to the city of this god, to the city of god, to the 
region of old time ; my soul, my hi, my Chu are in this land. The 
god of it is the lord of justice, the lord of abundance, the great and 
the venerable one, who is towed through the whole earth ; he 
journeys to the South in his boat, and to the North driven by the 
winds, and his oars, to be entertained with gifts according to. the 
command of the god, the lord of peace therein, who left me free of 
care. The god therein rejoices in him who practices justice ; he 
grants an old age to him who has done so ; he is beloved, and the 
end of it is a good burial and a sepulture in Ta-tsert. 

I have come to thee : my hands bring Maat, my heart does not 
contain any falsehood, I offer thee Maat before thy face, I know 
her ; I swear by her : I have done no evil thing on earth ; I have 
never wronged a man of his property. I am Thoth, the perfect and 
pure writer : my hands are pure. I have put away all evil things : I 
write justice and I hate evil : for I am the wTiting-reed of the 
Inviolate god, who utters his words, and whose words are written in 
the two earths. 

I am Thoth, the lord of justice, who giveth victory to him who is 
injured and who taketh ihe defense of the oppressed, of him who is 
wronged in his i)roperty. I have dispelled darkness ; I have driven 
away the storm ; I have given air to Unneferu, and the sweet breezes 
of the North when he comes out of the womb of his mother. I have 
given him to enter into the mysterious cave where is revived the 
heart of the god whose heart is motionless, Unneferu, the son of 
Nut, the victorious. 


This hymn is taken from the papyrus of Unneferu, in London. 
See note i in Chapter i. 



Chapter CLXXXV, P. d. 

Chapter CLXXXVI. Papyrus of Ani. 



. Chapter of being near Osiris. 

There is not much more than the vignette left. Only two or 
three words remain. They are taken from a papyrus in Paris. 


Giving praise to Osiris, Jailing on the earth before the lord of eternity; 
propitiating t/ie god 7vith what he loves, speaking the truth, the 
lord of which is not known. 

Hail to thee, venerable god, great and beneficent prince of 
eternity, in his abode in the Sektit boat. Acclamations are given 
him in the sky and on earth ; he is exalted by the past and present. 
Great is the fear he inspires in the hearts of men, of the Glorified 
and of the dead. His soul was given him in Tattu, his might in 
Heracleopolis, his image in Heliopolis, and his power over forms (i) 
in the double sanctuary. 

I have come to thee ; my heart holds right, my heart contains no 
falsehood. Give me to be among the living, to navigate up and 
down in thy train. 


I have given No. 185 to a hymn to Osiris, witli which many 
papyri begin, but which occasionally comes just before the represen- 
tation of the cow in the West. There seems to have been no 
canonical text for that hymn, in which the writer was left to follow 
his imagination. 

The hymn here given is one of the most complete. It is taken 
from the papyrus of Sutimes in Paris. 

The vignette represents always Osiris in a shrine, with worshippers 
before him. 

I I I 

, litt., " his greatness of forms." I suppose 
it means his power of taking all the forms he likes. 



Adoration to Hathor, the lady of the West, f alibi g down before 


I have come to thee, to see thy beauties, give me to be at the 
head of thy followers and among thy divine attendants. 


A great many papyri end with a picture r^resenting Hathor [of 
the West, in company of the goddess Thueris coming out of the 
mountain where the burial is to take place. The text, which is 
generally very corrupt, as if the writer had neglected the words for 
the picture, is an adoration to Hathor, which varies in its form. 

The text here translated is taken from a papyrus at Leyden. 

The vignette is taken from the papyrus of x\ni. 



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